Data Collection

A meta analysis of data collection systems

  • Measuring Public Safety: Responsibly Interpreting Statistics on Violent Crime, [PDF]
    Vera, July, 2017
    “With a few exceptions that require targeted attention, violent crime rates are lower today than they have been at any point over the past four decades.”
  • Getting Tough on Spending: An Examination of Correctional Expenditure in Massachusetts, [PDF]
    MassINC and the Massachusetts Criminal Justice Reform Coalition, May, 2017
    “DOC [Department of Corrections] and county facilities combined, the state budget allocation per inmate rose 34 percent between FY 2011 and FY 2016. Over this period, education aid per student increased by only 11 percent.”
  • Capital Punishment, 2014-2015 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2017
    “Two states accounted for 80% of the executions [in 2016]: Georgia executed nine inmates, and Texas executed seven.”
  • Using Time to Reduce Crime: Federal Prisoner Survey Results Show Ways to Reduce Recidivism, [PDF]
    Families Against Mandatory Minimums, May, 2017
    “An estimated 45 percent of federal prisoners have mental health and behavioral problems...Two-thirds of prisoners who responded to our survey said they had not received mental or behavioral health counseling while in federal prison.”
  • "Not in it for Justice": How California's Pretrial Detention and Bail System Unfairly Punishes Poor People, [PDF]
    Human Rights Watch, April, 2017
    “In six California counties examined in detail in this report, the total cost of jailing people whom the prosecutor never charged or who had charges dropped or dismissed was $37.5 million over two years.”
  • Prison: Evidence of its use and over-use from around the world [PDF]
    Institute for Criminal Policy Research, March, 2017
    “Whether you would end up in prison is also affected by who you are. For example, Roma people make up around 40% of Hungary’s prison population, despite representing only 6% of the national population.”
  • Exonerations in 2016: The National Registry of Exonerations, [PDF]
    The National Registry of Exonerations, University of Michigan Law School, March, 2017
    “A record 94 exonerations in 2016 were cases in which no crime actually occurred.”
  • Ohio's Statehouse-to-Prison Pipeline: 131st General Assembly (2015-2016), [PDF]
    ACLU of Ohio, March, 2017
    “These laws often use incarceration to address public health issues like addiction, mental health, and poverty, which only serves to exacerbate those problems.”
    (The ACLU of Ohio reviewed all 1,004 bills introduced during the 2015-2016 legislative session and found nearly one in 10 included language to lock more people up longer.)
  • Race and Wrongful Convictions in the United States
    National Registry of Exonerations, University of Michigan Law School, March, 2017
    “Innocent black murder suspects, especially those who are falsely convicted...are additional victims of murders committed by others. Those who have been exonerated spent on average more than 14 years in prison before they were released.”
  • How Do People in High-Crime, Low-Income Communities View the Police? [PDF]
    Urban Institute, February, 2017
    “27.8% of respondents agreed/strongly agreed that police almost always behave according to the law. Approximately one-third agreed or strongly agreed that police stand up for values that are important to them and often arrest people for no good reason.”
  • Behind the Badge: How Police View Their Jobs, Key Issues, and Recent Fatal Encounters Between Blacks and Police, [PDF]
    Pew Research Center, January, 2017
    “27% of all white officers but 69% of their black colleagues say the protests that followed fatal encounters between police and black citizens have been motivated at least to some extent by a genuine desire to hold police accountable.”
  • Trends in Admission To The New York City Department of Correction 1995-2015 [PDF]
    Misdemeanor Justice Project at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, December, 2016
    “From 1995 to 2015, the number of annual admissions to the New York City DOC dropped by nearly half (46.9 percent) from 121,328 to 64,458 admissions.”
  • How Many Americans Are Unnecessarily Incarcerated? [PDF]
    Brennan Center for Justice, December, 2016
    “Nearly 40 percent of the U.S. prison population — 576,000 people — are behind bars with no compelling public safety reason.”
