Juvenile justice and the prison system’s effect on kids

  • (New) Breaking Down the Walls: Lessons Learned From Successful State Campaigns to Close Youth Prisons, [PDF]
    Youth First Initiative, March, 2017
    “No state has completely dismantled the youth prison model that has been the signature feature of juvenile justice since the early 1800s. Yet, successful campaigns have resulted in the closure of dozens of youth prisons in all regions of the country.”
  • (New) Raising The Age: Shifting to a Safer and More Effective Juvenile Justice System, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, March, 2017
    “Over the past ten years, half of the states that had previously excluded all 16- and/or 17-year-olds from juvenile court based solely on their age have changed their laws.”
  • Trends in Admission To The New York City Department of Correction 1995-2015 [PDF]
    Misdemeanor Justice Project at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, December, 2016
    “From 1995 to 2015, the number of annual admissions to the New York City DOC dropped by nearly half (46.9 percent) from 121,328 to 64,458 admissions.”
  • Beyond Bars: Keeping Young People Safe at Home and Out of Youth Prisons, [PDF]
    The National Collaboration for Youth, December, 2016
    “The youth prison is the signature feature of nearly every state juvenile justice system even though it is harmful, ineffective and expensive.”
  • How Tough on Crime Became Tough on Kids: Prosecuting Teenage Drug Charges in Adult Courts, [PDF]
    The Sentencing Project, December, 2016
    “The ability of states to send teenagers into the adult system on nonviolent offenses, a relic of the war on drugs, threatens the futures of those teenagers who are arrested on drug charges, regardless of whether or not they are convicted.”
  • The Future of Youth Justice: A Community-Based Alternative to the Youth Prison Model, [PDF]
    Patrick McCarthy, Vincent Schiraldi, and Miriam Shark, October, 2016
    “Closing these failed institutions requires a clear-headed, common-sense, bipartisan policy approach, and a commitment to replace these facilities with effective alternatives that are already available.”
  • Violent Crime Arrests of Youth in California: Expected to Decline Through 2020, [PDF]
    Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, October, 2016
    “Based on the declining rates of youth arrest over the last several decades, California can expected continued decline and historically low rates of violent felony arrest of youth through 2020.”
  • Righting Wrongs: The Five-Year Groundswell of State Bans on Life Without Parole For Children, [PDF]
    The Campaign for the Fair Sentencing of Youth, September, 2016
    “In just five years—from 2011 to 2016—the number of states that ban death-in-prison sentences for children has more than tripled.”
  • Unjust: How the broken criminal justice system fails LGBT people of color,
    Center for American Progress, Movement Advancement Project.., August, 2016
    “This report focuses on LGBT people of color and their interactions with the criminal justice system.”
  • Juvenile Life Without Parole in Wayne County: Time to Join the National Consensus, [PDF]
    Fair Punishment Project, July, 2016
    “Wayne County makes up only 18% of the state’s population, yet it accounts for at least 40% of the individuals serving these [juvenile life without parole] sentences in Michigan.”
  • Juvenile Life Without Parole in Wayne County: Time to Join the National Consensus, [PDF]
    Fair Punishment Project, July, 2016
    “Wayne County makes up only 18% of the state’s population, yet it accounts for at least 40% of the individuals serving these [juvenile life without parole] sentences in Michigan.”
  • Justice by Geography: Do politics influence the prosecution of youth as adults?,
    Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, June, 2016
    “Granting prosecutors the sole discretion to determine whether a youth is tried in adult court contributes to a system of extreme disparities.”
  • Correctional Control: Incarceration and supervision by state,
    Prison Policy Initiative, June, 2016
    “For the first time, this report aggregates data on all of the kinds of correctional control: federal prisons, state prisons, local jails, juvenile incarceration, civil commitment, Indian Country jails, parole and, lastly but importantly, probation.”
  • The Prosecution of Youth as Adults: A county-level analysis of prosecutorial direct file in California and its disparate impact on youth of color,
    Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, W. Haywood Burn's Institute, National Center for Youth Law, June, 2016
    “This report...presents county rates of direct file compared to the youth population and rates of youth arrests, and highlights racial and ethnic disparities.”
