Civil Rights

Racial and other disparities

  • Still Life: America's Increasing Use of Life and Long-Term Sentences, [PDF]
    The Sentencing Project, May, 2017
    “Nearly half (48.3%) of life and virtual life-sentenced individuals are African American, equal to one in five black prisoners overall. As of 2016, 1 in every 9 people in prison was serving a life sentence.”
  • Capital Punishment, 2014-2015 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2017
    “Two states accounted for 80% of the executions [in 2016]: Georgia executed nine inmates, and Texas executed seven.”
  • When did prisons become acceptable mental healthcare facilities? [PDF]
    Stanford Law School Three Strikes Project, May, 2017
    “While the overall state prison population has decreased dramatically, the number of prisoners with mental illness continues to climb and is expected grow in the years ahead.”
  • Paying More for Being Poor: Bias and Disparity in California's Traffic Court System, [PDF]
    Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights of the San Francisco Bay Area, May, 2017
    “The available county-level data shows that African-American people in particular are four to sixteen times more likely to be booked on arrests related to failure to pay an infraction ticket.”
  • Selling Off Our Freedom: How insurance corporations have taken over our bail system, [PDF]
    Color of Change and the American Civil Liberties Union, May, 2017
    “Fewer than 10 insurance companies are behind a significant majority of bonds issued by as many as 25,000 bail bond agents.”
  • The steep cost of medical co-pays in prison puts health at risk [Website]
    Wendy Sawyer, Prison Policy Initiative, April, 2017
    “In Michigan, it would take over a week to earn enough for a single $5 co-pay, making it the free world equivalent of over $300. In 13 states co-pays are equivalent to charging minimum wage workers more than $200.”
  • Bullies in Blue: Origins and Consequences of School Policing, [PDF]
    American Civil Liberties Union, April, 2017
    “[A]t at its origins, school policing enforced social control over Black and Latino youth who could no longer be kept out of neighborhoods and schools through explicitly discriminatory laws.”
  • Race and Wrongful Convictions in the United States
    National Registry of Exonerations, University of Michigan Law School, March, 2017
    “Innocent black murder suspects, especially those who are falsely convicted...are additional victims of murders committed by others. Those who have been exonerated spent on average more than 14 years in prison before they were released.”
  • The Voting Rights of Ex-Felons and Election Outcomes in the United States [PDF]
    Tilman Klumpp, Hugo Mialon, Michael Williams, March, 2017
    “The changes in felony disenfranchisement laws examined are evidence of a growing consensus that lifelong voting bans are not only ethically problematic, but also stand in the way of efforts to reduce recidivism.”
  • Making Families Pay: The Harmful, Unlawful, and Costly Practice of Charging Juvenile Administrative Fees in California, [Website]
    Stephanie Campos-Bui, Jeffrey Selbin, Hamza Jaka, Tim Kline, Ahmed Lavalais, Alynia Phillips, Abby Ridley-Kerr, University of California Berkeley School of Law, March, 2017
    “[W]e did not find a single county in which fee practices were both fair and cost-effective. Counties either improperly charge low-income families and net little revenue, or they fairly assess families’ inability to pay and net even less.”
  • Sentencing Outcomes in U.S. District Courts: Can Offenders' Educational Attainment Guard Against Prevalent Criminal Stereotypes?, [PDF]
    Travis W. Franklin, Sam Houston State University, February, 2017
    “[C]ourt actors may be less concerned (or not at all concerned) with factors typically linked to perceptions of dangerousness (e.g., race, ethnicity, age, sex, detention status) when dealing with offenders of higher educational status.”
  • Accounting for Violence: How to Increase Safety and Break Our Failed Reliance on Mass Incarceration, [PDF]
    Vera Institute of Justice, February, 2017
    “[J]ust as it would be wrong to excuse people’s actions simply because they were previously victimized, it is also wrong to ignore someone’s victimization because the person previously broke a law or committed harm in the past.”
  • How Do People in High-Crime, Low-Income Communities View the Police? [PDF]
    Urban Institute, February, 2017
    “27.8% of respondents agreed/strongly agreed that police almost always behave according to the law. Approximately one-third agreed or strongly agreed that police stand up for values that are important to them and often arrest people for no good reason.”
  • The Death Penalty in Five Florida Counties: Disproportionately Used Against Persons with Significant Mental Impairments, [Website]
    Fair Punishment Project, January, 2017
    “These findings have raised a legitimate question as to whether Florida’s capital punishment scheme–even one with a unanimous jury requirement– is capable of limiting application of the death penalty to the most culpable offenders.”
  • Behind the Badge: How Police View Their Jobs, Key Issues, and Recent Fatal Encounters Between Blacks and Police, [PDF]
    Pew Research Center, January, 2017
    “27% of all white officers but 69% of their black colleagues say the protests that followed fatal encounters between police and black citizens have been motivated at least to some extent by a genuine desire to hold police accountable.”
  • Caged In: Solitary Confinement's Devastating Harm on Prisoners with Physical Disabilities, [PDF]
    American Civil Liberties Union, January, 2017
    “In Florida, only 44 of 792 grievances by prisoners with disabilities were resolved from 2013 to 2015.”
  • Reinstating Common Sense: How driver's license suspensions for drug offenses unrelated to driving are falling out of favor, [Website]
    Prison Policy Initiative, December, 2016
    “Our criminal justice system should not set people up to fail. Yet that is exactly what mandatory driver’s license suspensions do: they introduce new legal, economic, and social barriers for people who are in the midst of reentry.”
