Research Library:

Looking for resources about COVID-19 and the criminal justice system?
See our regularly-updated coronavirus page.

Our mission is to empower activists, journalists, and policymakers to shape effective criminal justice policy, so we go beyond our original reports and analyses to curate a database of virtually all the empirical criminal justice research available online.

Tips: If you know what you are looking for, you may also search the database. We also have an email newsletter (at right)(at bottom) for new research library updates.


Enter one word from the title, author or topic to search the library:

Advanced search options or view entire database by the date added.


Some of the most recently added reports are:

Monday, May 9 2022:

  • Criminalized or Medicalized? Examining the Role of Race in Responses to Drug Use, Paywall :( Sade L Lindsay, Mike Vuolo. August, 2021. "We analyze 400 articles from the New York Times and Washington Post to assess the degree to which the two crises were racialized, criminalized, and medicalized. We find that media coverage medicalized and humanized White people who use opiates..."
  • The Hidden Costs of Pretrial Detention Revisited Christopher Lowenkamp. March, 2022. "There is no observable "deterrent effect" of pretrial detention, and in fact there is a consistent "criminogenic effect" of pretrial detention on rearrest." (This report follows up on Lowenkamp's 2013 report, The Hidden Costs of Pretrial Detention, which also examined jail admissions in Kentucky.)
  • Do Exonerees Face Housing Discrimination? An Email-Based Field Experiment and Content Analysis, Jeff Kukucka et al. September, 2021. "Consistent with prior work on racial bias and discrimination, our findings suggest that exonerees and ex-offenders not only experience overt prejudice when seeking housing, but also some subtler prejudices within the responses they do receive."
  • Treatment Combinations: The Joint Effects of Multiple Evidence-Based Interventions on Recidivism Reduction, Paywall :( Ming-Li Hsieh et al. October, 2021. "Those who participated in three types of treatment combinations consisting of basic skills, vocational training, and cognitive behavioral treatment were more likely to reduce postrelease reconvictions."

Friday, May 6 2022:

  • Three State Prison Oversight During the COVID-19 Pandemic Pennsylvania Prison Society, John Howard Association, and Correctional Association of New York. April, 2022. "[We] provide data unavailable in states lacking similar independent oversight, and it tells a story of very different responses to comparable challenges, and a lack of transparency on the details of the crisis and policies developed in response."
  • Cold, Rotting & Moldy Meals: Food Oppression in the Orange County Jails, Stop the Musick Coalition. December, 2021. "The food served in Orange County jails has never been healthy, but before COVID, the jails served two hot meals a day...For almost two years, people incarcerated in Orange County jails have been eating three bagged, cold, spoiled meals every day."
  • The Psychological Effects of Solitary Confinement: A Systematic Critique, Craig Haney. March, 2018. "Solitary confinement not only is a common form of mistreatment to which prisoners of war have been subjected and been adversely affected, but is also associated with "higher levels of later life disability" among returnees."
  • Analysis of "Stand Your Ground" Self-defense Laws and Statewide Rates of Homicides and Firearm Homicides Michelle Degli Esposti et al. February, 2022. "[Stand-your-ground] laws were associated with an 8% to 11% national increase in monthly rates of homicide and firearm homicide. State-level increases in homicide and firearm homicide rates reached 10% or higher for many Southern states."
  • Drug Arrests Stayed High Even as Imprisonment Fell From 2009 to 2019 Pew Charitable Trusts. February, 2022. "[We] found divergent enforcement trends--high rates of arrest but substantially reduced incarceration--coupled with a lack of treatment options and high mortality rates among people with illicit drug dependence."
  • A Look Inside the Black Box of New York State's Criminal Justice Data Measures for Justice. February, 2022. "This report addresses the ways New York State's criminal justice data infrastructure fails to meet basic levels of transparency that are requisite for evidence-based decision making and general accountability."
  • Understanding Trends in Jail Populations, 2014 to 2019: A Multi-Site Analysis, Data Collaborative for Justice at John Jay College. December, 2022. "People who were charged, but not yet convicted of a crime (pretrial admissions) were the majority of admissions in all three counties (St. Louis, MO, Durham, NC, and Louisville, KY) in 2014 and 2019."
  • System Involvement Among LBQ Girls and Women UCLA Williams Institute. April, 2022. "Among those who are incarcerated, the percentage of girls and women who are LBQ is 3 and 10 times higher, respectively, than the proportion of queer girls and women in the general population."
  • Contacts with the Police and the Over-Representation of Indigenous Peoples in The Canadian Criminal Justice System Jean-Denis David and Megan Mitchell. April, 2021. "Indigenous peoples are more likely to encounter the police for a variety of reasons including for law enforcement reasons, for non-enforcement reasons, including being a victim or a witness to a crime, and for behavioural health-related issues."
  • Beyond the count: A deep dive into state prison populations Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2022. "Incarcerated people are a diverse cross-section of society whose disadvantages and unmet needs often begin early in life, and persist throughout their often lifelong involvement with the criminal legal system."
  • Executive Inaction: States and the federal government fail to use commutations as a release mechanism Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2022. "In addition to granting few commutations, most of the states in our sample do not appear to maintain robust data on their commutation systems."
  • Recidivating Patterns of Individuals Commuted in 2020 Oregon Criminal Justice Commission. March, 2022. "18 percent (48 individuals) were arrested within one year of their commutation, 8 percent (20 individuals) were convicted of a new misdemeanor or felony crime, and 2 percent (6 individuals) were reincarcerated."
  • Reducing the Health Harms of Incarceration Aspen Health Strategy Group. April, 2022. "Incarceration is a primary source of poor health for individuals, families, communities, and our nation as a whole. The consequences of these various sources of harm continue long after release, with higher rates of mortality and morbidity."
  • Felony Murder: An On-Ramp for Extreme Sentencing Sentencing Project. March, 2022. "[Felony murder laws] violate the principle of proportional sentencing, which is supposed to punish crimes based on their severity. This report evaluates the legal and empirical foundation, and failings, of the felony murder rule."
  • Race and Ethnicity Differences in Police Contact and Perceptions of and Attitudes Toward the Police Among Youth Paywall :( Kathryn Foster, Melissa S. Jones, and Hayley Pierce. March, 2022. "When a direct stop involved more officer intrusiveness, black youth reported less respect and more negative perceptions of procedural justice."


Stay Informed


Get the latest updates:



Tweet this page Donate