  • Juveniles in Residential Placement, 2013
    U.S. Department of Justice, May, 2016
    “This survey details the characteristics of youth held for delinquency and status offenses in public and private residential facilities in every state.”
  • Mothers at the Gate: How a Powerful Family Movement is Transforming the Juvenile Justice System,
    Institute for Policy Studies, May, 2016
    “[A] movement of family members — particularly mothers — is developing around the country, a movement that aims to challenge both the conditions in which their loved ones are held and the fact of mass incarceration itself.”
  • Stemming The Rising Tide: Racial & Ethnic Disparities in Youth Incarceration & Strategies for Change, [PDF]
    W. Haywood Burns Institute, May, 2016
    “Youth are being incarcerated for longer periods of time, with Black and Latino youth having the longest stays out of home.”
  • Racial Disparities in Youth Commitments and Arrests
    The Sentencing Project, April, 2016
    “As of 2013, black juveniles were more than four times as likely to be committed as white juveniles[.]”
  • 54,000 Children: The Geography of America's Dysfunctional & Racially Disparate Youth Incarceration Complex,
    Youth First Initiative, March, 2016
    “Youth prisons are the most expensive option in the juvenile justice system and consistently produce the worst outcomes.”
  • California Sentencing Institute Map [Website]
    California Sentencing Institute, March, 2016
    “Explore the interactive map to view population-adjusted rates of adult and juvenile arrests and incarcerations.”
  • A Legislated Study of Raising the Age of Juvenile Jurisdiction in Louisiana The Future of 17-Year-Olds in the Louisiana Justice System,
    Institute for Public Health and Justice, February, 2016
    “Lousiana should strongly consider raising the age of juvenile court jurisdiction to include 17-year-old offenders.”
  • The Truth About Juvenile False Confessions
    American Bar Association, February, 2016
    “People, including judges and juries, are very reluctant to believe that a confession might be false - and the result, too often, can be a wrongful conviction.”
  • Sexual Victimization Reported by Juvenile Correctional Authorities, 2007-12
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, January, 2016
    “In 2012, juvenile correctional administrators reported 865 allegations of sexual victimization in state juvenile systems and 613 in local or private facilities and Indian country facilities.”
  • Growing Up Locked Down
    ACLU of Nebraska, January, 2016
    “Before they are old enough to get a driver’s license, enlist in the armed forces, or vote, some children in Nebraska are held in solitary confinement for days, weeks--and even months.”
  • A Profile of Youth in the Los Angeles County Delinquency Prevention Project [PDF]
    National Council on Crime and Delinquency, December, 2015
    (This report outlines how the Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services used an actuarial screening assessment to classify youth in the child welfare system by their likelihood of subsequent juvenile justice involvement.)
  • Declines in Youth Commitments and Facilities in the 21st Century [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, December, 2015
    “Between 2001 and 2013, the number of juveniles committed to juvenile facilities after an adjudication of delinquency (or, as was the case for 413 juveniles, conviction in criminal court) fell from 76,262 to 35,659.”
  • Health Disparities in Drug- and Alcohol-Use Disorders: A 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Youths After Detention,
    American Journal of Public Health, December, 2015
    “Drug abuse appears to have greater consequences for racial/ethnic minorities, especially African Americans, than for non-Hispanic Whites.”
  • Zero Tolerance: How States Comply With PREA's Youthful Inmate Standard,
    Campaign for Youth Justice, December, 2015
    “Despite evidence based research highlighting the harms of placing youth in adult facilities and the long term costs of incarceration to youth and society, 1200 youth are in state prisons on any given day across the country.”
  • Juvenile Commitment Rate Drops 53%
    The Pew Charitable Trusts Public Safety Performance Project, November, 2015
    “From 2001 to 2013, the U.S. juvenile commitment rate declined 53 percent, according to data recently released by the Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.”
  • Locked Out: Improving Educational and Vocational Outcomes for Incarcerated Youth, [PDF]
    Council of State Governments Justice Center, November, 2015
    “At least one in three incarcerated youth is identified as needing or already receiving special education services--a rate nearly four times higher than youth attending school in the community.”