  • Helping Moms, Dads, & Kids To Come Home: Eliminating Barriers to Housing for People with Criminal Records, [Website]
    Legal Action Center, December, 2016
    “America’s “revolving-door” approach to mass incarceration is inextricably linked to the problem of homelessness.”
  • Florida: An Outlier in Denying Voting Rights, [PDF]
    Brennan Center for Justice, December, 2016
    “With roots tracing back to Reconstruction and the Jim Crow period, racial discrimination has stifled the right to vote in Florida for hundreds of years.”
  • Crime Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009-2014 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2016
    “40% of violence against persons with disabilities was committed by persons the victim knew well or who were casual acquaintances.”
  • Crime Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009-2014 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2016
    “40% of violence against persons with disabilities was committed by persons the victim knew well or who were casual acquaintances.”
  • Aiming to Reduce Time-In-Cell: Reports from Correctional Systems on the Numbers of Prisoners in Restricted Housing, [PDF]
    The Arthur Liman Public Interest Program at Yale Law School and the Association of State Correctional Administrators, November, 2016
    “[T]he new 2016 Report found that 67,442 prisoners were held, in the fall of 2015, in prison cells for 22 hours or more for 15 continuous days or more.”
  • The Geography of Incarceration: [PDF]
    Boston Indicators Project, MassINC, and the Massachusetts Criminal Justice Reform Coalition, November, 2016
    “Many people of color live in Boston neighborhoods with such highly concentrated rates of incarceration that nearly every street—in some cases every other building— contains a resident who has been incarcerated.”
  • Correcting Food Policy in Washington Prisons: How the DOC Makes Healthy Food Choices Impossible for Incarcerated People & What Can Be Done,
    Prison Voice Washington, October, 2016
    “When the Department of Corrections turned over responsibility for food services to Correctional Industries (CI) substituted 95% industrialized, plastic-wrapped, sugar-filled “food products” for locally prepared healthy food.”
  • Every 25 Seconds: The Human Toll of Criminalizing Drug Use in the United States,
    Human Rights Watch and the ACLU, October, 2016
    “More than one of every nine arrests by state law enforcement is for drug possession, amounting to more than 1.25 million arrests each year.”
  • Ban The Box In Employment: A Grassroots History, [PDF]
    All Of Us or None (Legal Services for Prisoners With Children), October, 2016
    “Today, between all of the states and localities that have Ban the Box, over 185 million Americans now live in areas that have adopted fair chance hiring policies.”
  • 6 Million Lost Voters: State-Level Estimates of Felony Disenfranchisement, 2016, [PDF]
    The Sentencing Project, October, 2016
    “Approximately 2.5 percent of the total U.S. voting age population – 1 of every 40 adults – is disenfranchised due to a current or previous felony conviction.”
  • Driving While Black: A Report on Racial Profiling in Metro Nashville Police Department Traffic Stops, [PDF]
    Gideon's Army, October, 2016
    “Between 2011-2015, MNPD (Metro Nashville Police Department) stopped an average of 1,122 per 1,000 black drivers: more black drivers than were living in Davidson County.”
  • Police Violence and Citizen Crime Reporting in the Black Community [PDF]
    Professor Matthew Desmond, Harvard University; Professor Andrew Papachristos, Yale University; Professor David Kirk, University of Oxford, September, 2016
    “This study shows that publicized cases of police violence against unarmed black men have a clear and significant impact on citizen crime reporting.”
  • (New) Evaluating the Role of Race in Criminal Justice Adjudications in Delaware [PDF]
    John M. MacDonald and Ellen A. Donnelly, University of Pennsylvania, September, 2016
    “African American-White disparities in incarceration sentences are largely explained by differences in most serious of arrest charge, type of arrest charge, detention between arrest and final disposition, and county location.”
  • Locked Up and Locked Down: Segregation of Inmates with Mental Illness, [PDF]
    Anna Guy, Amplifying Voices of Inmates with Disabilities Prison Project, September, 2016
    “[Protection and Advocacy Agencies] have received countless reports of abuse and neglect of inmates in segregation, including prolonged isolation, deplorable conditions, inadequate care, increased self-harm and suicide attempts, and even death.”
  • Investigation of the Baltimore City Police Department
    U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division, August, 2016
    “[T]he Department of Justice concludes that there is reasonable cause to believe that BPD engages in a pattern or practice of conduct that violates the Constitution or federal law.”
  • Racial Profiling in Hiring: A Critique of New,
    National Employment Law Project, August, 2016
    “Ban-the-box is working, both by increasing employment opportunities for people with records and by changing employer attitudes toward hiring people with records.”
  • Unjust: How the broken criminal justice system fails LGBT people of color,
    Center for American Progress, Movement Advancement Project.., August, 2016
    “This report focuses on LGBT people of color and their interactions with the criminal justice system.”
  • A New Era for Expungement Law Reform? Recent Developments at the State and Federal Levels,
    Temple University, Beasley School of Law, August, 2016
    “This article evaluates the recent flurry of state-level legislation relating to expungement remedies for publicly available criminal record information, including both conviction and arrest records.”
  • Juvenile Life Without Parole in Wayne County: Time to Join the National Consensus, [PDF]
    Fair Punishment Project, July, 2016
    “Wayne County makes up only 18% of the state’s population, yet it accounts for at least 40% of the individuals serving these [juvenile life without parole] sentences in Michigan.”
  • Is Justice Really Blind? Race and Reversal in US Courts,
    Journal of Legal Studies, July, 2016
    “[B]lack federal judges are consistently overturned on appeal more often than similar white judges.”
  • Making Hard Time Harder: Programmatic Accommodations for Inmates with Disabilities Under the Americans with Disabilities Act,
    AVID Prison Project, July, 2016
    “This report...aims to highlight the difficulties that inmates with disabilities face as they seek to access programs and services in state prison systems.”