  • The Geography of Incarceration: [PDF]
    Boston Indicators Project, MassINC, and the Massachusetts Criminal Justice Reform Coalition, November, 2016
    “Many people of color live in Boston neighborhoods with such highly concentrated rates of incarceration that nearly every street—in some cases every other building— contains a resident who has been incarcerated.”
  • Highlights from the U.S. PIAAC Survey of Incarcerated Adults: Their Skills, Work Experience, Education, and Training, [PDF]
    National Center for Education Statistics, November, 2016
    “Around two-thirds of the survey’s respondents reported that they were working prior to their incarceration: about half of them were employed full-time, with another 16 percent working part-time.”
  • Aiming to Reduce Time-In-Cell: Reports from Correctional Systems on the Numbers of Prisoners in Restricted Housing, [PDF]
    The Arthur Liman Public Interest Program at Yale Law School and the Association of State Correctional Administrators, November, 2016
    “[T]he new 2016 Report found that 67,442 prisoners were held, in the fall of 2015, in prison cells for 22 hours or more for 15 continuous days or more.”
  • The Economic Burden of Incarceration in the U.S.
    Institute for Advancing Justice Research and Innovation, October, 2016
    “This study estimates the annual economic burden of incarceration in the United States [by including] important social costs...an aggregate burden of one trillion dollars.”
  • Evaluating the Role of Race in Criminal Justice Adjudications in Delaware [PDF]
    John M. MacDonald and Ellen A. Donnelly, University of Pennsylvania, September, 2016
    “African American-White disparities in incarceration sentences are largely explained by differences in most serious of arrest charge, type of arrest charge, detention between arrest and final disposition, and county location.”
  • Local Justice Reinvestment: Strategies, Outcomes, and Keys to Success,
    Urban Institute, August, 2016
    “Over the past six years, 17 local jurisdictions across the country have worked diligently to implement [Justice Reinvestment Initiative], and it appears these efforts have generally paid off.”
  • Juvenile Life Without Parole in Wayne County: Time to Join the National Consensus, [PDF]
    Fair Punishment Project, July, 2016
    “Wayne County makes up only 18% of the state’s population, yet it accounts for at least 40% of the individuals serving these [juvenile life without parole] sentences in Michigan.”
  • National Survey of Prison Health Care: Selected Findings,
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, July, 2016
    “This report presents selected findings on the provision of health care services in U.S. state prisons.”
  • Stemming The Rising Tide: Racial & Ethnic Disparities in Youth Incarceration & Strategies for Change, [PDF]
    W. Haywood Burns Institute, May, 2016
    “Youth are being incarcerated for longer periods of time, with Black and Latino youth having the longest stays out of home.”
  • Assessing Inmate Cause of Death: Deaths in Custody Reporting Program and National Death Index,
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2016
    “The U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) has collected data annually on inmates who died in state prison and local jail and the circumstances surrounding these deaths since...2000.”
  • Punishment Rate Measures Prison Use Relative to Crime
    The Pew Charitable Trusts, March, 2016
    “A more nuanced assessment of punishment than the ratio of inmates to residents is that of inmates to crime- what The Pew Charitable Trusts calls the 'punishment rate.'”
  • Arrest-Related Deaths Program Assessment: Technical Report,
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2015
    “Provides a technical assessment of the coverage of the Arrest-Related Deaths (ARD) component of the Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP).”
  • Arrest-Related Deaths Program: Data Quality Profile,
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2015
    “Data from the ARD represent a national accounting of persons who have died during the process of arrest, including homicides by law enforcement personnel and deaths attributed to suicide, intoxication, accidental injury, and natural causes.”
  • Designed to Break You: Human Rights Violations on Texas' Death Row, [PDF]
    Human Rights Clinic at the University of Texas School of Law, 2015
    “Every individual on Texas’ death row thus spends approximately 23 hours a day in complete isolation for the entire duration of their sentence, which, on average, lasts more than a decade.”