  • Suspended Childhood: An Analysis of Exclusionary Discipline of Texas' Pre-K and Elementary School Students,
    Texas Appleseed, November, 2015
    “In the 2013-2014 school year, Texas schools issued 88,310 out-of-school suspensions to young children.”
  • The Conditioning Effects of Race and Gender on the Court Outcomes of Delinquent and "Neglected" Types of Offenders, [PDF]
    Justice Quarterly, November, 2015
    (The main inverse effect for status, probation violation, contempt, misdemeanor property, felony property, felony person, drugs, and other offenses with detention, was conditioned by whether the youth was Black.)
  • Violent Death in Delinquent Youth After Detention [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, September, 2015
    “The vast majority of deaths among delinquent youth were homicides from gunshot wounds.”
  • Gender Injustice: System-Level Juvenile Justice Reforms for Girls, [PDF]
    The National Crittenton Foundation; National Women's Law Center, September, 2015
    “Despite decades of attention, the proportion of girls in the juvenile justice system has increased and their challenges have remained remarkably consistent, resulting in deeply rooted systemic gender injustice.”
  • Community-Based Responses to Justice-Involved Young Adults [PDF]
    Harvard Kennedy School Program in Criminal Justice, September, 2015
    “[T]oday’s neurobiological and developmental research suggests that young people ages 18-24 are more developmentally akin to juveniles than fully mature adults.”
  • No Hope: Re-Examining Lifetime Sentences for Juvenile Offenders, [PDF]
    The Phillips Black Project, September, 2015
    “Nine states have abolished JLWOP after Miller, bringing the current number of jurisdictions completely banning the sentence to fifteen.”
  • Locked In: Interactions with the Criminal Justice and Child Welfare Systems for LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Who Engage in Survival Sex,
    Urban Institute, September, 2015
    “Interviews with these youth reveal that over 70 percent had been arrested at least once, with many reporting frequent arrest for "quality-of-life" and misdemeanor crimes other than prostitution offenses.”
  • Debtors' Prison for Kids? The High Cost of Fines and Fees in the Juvenile Justice System,
    Juvenile Law Center, August, 2015
    “Youth who can’t pay for alternative programs may enter the juvenile justice system when a wealthier peer would not.”
  • Studying Deterrence Among High-Risk Adolescents
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, August, 2015
    “There was no meaningful reduction in offending or arrests in response to more severe punishment (e.g., correctional placement, longer stays).”
  • Juvenile Prisons: National consensus and alternatives, [PDF]
    Connecticut Juvenile Justice Alliance, August, 2015
    “Over a 12-month period, OCA found at least 532 physical restraints and 134 uses of mechanical restraints at these facilities.”
  • Impact Evaluation of the Adolescent Behavioral Learning Experience (ABLE) Program at Rikers Island,
    Vera Institute of Justice, July, 2015
    “Vera determined that the program did not lead to a reduction in recidivism for program participants.”
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2014 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2015
    “In 2013, among students ages 12-18, there were about 1,420,900 nonfatal victimizations at school.”
  • Juvenile Court Statistics 2013
    National Center for Juvenile Justice, July, 2015
    “Juvenile Court Statistics 2013 describes delinquency cases handled between 1985 and 2013 and petitioned status offense cases handled between 1995 and 2013 by U.S. courts with juvenile jurisdiction.”
  • Investigation of the St. Louis County Family Court St. Louis, Missouri,
    Department of Justice, July, 2015
    “Black children are almost one-and-a-half times (1.46) more likely than White children to have their cases handled formally, even after introducing control variables such as gender, age, risk factors, and severity of the allegation.”
  • The Plummeting Arrest Rates of California's Children
    Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, May, 2015
    “But in 2013, with a pre-teen population 40 percent larger, arrests for children under 12 fell to 1,394, and arrests of children under 10 fell to 219 -- leading to a 92 percent drop in arrest rates.”
  • Unfinished Business: Deepening the Gains in Texas Juvenile Justice Reform, [PDF]
    Texas Criminal Justice Coalition, May, 2015
    “Reforms are needed to move the Texas Juvenile Justice Department and its 166 local juvenile probation departments in the right direction to keep more young people closer to their home (or in their home), where the data show they will have better outcomes.”