  • The Gavel Gap: Who Sits in Judgment on State Courts?,
    American Constitution Society for Law and Policy, June, 2016
    “We find that courts are not representative of the people whom they serve — that is, a gap exists between the bench and the citizens.”
  • Voting Rights of Former Felons
    ACLU of Nebraska, June, 2016
    “Disturbingly, a decade after our ex-felon voting rights law was adopted, only half of all counties provided correct and accurate information.”
  • The Color of Justice: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in State Prisons,
    The Sentencing Project, June, 2016
    “This report documents the rates of incarceration for whites, African Americans, and Hispanics, providing racial and ethnic composition as well as rates of disparity for each state.”
  • Ban the Box, Criminal Records, and Statistical Discrimination: A Field Experiment,
    University of Michigan, June, 2016
    “Our results confirm that criminal records are a major barrier to employment, but they also support the concern that BTB policies encourage statistical discrimination on the basis of race.”
  • Louisiana Death-Sentenced Cases and Their Reversals, 1976-2015
    The Journal of Race, Gender, and Poverty, April, 2016
    “Not only are these reversal rates extremely high, but the racial discrepancies are shocking as well.”
  • Racial Disparities in Youth Commitments and Arrests
    The Sentencing Project, April, 2016
    “As of 2013, black juveniles were more than four times as likely to be committed as white juveniles[.]”
  • Prosecutorial Oversight: A National Dialogue in the Wake of Connick v. Thompson,
    Innocence Project, March, 2016
    “There are almost no adequate systems in place to keep prosecutorial error and misconduct in check and, in fact, prosecutors are rarely held accountable even for intentional misconduct.”
  • "Do You See How Much I'm Suffering Here?" Abuse against Transgender Women in US Immigration Detention,
    Human Rights Watch, March, 2016
    “[T]his report details the abuses that transgender women suffer in immigration detention and the US government’s inadequate efforts to address them.”
  • Jobs After Jail: Ending the prison to poverty pipeline,
    Alliance for a Just Society, February, 2016
    “For the 70 million adults with a serious misdemeanor or felony arrest or conviction record and the hundreds of thousands more each year released from prison, their record can be a life sentence of poverty and low wages.”
  • Unjust: How the Broken Criminal Justice System Fails LGBT People
    Center for American Progress; Movement Advancement Project, February, 2016
    “This report pulls together documentation by grassroots groups, national studies, and academic research to unearth and examine evidence of ongoing and pervasive discrimination against LGBTQ people throughout the criminal legal system, from entry to exit.”
  • Racial Disparities in Florida Safety Belt Law Enforcement
    ACLU, February, 2016
    “American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) analysis of the most recent seatbelt citation data confirms that the Florida Safety Belt Law has been applied more often to Black motorists than white motorists.”
  • Lethally Deficient: Direct Appeals in Texas Death Penalty Cases, [PDF]
    Texas Defender Service, 2016
    “Review by the U.S. Supreme Court was not sought in 34.6% of the cases surveyed, meaning that defense lawyers waived the first opportunity for federal review in more than a third of Texas death penalty cases decided on direct appeal between 2009 and 2015.”
  • Selective Policing: Racially Disparate Enforcement of Low-Level Offenses in New Jersey, [PDF]
    ACLU of New Jersey, December, 2015
    “Racial disparities between Black and White arrests exist in every city studied.”
  • Hate Crime Statistics, 2014
    Federal Bureau of Investigation, November, 2015
    “Of the 5,462 single-bias incidents reported in 2014, 47 percent were racially motivated. Other motivators included sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, gender identity, disability, and gender.”
  • A Multi-Level Bayesian Analysis of Racial Bias in Police Shootings at the County-Level in the United States, 2011-2014,
    University of California, Davis, November, 2015
    “The results provide evidence of a significant bias in the killing of unarmed black Americans relative to unarmed white Americans[.]”
  • Suspended Childhood: An Analysis of Exclusionary Discipline of Texas' Pre-K and Elementary School Students,
    Texas Appleseed, November, 2015
    “In the 2013-2014 school year, Texas schools issued 88,310 out-of-school suspensions to young children.”
  • The Conditioning Effects of Race and Gender on the Court Outcomes of Delinquent and "Neglected" Types of Offenders, [PDF]
    Justice Quarterly, November, 2015
    (The main inverse effect for status, probation violation, contempt, misdemeanor property, felony property, felony person, drugs, and other offenses with detention, was conditioned by whether the youth was Black.)
  • Federal Sentencing Disparity: 2005-2012,
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2015
    “Federal Sentencing Disparity, 2005-2012, examines patterns of federal sentencing disparity among white and black offenders, by sentence received, and looks at judicial variation in sentencing since Booker vs. United States, regardless of race.”
  • Right to Counsel in Utah: An Assessment of Trial-Level Indigent Defense Services,
    Sixth Amendment Center, October, 2015
    “Utah’s trial courts do not uniformly provide counsel to indigent defendants at all critical stages of criminal cases as required by the U.S. Supreme Court[.]”
  • Race-Of-Victim Discrepancies in Homicides and Executions, Louisiana 1976-2015, [PDF]
    Loyola University of New Orleans Journal of Public Interest Law, August, 2015
    “Black male victims comprise 61% of homicide victims in present day Louisiana, yet their killers have been executed in only 3 cases out of 12,949 homicides since Gregg v Georgia reinstated the death penalty in 1976.”
  • Disproportionate Impact of K-12 School Suspension and Expulsion on Black Students in Southern States, [PDF]
    University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education, August, 2015
    “In 132 Southern school districts, Blacks were disproportionately suspended at rates five times or higher than their representation in the student population.”