  • 2010 Inmate Releases: Three Year Post Release Follow-up, [PDF]
    State of New York Department of Corrections and Community Supervision, June, 2014
    “43% of the offenders released by the Parole Board during 2010 were returned for rule violations within three years and 8% returned for new felonies.”
  • Measuring Juvenile Recidivism Data collection and reporting practices in juvenile corrections, [Website]
    Pew's Public Safety Performance Project, May, 2014
    “...a recent survey of these agencies in all 50 states and the District of Columbia found that 1 in 4 does not regularly collect and report recidivism data, and fewer than half use measures that provide a comprehensive picture of youth reoffending.”
  • Breaking Down Mass Incarceration in the 2010 Census State-by-State Incarceration Rates by Race/Ethnicity,
    Prison Policy Initiative, May, 2014
    “It is imperative that we are able to measure the extent to which the criminal justice system disparately impacts our communities.”
  • Measuring the Prevalence of Crime with the National Crime Victimization Survey, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, September, 2013
    “The percentage of violent crime victims who experienced two or more victimizations during a year declined from 23% in 1993 to 17% in 2010. In 2010, this 17% accounted for more than half (54%) of all violent victimizations.”
  • Collecting DNA at Arrest: Policies, Practices, and Implications, [PDF]
    Urban Institute, May, 2013
    “Arrestee DNA laws led to more profiles in CODIS, contributed to additional hits, imposed significant administrative and analytic burdens on many state crime laboratories and collecting agencies, and raised important legal and policy issues.”
  • Tracked and Trapped: Youth of Color, Gang Databases and Gang Injunctions, [PDF]
    Youth Justice Coalition RealSearch Actions Research Center, December, 2012
    “Currently 291,094 people across California are in the CalGang database. Of these, 94% are male, nearly 20% are African-American, and 66% are Latino.”
  • Tribal Crime Data Collection Activities [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2012
    “Suspects investigated for violent offenses in Indian country totaled 23% of all federal investigations for violent offenses in FY 2010.”
  • Victimizations Not Reported to the Police, 2006-2010 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2012
    “From 2006 to 2010, a greater percentage of victimizations perpetrated by someone the victim knew well (62%) went unreported to police, compared to victimizations committed by a stranger (51%).”
  • Census of Publicly Funded Forensic Crime Laboratories, 2009 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2012
    “During 2009, publicly funded crime labs began and ended the year with a total backlog of more than one million requests for forensic services.”
  • Post-Conviction DNA Testing and Wrongful Conviction [PDF]
    Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center, June, 2012
    “This report begins to answer a critical policy question: "What proportion of convicted offenders in serious person crimes with retained forensic evidence could be exonerated if that evidence were DNA tested?"”
  • PREA Data Collection Activities, 2012 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2012
    “An estimated 9.6% of former state prisoners reported one or more incidents of sexual victimization during the most recent period of incarceration in a jail, prison, and post-release community-treatment facility.”
  • Tribal Crime Data Collection Activities [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2011
    “For the first time, the Bureau of Indian Affairs' (BIA) submissions to the Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR) were disaggregated by tribe and reported in Crime in the U.S., 2009.”
  • Prison Rape Elimination Act Data Collection Activities, 2011 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2011
  • PREA Data Collection Activities, 2011 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2011
    “State prison administrators reported 589 substantiated incidents of sexual victimization in 2008, up 28% from 459 in 2005.”
  • Collecting DNA from Juveniles [PDF]
    Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center, April, 2011
    “The lack of data about the number and characteristics of juveniles with profiles in CODIS limits the ability of policymakers and researchers to understand the ramifications of collecting DNA from juveniles.”
  • Methods for Counting High-Frequency Repeat Victimizations in the National Crime Victimization Survey, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2011
    “While violent series victimizations have declined in number and proportion over time, the characteristics of these victimizations have exhibited little change.”
  • Criminal Justice Interventions for Offenders With Mental Illness Evaluation of Mental Health Courts in Bronx and Brooklyn, New York, [PDF]
    Urban Institute, 2011
    “Findings from the impact analysis indicate that mental health court participants are significantly less likely to recidivate, as compared to similar offenders with mental illness who experience business-as-usual court processing...”