  • Firearm Violence Among High-Risk Emergency Department Youth After an Assault Injury,
    Pediatrics, May, 2015
    “High-risk youth presenting to urban emergency departments for assault have elevated rates of subsequent firearm violence.”
  • The Incarceration of Children & Youth in New Jersey's Adult Prison System: New Jersey Youth Justice Initiative,
    New Jersey Parents' Caucus, May, 2015
    “Youth of color are disproportionately represented among those waived to the adult prison system in New Jersey and make up approximately 90% of youth included in our data set who are incarcerated in the adult system.”
  • Status Offenses: A National Survey, [PDF]
    Coalition for Juvenile Justice SOS Project, April, 2015
    “In 2011 alone, for example, an estimated 116,200 status offense cases were petitioned to juvenile courts nationwide, with 8,800 of these cases involving secure detention.”
  • Re-Examining Juvenile Incarceration: High cost, poor outcomes spark shift to alternatives,
    Pew Charitable Trusts Public Safety Performance Project, April, 2015
    “A growing body of research demonstrates that for many juvenile offenders, lengthy out-of-home placements in secure corrections or other residential facilities fail to produce better outcomes than alternative sanctions.”
  • Trial Defense Guidelines: Representing a Child Client Facing a Possible Life Sentence, [PDF]
    Campaign for the Fair Sentencing of Youth, March, 2015
    “The objective of these guidelines is to set forth a national standard of practice to ensure zealous, constitutionally effective representation for all juveniles facing a possible life sentence.”
  • Staying Connected: Keeping Justice-Involved Youth "Close to Home" in New York City, [PDF]
    John Jay College of Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation Center, March, 2015
    “After the beginning of Close to Home, the situation was reversed. Arrests in New York City fell more (-39%) than in other areas of the State (-24%).”
  • Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2012: Selected Findings, [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, March, 2015
    “The juvenile offender population dropped 14% from 2010 to 2012, to the lowest number since 1975.”
  • Adult and Juvenile Correctional Population Projections [PDF]
    The State of Texas Legislative Budget Board, February, 2015
    “Adult state incarcerated populations are projected to remain stable throughout fiscal years 2015 to 2020 and to remain, on average, 0.7 percent below the Texas Department of Criminal Justice’s internal operating capacity.”
  • The School-to-Prison Pipeline in Black and White [PDF]
    ACLU of Rhode Island, February, 2015
    “During the 2011-2012 school year, for example, black students comprised over 16% of suspensions statewide - more than twice their student population.”
  • Reducing Harms to Boys and Young Men of Color from Criminal Justice System Involvement, [PDF]
    Urban Institute, February, 2015
    “A natural extension of this work would be to make explicit consideration of the racial impact of proposed policies, as in racial impact statements, into routine tools.”
  • Closer to Home: An Analysis of the State and Local Impact of the Texas Juvenile Justice Reforms,
    The Council of State Governments Justice Center, January, 2015
    “Youth incarcerated in state-run facilities are 21 percent more likely to be rearrested than those who remain under supervision closer to home.”
  • The Sexual Abuse to Prison Pipeline: The Girls' Story, [PDF]
    Human Rights Project for Girls; Georgetown Law Center on Poverty and Inequality; Ms. Foundation for Women, 2015
    “And in a perverse twist of justice, many girls who experience sexual abuse are routed into the juvenile justice system because of their victimization.”
  • The Prosecution of Youth As Adults in California: A 2015 Update, [PDF]
    Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, National Center for Youth Law, W. Haywood Burns Institute, 2015
    “The race and location of youth—rather than the seriousness of the offense—impacted the likelihood they were direct filed in adult criminal court and subjected to the adult system.”
  • Highlights of the 2012 National Youth Gang Survey [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, December, 2014
    “Nearly 30 percent of all responding law enforcement agencies reported gang activity.”
  • Sticker Shock: Calculating the Full Price Tag for Youth Incarceration,
    Justice Policy Institute, December, 2014
    “Each year, the U.S. incurs an estimated $8-$21 billion in long-term costs for the confinement of young people.”