  • Blackstrikes: A Study of the Racially Disparate Use of Preemptory Challenges by the Caddo Parish District Attorney's Office, [PDF]
    Reprieve Australia, August, 2015
    “In short, over the course of a ten year period, Caddo parish prosecutors exercised peremptory challenges against black prospective jurors at more than three times the rate at which they exercised peremptory challenges against white prospective jurors.”
  • The Racial Geography of Mass Incarceration
    Prison Policy Initiative, July, 2015
    “Entirely separate from the more commonly discussed problem of racial disparities in who goes to prison, this data addresses a distressing racial and ethnic disparity in where prisons have been built.”
  • Stuck in the '70s: The Demographics of California Prosecutors, [PDF]
    Stanford Criminal Justice Center, July, 2015
    “Latinos are almost 39 percent of the population but only nine percent of California prosecutors.”
  • Investigation of the St. Louis County Family Court St. Louis, Missouri,
    Department of Justice, July, 2015
    “Black children are almost one-and-a-half times (1.46) more likely than White children to have their cases handled formally, even after introducing control variables such as gender, age, risk factors, and severity of the allegation.”
  • San Francisco Justice Reinvestment Initiative: Racial and ethnic disparities analysis for the reentry council,
    The W. Haywood Burns Institute for Juvenile Justice Fairness & Equity, June, 2015
    “Black adults are 7.1 times as likely as White adults to be arrested, 11 times as likely to be booked into County Jail, and 10.3 times as likely to be convicted of a crime in San Francisco.”
  • Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Jails: Recommendations for Local Practice, [PDF]
    Brennan Center for Justice, June, 2015
    “Overuse of Pre-Trial Detention: Studies consistently find that African American and Hispanic defendants are more than twice as likely to be detained in jail pending trial.”
  • Racial Inequalities in Connectedness to Imprisoned Individuals in the United States, [PDF]
    Du Bois Review, May, 2015
    “We show that 44% of Black women (and 32% of Black men) but only 12% of White women (and 6% of White men) have a family member imprisoned.”
  • San Francisco's Disproportionate Arrest of African American Women Persists [PDF]
    Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, April, 2015
    “African American women, 5.8 percent of San Francisco's total female population, constituted 45.5 percent of all female arrests in 2013.”
  • Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department [PDF]
    Department of Justice Civil Rights Division, March, 2015
    “This investigation has revealed a pattern or practice of unlawful conduct within the Ferguson Police Department that violates the First, Fourth, and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution, and federal statutory law.”
  • Stop and Frisk in Chicago
    ACLU of Illinois, March, 2015
    “Black Chicagoans were subjected to 72% of all stops, yet constitute just 32% of the city’s population.”
  • Reducing Harms to Boys and Young Men of Color from Criminal Justice System Involvement, [PDF]
    Urban Institute, February, 2015
    “A natural extension of this work would be to make explicit consideration of the racial impact of proposed policies, as in racial impact statements, into routine tools.”
  • Native Lives Matter [PDF]
    Lakota People's Law Project, February, 2015
    “Native American men are admitted to prison at four times the rate of white men and Native women at six-fold the rate of white women.”
  • Black Lives Matter: Eliminating Racial Inequity in the Criminal Justice System, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, February, 2015
    (The report identifies four key features of the criminal justice system that produce racially unequal outcomes, beyond the conditions of socioeconomic inequality that contribute to higher rates of some crimes in marginalized communities.)
  • Where Do We Go from Here? Mass Incarceration and the Struggle for Civil Rights,
    Economic Policy Institute, January, 2015
    “In other words, society chose to use incarceration as a welfare program to deal with the poor, especially since the underprivileged are disproportionately people of color.”
  • "If They Hand You a Paper, You Sign It": A Call to End the Sterilization of Women in Prison, [PDF]
    Rachel Roth and Sara L. Ainsworth, Hastings Women's Law Journal, January, 2015
    “[A] number of states allow the sterilization of incarcerated women—flouting important policy norms—and that medical providers and their professional organizations play key roles in sanctioning and carrying out these procedures.”
  • Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey, [PDF]
    National Center for Transgender Equality; National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, 2015
    “One-fifth (22%) of respondents who have interacted with police reported harassment by police due to bias, with substantially higher rates (29-38%) reported by respondents of color.”
  • CPD Traffic Stops and Resulting Searches in 2013
    ACLU of Illinois, December, 2014
    “City-wide. The rate of black drivers in the stops (46%) is far higher than the rate of black residents in the city population (32%).”
  • Incorporating Racial Equity into Criminal Justice Reform [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, October, 2014
    “Reform strategies that do not directly tackle racial disparity ignore the multifaceted ways in which public safety is produced. Key among these is the perception of the criminal justice system by the community.”
  • Shadow Report of The Sentencing Project to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination: Regarding Racial Disparities in the United States Criminal Justice System,
    Sentencing Project, July, 2014
    (Our report documents continuing disparities in incarceration, the imposition of juvenile life without parole, the death penalty, and felony disenfranchisement.)
  • Race and Prosecution in Manhattan
    Vera Institute of Justice, July, 2014
    (Blacks and Latinos were particularly likely to be held in pretrial detention for misdemeanor person offenses, followed by misdemeanor drug offenses. Blacks and Latinos were also most likely to have their cases dismissed for misdemeanor drug offenses.)
  • Collatoral Damage A Roadmap to Restore Rights and Status After Arrest or Conviction, [PDF]
    National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, May, 2014
    “NACDL recommends a broad national initiative to construct a legal infrastructure that will provide individuals with a criminal record with a clear path to equal opportunity.”