  • PREA Data Collection Activities, 2010 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2010
    “Among youth victimized by staff, 5% reported physical injury; fewer than 1% had sought medical attention.”
  • Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2008 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2009
    “Forty-eight States, the District of Columbia, and Guam reported the total number of persons in their criminal history files as 92,329,600, of which 85,836,300 were automated.”
  • PREA Data Collection Activities, 2009 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2009
    “The National Inmate Survey (NIS) gathers data directly from inmates on the incidence of sexual assault in correctional facilities.”
  • Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2006 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2008
  • Health and Prisoner Reentry: How Physical, Mental, and Substance Abuse Conditions Shape the Process of Reintegration, [PDF]
    Urban Institute, February, 2008
    “Nearly all returning prisoners—8 in 10 men and 9 in 10 women—had chronic health conditions requiring treatment or management.”
  • How Crime in the United States Is Measured [PDF]
    Congressional Research Service, January, 2008
    (An overview of crime data collection programs "used by Congress to inform policy decisions and allocate federal criminal justice funding to states.")
  • Improving Criminal History Records in Indian Country, 2004-2006 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2007
    “Describes the achievements of the Tribal Criminal History Records Improvement Program (T-CHRIP) which provides grants to federally recognized tribes to improve data sharing across tribal, state and national criminal records systems.”
  • Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, 2004 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2006
  • Improving Criminal History Records for Background Checks, 2005 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2006
    “Describes the achievements of the National Criminal History Improvement Program (NCHIP), its authorizing legislation, and program history.”
  • Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2003 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2006
  • Census of Tribal Justice Agencies in Indian Country, 2002 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2005
    “Almost 75% (140) of the tribes relied on the States for some justice services (for example, correctional and counseling services).”
  • Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, 2003 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2005
  • Improving Access to and Integrity of Criminal History Records [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2005
  • Traffic Stop Data Collection Policies for State Police, 2004 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2005
  • Reporting by Prosecutors' Offices to Repositories of Criminal History Records, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2005
  • Characteristics of New Commitments 2003 [PDF]
    New York Department of Correctional Services, June, 2004
  • Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, 2001 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2003
  • Compendium of State Security and Privacy Legislation: Overview 2002, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2003
  • Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2001 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, September, 2003
  • Guide to the BJS website [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2002
  • Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, 2000 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2002
    (statistics on all the stages of the federal criminal justice system from arrest to parole)
  • Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2002 At A Glance, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2002
  • Summary of State Sex Offender Registries, 2001 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2002
  • Traffic Stop Data Collection Policies for State Police, 2001 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2001
  • Use and Management of Criminal History Record Information: A Comprehensive Report, 2001 Update, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2001
  • Compendium of State Privacy and Security Legislation: 1999 Overview, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2000
  • Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, 1998 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2000
    “Cross-agency Federal arrest data published for first time -- almost half of arrests for drug or immigration offenses”
  • Continuing Criminal History Records Improvement Evaluation: Final 1994-98 Report, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, February, 2000
  • Profile of Inmates Under Custody on January 1, 2000 [PDF]
    New York Department of Correctional Services, January, 2000
    “Only 32,689 (45.8%) of under custody inmates had at least a high school diploma or equivalent out of 71,356 inmates.”
  • Conducting Community Surveys: A Practical Guide for Law Enforcement Agencies, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 1999
  • Characteristics of New Commitments 1999 [PDF]
    New York Department of Correctional Services, 1999
  • Implementing the National Incident-Based Reporting System: A Project Status Report, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 1997
  • Domestic and Sexual Violence Data Collection: A Report to Congress under the Violence Against Women Act ,, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 1996
    “how States and the Federal government collect data on the incidence of sexual and domestic violence offenses.”
  • Historical Corrections Statistics in the United States, 1850-1984, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 1986
    “This work presents summary tables and commentary for published national government reports on corrections statistics for the period of U.S. history from 1850 (the date of the first national reports on the topic) to 1984.”

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