  • Black Girls Matter: Pushed Out, Overpoliced, and Underprotected,
    African American Policy Forum, December, 2014
    “Increased levels of law enforcement and security personnel within schools sometimes make girls feel less safe and less likely to attend school.”
  • Delinquency Cases in Juvenile Court, 2011 [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, December, 2014
    “From 1985 through 1997, the number of delinquen­cy cases climbed steadily (62%) and then fell 34% from 1997 through 2011. Juvenile courts handled 7% more cases in 2011 than in 1985.”
  • Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2014 National Report, [PDF]
    National Center for Juvenile Justice, December, 2014
    “In 2011, school crime was common--1 in 8 students were in fights, 1 in 4 had property stolen or damaged.”
  • Failed Policies, Forfeited Futures: A Nationwide Scorecard on Juvenile Records,
    Juvenile Law Center, November, 2014
    “A study of each state’s policies on keeping juvenile records confidential and allowing for those records to be expunged shows that the nation limits opportunities for youth by failing to protect them from the harmful effects of their juvenile records.”
  • Gang Membership Between Ages 5 and 17 Years in the United States [PDF]
    Journal of Adolescent Health, November, 2014
    “Youth gang members were disproportionately male, black, Hispanic, from single-parent households, and families living below the poverty level.”
  • Public Opinion on Juvenile Justice in America [PDF]
    The Pew Charitable Trusts, November, 2014
    “Voters support sending serious juvenile offenders to corrections facilities, but they favor a range of less-costly alternatives for lower-level offenders.”
  • Gun Possession among American Youth: A Discovery-Based Approach to Understand Gun Violence,
    PLOS ONE, November, 2014
    “We identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession.”
  • The Unpredictability of Murder: Juvenile Homicide in the Pathways to Desistance Study, [PDF]
    Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, October, 2014
    (Results from a rare-events logistic regression that examined the relationship between these five risk factors and their ability to distinguish between the two groups indicate that only lower IQ and a greater exposure to violence were significant.)
  • CRIPA Investigation of the NYC Department of Correction Jails on Rikers Island, [PDF]
    Department of Justice, August, 2014
    “We conclude that there is a pattern and practice of conduct at Rikers that violates the constitutional rights of adolescent inmates.”
  • Juveniles in Residential Placement, 2011 [PDF]
    Department of Justice, August, 2014
    “The number of delinquents held in placement increased 4% between 1997 and 1999 and then decreased 43% to its lowest level in 2011.”
  • Indicators Of School Crime And Safety, 2013 [Website]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2014
    “During the 2009–10 school year, 85% of public schools recorded that one or more crime incidents had taken place at school, amounting to an estimated 1.9 million crimes.”
  • Safely Home [PDF]
    Youth Advocate Programs, June, 2014
    “Community-based programs yield better results for kids than incarceration and can be implemented without spending any new money.”
  • Closing Massachusetts' Training Schools Reflections Forty Years Later, [PDF]
    The Annie E. Clark Foundation, June, 2014
    “...a quiet revolution has begun sweeping through our nation's juvenile justice systems... states across the country have begun shuttering juvenile corrections facilities and dramatically reducing the population of young people incarcerated.”
  • The School Discipline Consensus Report Strategies from the Field to Keep Students Engaged In School and Out of the Juvenile Justice System,
    The Council of State Governments Justice Center, June, 2014
    “"The juvenile justice system does not have the tools or resources to respond to the needs of many youth coming thorugh its doors for minor school-based offenses.”
  • Slow to Act: State Responses to 2012 Supreme Court Mandate on Life Without Parole,
    Sentencing Project, June, 2014
    (While the Court struck down laws in 28 states that mandated life without parole, only 13 of those states have passed new sentencing laws.)
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2013 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Center for Education Statistics, June, 2014
    “Presents data on crime and safety at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, and principals.”
  • Capital City Correction Reforming DC's Use of Adult Incarceration Against Youth, [PDF]
    DC Lawyers for Youth, Campaign for Youth Justice, May, 2014
    “DC continues this practice of prosecuting, detaining, and incarcerating youth in the adult system despite the fact that research consistently finds that adult prosecution of youth does not effectively deter crime.”