  • Voting Rights Barriers and Discrimination in 21st Century California 2000-2013, [PDF]
    Lawyer's Committee for Civil Rights of the San Francisco Bay Area, March, 2014
    “Structural vote dilution and discrimination continue to plague California. These voting rights violations are just as real today as they were when the VRA was first enacted in 1965...”
  • The Crucible of Adversarial Testing Access to counsel in Delaware's criminal courts, [PDF]
    Sixth Amendment Center, February, 2014
    “As such, it is our opinion that Delaware triages justice to the detriment of a large number of defendants that come before its criminal and family courts.”
  • The Color of Corporate Corrections, Part II: Contractual Exemptions and the Overrepresentation of People of Color in Private Prisons, [PDF]
    Radical Criminology, February, 2014
    “...this study finds that people of color are overrepresented in private minimum and/or medium security private facilities relative to their public counterparts in each of the nine (9) states examined.”
  • Prosecution and Racial Justice in New York County Technical Report, [PDF]
    Vera Institute of Justice, January, 2014
    (For all offenses combined, compared to similarly-situated white defendants, black and Latino defendants were more likely to be detained, to receive a custodial plea offer, and to be incarcerated; but they were also more likely to benefit from dismissals.)
  • Justice in Washing State Survey, 2012 Revised and Updated 2014, [PDF]
    The Washington State Minority Health Commission, The Washington State Center for Court Research, 2014
    “When we asked about their personal encounters with police officers and the courts, we found substantial differences between Whites and African Americans in terms of the frequency of negative encounters.”
  • The Degree of Disadvantage: Incarceration and Inequality in Education, [PDF]
    Stephanie Ewert, Bryan L. Sykes, and Becky Pettit, November, 2013
    “Nearly three in ten white male dropouts in the United States can expect to serve time in a state or federal correctional facility in their lifetime, and nearly 60 percent of black male dropouts are imprisoned at some point in their lives...”
  • Criminal Justice in the 21st Century: Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Criminal Justice System, [PDF]
    National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, October, 2013
    “We have to question why we are using the long arm of the criminal justice system to arrest... black and Latino men who write their name on a wall, or why we arrest kids for pot in a pocket when we don't arrest other kids for pot.”
  • Report of the Sentencing Project to the UN Human Rights Committee Regarding Racial Disparities in the United States Criminal Justice System, [PDF]
    The Sentencing Project, August, 2013
    “If current trends continue, one of every three black American males born today can expect to go to prison in his lifetime, as can one of every six Latino males—compared to one of every seventeen white males.”
  • Racial Disparities in Arrests in the District of Columbia, 2009-2011 [PDF]
    Washington Lawyers' Committee, July, 2013
    “While there are about as many African Americans aged 18 or older (47.6%) as there are adult whites (42%) living in this city, eight out of 10 adults arrested for a crime in Washington are African American.”
  • Race, Justifiable Homicide, and Stand Your Ground Laws: Analysis of FBI Supplementary Homicide Report Data, [PDF]
    Urban Institute, July, 2013
    “Regardless of how the data are analyzed, substantial racial disparities exist in the outcomes of cross-race homicides. In addition, the recent expansion of Stand Your Ground laws in two dozen states appears to worsen the disparity.”
  • The War on Marijuana in Black and White: Billions of Dollars Waster on Racially Biased Arrests, [PDF]
    American Civil Liberties Union, June, 2013
    “On average, a Black person is 3.73 times more likely to be arrested for marijuana possession than a white person, even though Blacks and whites use marijuana at similar rates”
  • Felony Disenfranchisement: A Primer, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, June, 2013
    “The 11 most extreme states restrict voting rights even after a person has served his or her prison sentence and is no longer on probation or parole; such individuals in those states make up approximately 45% of the entire disenfranchised population.”
  • Communities, Evictions & Criminal Convictions Public Housing and Disparate Impact: A Model Policy, [PDF]
    Formerly Incarcerated & Convicted People's Movement, April, 2013
    “The focus of this report is to isolate and clarify one element of housing discrimination: excluding people with criminal records, and their whole families, from public housing.”
  • Operation Ghetto Storm [PDF]
    Malcolm X Grassroots Movement, April, 2013
    “There is no centralized database that keeps track of extrajudicial killings by police... With no numbers, there can be no studies, no analysis of trends and no accountability.”
  • Wisconsin's Mass Incarceration of African American Males: Workforce Challenges for 2013, [PDF]
    Employment and Training Institute, University of Wisconsin, April, 2013
    “From 1990 to 2011 Wisconsin incarcerated 26,222 African American men from Milwaukee County in state correctional facilities. As of January 2012, 20,591 men had been released back into the community and 5,631 were still imprisoned.”
  • Mapping Muslims: NYPD Spying and its Impact on American Muslims, [PDF]
    The Muslim American Civil Liberties Coalition (MACLC), The Creating Law Enforcement Accountability & Responsibility (CLEAR), The Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (AALDEF)., March, 2013
    “Interviewees noted deep apprehension of the NYPD's intentions and practices towards them, including day-to-day interactions with beat-police officers such as filing stolen phone complaints, asking an officer for directions, or reporting hate crimes.”
  • The Dose-Response of Time Served in Prison on Mortality: New York State, 1989-2003, [Website]
    Evelyn J. Patterson, University of Vanderbilt, March, 2013
    “After controlling for a variety of demographic and offense-related factors...each year in prison increased the odds of death by 15.6% in this 1989 to 1993 parole increased odds of death of 78% for somebody who spent 5 years in prison.”
  • In Search of Racial Justice: The Role of the Prosecutor, [PDF]
    New York University Journal of Legislation and Public Policy, 2013
    “ of every three African American males born today can expect to go to prison in his lifetime, as can one of every six Latino males. One of every eighteen African American females and one of every forty-five Hispanic females face a similar fate.”
  • "Give Us Free": Addressing Racial Disparities In Bail Determinations, [PDF]
    New York University Journal of Legislation and Public Policy, 2013
    “...Seventy-five percent of pretrial detainees are charged with relatively minor property crimes, drug offenses or other non-violent acts, and remain in jail simply because the money bond was set in an amount they cannot afford to pay.”
  • Criminal Records, Race, and Redemption [PDF]
    New York University Journal of Legislation and Public Policy, 2013
    “...poor individuals of color disproportionately shoulder the weight of a criminal record.”
  • The Native Hawaiian Justice Task Force Report 2012, [PDF]
    The Native Hawaiian Justice Task Force, December, 2012
    “Implicit, unconscious bias and disparate treatment on the part of workers at all stages of the criminal justice system may explain a portion of the disproportionate representation of Native Hawaiians in the criminal justice system.”
  • The Disparate Treatment of Native Hawaiians In the Criminal Justice System, [PDF]
    Office of Hawaiian Affairs, November, 2012
    “An analysis of data, controlling for age, gender, and type of charge, found that for any given determination of guilt, Native Hawaiians are much more likely to get a prison sentence than almost all other groups, except for Native Americans.”
  • The Answer is No: Too Little Compassionate Release in US Federal Prisons, [PDF]
    Human Rights Watch and Families Against Mandatory Minimums, November, 2012
    “To satisfy human rights requirements, prisoners should have access to judicial review or review by a similarly independent, objective tribunal that applies basic due process requirements to decisions regarding the lawfulness of their ongoing detention.”
  • "She Doesn't Deserve to be Treated Like This": Prisons as Sites of Reproductive Injustice, [PDF]
    Rachel Roth, Center for Women Policy Studies, July, 2012
    “[T]he well-established nature of women’s rights has not stopped prison and jail personnel from trying to deny women abortion care, or at least obstruct women’s access to abortion.”
  • Do Race and Ethnicity Matter in Prosecution? A Review of Empirical Studies, [PDF]
    Vera Institute of Justice, June, 2012
    “Most of the 34 studies reviewed here suggest that defendants' or victims' race directly or indirectly influence case outcomes, even when a host of other legal and extra-legal factors are taken into account.”
  • Report of Findings: (investigation of allegations of national origin discrimination), [PDF]
    Civil Rights Division of the United States Department of Justice, March, 2012
    “...AOC policy does not provide interpreters in child custody hearings; child support hearings, civil no-contact order 50C proceedings, foreclosures, and divorce proceedings”
  • The Disproportionate Impact of the Criminal Justice System on People of Color in the Capital Region, [PDF]
    Center for Law and Justice, February, 2012
    “Statewide, from 2000 to 2011 the number of minorities incarcerated dropped by 29%; in Albany County, the number of minorities incarcerated increased by 60% over the same time period.”
  • A Stubborn Legacy: The Overwhelming Importance of Race in Jury Selection in 173 Post-Batson North Carolina Capital Trials,
    Michigan State University College of Law, 2012
    “Over the twenty-year period we examined, prosecutors struck eligible black venire members at about 2.5 times the rate they struck eligible venire members who were not black.”
  • Forensic DNA Database Expansion Growing Racial Inequities, Eroding Civil Liberties and Diminishing Returns, [PDF]
    Generations Ahead, November, 2011
    “Given the existing racial bias in other aspects of the criminal justice system, we need to ensure that DNA databases do not unfairly and disproportionately affect communities of color.”
  • Breaking Schools' Rules: A Statewide Study of How School Discipline Relates to Students' Success and Juvenile Justice Involvement, [PDF]
    The Council of State Governments Justice Center, July, 2011
    “Nearly six in ten public school students studied were suspended or expelled at least once between their seventh- and twelfth-grade school years.”
  • Justice for All? Challenging Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, June, 2011
    “[The] data generated by the U.S. Department of Justice project that if current trends continue, one of every three black males born today will go to prison in his lifetime, as will one of every six Latino males.”
  • Missouri Vehicle Stops 2009 Annual Report, [PDF]
    Missouri Attorney General's Office, 2011
  • Separate but Unequal The Federal Criminal Justice System in Indian County, [PDF]
    University of Colorado Law Review, December, 2010
    “The "separate but unequal" federal criminal justice system systematically discriminates against Native American crime victims and offenders alike. There is a constitutional imperative to end the federal government's role in Indian country [...].”
  • Illinois Disproportionate Justice Impact Study Commission Final Report, [PDF]
    Illinois Disproportionate Justice Impact Study Commission, December, 2010
    “Statewide, among defendants with a Class 4 possession charge, African-Americans were sentenced to prison at a rate almost five times greater than whites: 19 percent of African-American defendants compared with 4 percent of white defendants.”
  • The Racial Geography of the Federal Death Penalty [PDF]
    Washington Law Review Association, December, 2010
    “Federal death sentences are sought disproportionately where the expansion of the venire from the county to the district level has a dramatic demographic impact on the racial make-up of the jury.”
  • Comparing Homicides to Capital Cases East Baton Rouge Parish, 1990-2008, [PDF]
    Timothy Lyman, November, 2010
    ([T]here is a less than one-in-ten-thousand chance that the prosecuted cases were a racially random sample drawn from the homicide group.)
  • Ending and Defending Against HIV Criminalization: State and Federal Laws and Prosecutions,
    The Center for HIV Law and Policy, November, 2010
    “Thirty-two states and two U.S. territories have HIV-specific criminal statutes and thirty-six states have reported proceedings in which HIV-positive people have been arrested and/or prosecuted for consensual sex, biting, and spitting.”
  • Obstructing Justice: Prisons as Barriers to Medical Care for Pregnant Women, [PDF]
    Rachel Roth, UCLA Women's Law Journal, August, 2010
    “Jail and prison staff appear unprepared for pregnancy-related emergencies, and their dismissive attitudes toward pregnant women who say they need medical attention only increase the likelihood of delaying and denying care.”
  • Stop, Question & Frisk Policing Practices In New York City A Primer, [PDF]
    Center on Race, Crime and Justice at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, March, 2010
    “In 2009 alone, Blacks and Hispanics combined were stopped 9 times more than Whites.”
  • Moving Target A Decade of Resistance to the Prison Industrial Complex, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, September, 2009
    “All modern day struggles for justice are implicated in criminal justice reform efforts because the current system magnifies all the ways in which the United States of America fails many of the people who live within its borders.”
  • Created Equal: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the US Criminal Justice System, [PDF]
    National Council on Crime and Delinquency, March, 2009
    “African Americans make up 13% of the general US population, yet they constitute 28% of all arrests, 40% of all inmates held in prisons and jails, and 42% of the population on death row.”
  • 2009 Annual Report: Missouri Vehicle Stops,
    Missouri Attorney General, 2009
  • Compounded Disadvantage Race, Incarceration, and Wage Growth, [PDF]
    National Poverty Center, October, 2008
    “Multilevel growth curve models show that black inmates earn considerably less than white inmates, even after considering human capital variables and prior work histories. Furthermore, racial divergence in wages among inmates increases following release...”
  • Racial Disproportionality in the American Prison Population: Using the Blumstein Method to Address the Critical Race and Justice Issue of the 21st Century, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Journal, September, 2008
    “Two key themes are that a national figure of explained racial disparity in imprisonment is not generalizable to the states and that drug offenses consistently have one of the lowest amounts of disproportionality explained by arrest.”
  • Analysis of the NYCPD's "Stop-and-Frisk" Policy in the Context of Claims of Racial Bias, [PDF]
    Andrew Gelman, Jeffrey Fagan, and Alex Kiss, September, 2007
    “[F]or violent crimes and weapons offenses blacks and Hispanics are stopped about twice as often as whites.”
  • Uneven Justice: State Rates of Incarceration by Race and Ethnicity,
    Sentencing Project, July, 2007
  • Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 40 of the Covenant, [PDF]
    United Nations - Human Rights Committee, July, 2006
    (The UN expresses numerous concerns about the state of civil and political rights in the United States)
  • Law Enforcement and Arab American Community Relations After September 11, 2001: Engagement in a Time of Uncertainty, [PDF]
    Vera Institute of Justice, June, 2006
    “Although community members also reported increases in hate victimization, they expressed greater concern about being victimized by federal policies and practices than by individual acts of harassment or violence.”
  • A Report on Pre- and Post-Katrina Indigent Defense in New Orleans [PDF]
    Southern Center for Human Rights, April, 2006
    “More than six months after Katrina, a majority of [indigent defendants] remain behind bars, where they have languished on average for over a year without any communication with a defense attorney.”
  • Human Rights in the Heartland: An assessment of social, economic, civil, and political rights in the Midwest, [PDF]
    Heartland Alliance, December, 2005
    “Historically, the U.S. has been a beacon of hope for those seeking safety and opportunity, but our nation falls short of its potential in assuring a full complement of human rights - civil, political, social, economic, and cultural.”
  • Incarceration is not an equal opportunity punishment
    Prison Policy Initiative, June, 2005
    (Who imprisons more Blacks?; Current incarceration rates for the U.S. compared with 1993 apartheid South Africa)
  • Don't Mind If I Take a Look, Do Ya? An Examination of Consent Searches and Contraband Hit Rates at Texas Traffic Stops, [PDF]
    Texas Criminal Justice Coalition, February, 2005
    (2005 Racial Profiling Report)
  • Race & Imprisonment in Texas: The Disparate Incarceration of Latinos and African Americans in the Lone Star State, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, February, 2005
  • Racial disparity in sentencing: A review of the literature, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, January, 2005
  • American Indians and Crime: A BJS Statistical Profile, 1992-2002, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2004
  • Fifteen Years of Guidelines Sentencing
    U.S. Sentencing Commission, November, 2004
  • Civil Rights Enforcement by Bush Administration Lags
    Trac Reports, November, 2004
  • Mass Imprisonment and the Life Course: Race and Class Inequality in U.S. Incarceration, [PDF]
    Becky Pettit and Bruce Western, May, 2004
  • Racial disparities in incarceration by state, 2000
    Prison Policy Initiative, May, 2004
    (Graphs showing the percentage of each state's total and prison population that is of a particular racial/ethnic group)
  • Incarceration rates by race, 2001:
    Prison Policy Initiative, April, 2004
    (Blacks, Whites, Latinos per 100,000 for each state and the U.S.)
  • Schools and Prisons: Fifty Years After Brown v. Board of Education, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, April, 2004
  • State Rates of Incarceration by Race [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, January, 2004
  • Race and Incarceration in Maryland [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, October, 2003
  • Racial Disparities in North Carolina incarceration
    Prison Policy Initiative, September, 2003
  • Hispanic Prisoners in the United States [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, August, 2003
  • Incarcerated America: Backgrounder,
    Human Rights Watch, April, 2003
  • The Mark of a Criminal Record [PDF]
    Prof. Devah Pager, Northwestern University, March, 2003
  • A Department in Denial: The San Francisco Police Department's Failure to Address Racial Profiling, [PDF]
    ACLU of Northern California, October, 2002
  • On The Level: Disproportionate Minority Contact in Minnesota's Juvenile Justice System, [PDF]
    Minnesota Department of Public Safety, October, 2002
    “African American youth, who comprise just 8% of the youth population White but are 34% of juvenile delinquency arrests. On a smaller scale, American Indian youth are 2% of the youth population but account for 4% of juvenile delinquency arrests.”
  • Justice Denied: How felony disenfranchisement laws undermine democracy, [PDF]
    Americans for Democratic Action Education Fund, March, 2002
  • Race and Incarceration in the United States
    Human Rights Watch, February, 2002
    “first state-by-state incarceration rates for whites, blacks and Latinos based on actual correctional facility counts”
    (Note the links to the report and tables on the right)
  • Reducing Disproportionate Minority Confinement: The Multnomah County Oregon Success Story and its Implications,
    Justice Policy Institute, January, 2002
  • The Vicious Circle: Race, Prison, Jobs and Community in Chicago, Illinois, and the Nation, [PDF]
    Chicago Urban League, 2002
  • Wisconsin Racial Disparities in Criminal Justice Project [Website]
    Professor Pamela Oliver University of Wisconsin Department of Sociology, 2002
  • Mass Incarceration as Reverse Reparations [PDF]
    Chicago Urban League, September, 2001
  • Color of the Keystone: Racial and Ethnic Disparity in the Use of Incarceration in Pennsylvania,
    Justice Policy Institute and National Center on Institutions and Alternatives, August, 2001
  • Racism and the administration of justice [PDF]
    Amnesty International, July, 2001
    (Covers the whole world, based in international law)
  • The brotherhood: Racism and intimidation among prison staff at Indiana Correctional Facility-Putnamville, [PDF]
    Kelsey Kauffman, July, 2001
  • Masking the Divide: How Officially Reported Prison Statistics Distort the Racial and Ethnic Realities of Prison Growth, [PDF]
    National Center on Institutions and Alternatives, May, 2001
  • Drugs and Disparity: The Racial Impact of Illinois' Practice of Transferring Young Drug Offenders, [PDF]
    Building Blocks for Youth, April, 2001
  • The Color and Geography of Prison Growth in Illinois [PDF]
    Chicago Urban League, 2001
  • Justice on Trial: Racial Disparities in the American Criminal Justice System, [PDF]
    Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, Leadership Conference Education Fund, 2001
  • Color Bind: Prisons and the New American Racism, [PDF]
    Chicago Urban League, 2001
  • Reducing Racial Disparity in the Criminal Justice System: A Manual for Practitioners and Policymakers, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, October, 2000
  • Punishment and Prejudice: Racial Disparities in the War on Drugs,
    Human Rights Watch, May, 2000
  • And Justice for Some [PDF]
    Building Blocks for Youth, April, 2000
  • The Color of Justice An Analysis of Juvenile Adult Court Transfers in California, [PDF]
    Building Blocks for Youth, February, 2000
  • The Impact of Race and Ethnicity on Charging and Sentencing Processes for Drug Offenders in Three Counties of Washington State, [PDF]
    Washington State Minority and Justice Commission, December, 1999
  • Driving While Black: Racial Profiling On Our Nation's Highways, [PDF]
    American Civil Liberties Union, June, 1999
    “All the evidence to date suggests that using traffic laws for non-traffic purposes has been a disaster for people of color and has deeply eroded public confidence in law enforcement.”
  • Crisis of the Young African American Male and the Criminal Justice System [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, April, 1999
  • American Indians and Crime [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, February, 1999
    “American Indians are victims of violent crime at double the rate of the general population”
    (includes some incarceration statistics)
  • Juvenile Justice and Disproportionality: Patterns of Minority Over-Representation in Washington's Juvenile Justice System, [PDF]
    State of Washington Sentencing Guidelines Commission, December, 1997
  • Modern Capital of Human Rights? Abuses in the State of Georgia,
    Human Rights Watch, July, 1996
  • Race and drug law enforcement in the state of Georgia
    Human Rights Watch, July, 1996
  • A Preference for Vengeance: The Death Penalty and the Treatment of Prisoners in Georgia, [PDF]
    Southern Center for Human Rights, June, 1996
  • Young African Americans and the Criminal Justice System in California: Five Years Later, [PDF]
    Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, February, 1996
  • Young Black Male Victims [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 1994
  • Does the punishment fit the crime? Drug users and drunk drivers, questions of race and class, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, May, 1993
    (Executive summary to longer report not available online)
  • Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 1991
    “The recorded number of black prisoners In 1986 was nearly 9 times larger than the number recorded In 1926 (80,814 In 1986 versus 9,292 in 1926). The recorded number of white prisoners was 3 times larger (100,874 in 1986 versus 33,626 In 1926)...”
  • A Question of Race II: New York and Its Neighbors A Look at the Incarceration of Whites and Minorities in the United States, [PDF]
    New York State Coalition for Criminal Justice, 1990
  • A Question of Race Minority/White Incarceration in New York State,
    Center for Justice Education, January, 1987
  • Disproportionate Imprisonment of Blacks in the United States: Policy, Practice, Impact, and Change, [PDF]
    Prepared by Scott Christianson for the National Association of Blacks in Criminal Justice, March, 1982
    “This report seeks to promote a better understanding of the problem of racially differential imprisonment and attempts to offer some specific goals and strategies for reducing racial disparities in American criminal justice.”

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