  • Measuring Juvenile Recidivism Data collection and reporting practices in juvenile corrections, [Website]
    Pew's Public Safety Performance Project, May, 2014
    “...a recent survey of these agencies in all 50 states and the District of Columbia found that 1 in 4 does not regularly collect and report recidivism data, and fewer than half use measures that provide a comprehensive picture of youth reoffending.”
  • Youth Behind Bars Examining the impact of prosecuting and incarcerating kids in Michigan's criminal justice system, [PDF]
    Michigan Council on Crime and Delinquency, May, 2014
    “...Michigan broadened juvenile prosecutors' discretion to automatically file in criminal court, expanded the number of juvenile offenses requiring an adult sentence, and allowed children of any age to be criminally convicted and sent to prison.”
  • Disproportionate Minority Contact in the Juvenile Justice System [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, May, 2014
    “juvenile justice systems are marked by disparate racial outcomes at every stage of the process, starting with more frequent arrests for youth of color and ending with more frequent secure placement.”
  • Stakeholders' Views on the Movement to Reduce Youth Incarceration
    National Council on Crime and Delinquency, April, 2014
    “From June 2012 through June 2013, NCCD asked juvenile justice stakeholders to describe how youth incarceration was reduced in their jurisdictions.”
  • Branded for Life: Florida's Prosecution of Children as Adults under its "Direct File" Statute, [PDF]
    Human Rights Watch, April, 2014
    “Florida transfers more children out of the juvenile system and into adult court than any other state. In the last five years alone, more than 12,000 juvenile crime suspects in Florida were transferred to the adult court system.”
  • Automatic Adult Prosecution of Children in Cook County, Illinois.2010-2012 [PDF]
    Juvenile Justice Institute, April, 2014
    “Illinois should restore authority over whether a child under 18 should be tried in adult criminal court to juvenile court judges. This will bring Illinois in line with the majority of states, and will ensure better outcomes...”
  • Automatic Adult Prosecution of Children in Cook County, Illinois. 2010-­‐2012. Over 30 years of poor outcomes from "automatic" adult prosectuion of children., [PDF]
    Juvenile Justice Initiative, April, 2014
    “More than 30 years of studies have consistently demonstrated that categorical treatment of children as adults prevents rehabilitation and positive development, fails to protect public safety and yields profound racial, ethnic and geographic disparities.”
  • Juvenile Life Without Parole: An Overview,
    Sentencing Project, April, 2014
    (Still, the United States stands alone as the only nation that sentences people to life without parole for crimes committed before turning 18.)
  • Stemming the Flow of Youth Into Adult Systems
    The National Council on Crime and Delinquency, March, 2014
    “Can juvenile justice systems reduce incarceration while avoiding juveniles being tried as adults?”
  • Improving Illinois' Response to Sexual Offense Committed by Youth: Recommendations for Law, Policy, and Practice, [PDF]
    Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission, March, 2014
    “Recommendation 3: Remove young people from the state's counter-productive sex offender registry and the application of categorical restrictions and "collateral consequences."”
  • Juvenile Defense Attorneys: A Critical Protection Against Injustice The Importance of Skilled Juvenile Defenders to Upholding the Due Process Rights of Youth, [PDF]
    National Juvenile Defense Center, March, 2014
    “A youth's record can negatively impact his or her access to housing, employment, immigration status, voting rights, education, financial independence, and many other areas that impact the likelihood of future success.”
  • Kids Doing Time for What's Not a Crime: The Over-Incarceration of Status Offenders, [PDF]
    Texas Public Policy Foundation, March, 2014
    “...there are very compelling reasons to avoid confinement of status offenders. The punishment fails to fit the”
  • The Florida Department of Juvenile Justice Disposition Matrix: A Validation Study, [PDF]
    Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, February, 2014
    “The recidivism rate of low risk to re-offend youth placed outside of the Disposition Matrix suggestions is 114% higher than the rate for low risk youth placed within the suggestions.”
  • Trends in Unwanted Online Experiences and Sexting: Final Report, [PDF]
    Crimes Against Children Research Center, February, 2014
    “Unwanted sexual solicitations continued in decline -- from 19% in 2000 to 13% in 2005 and 9% in 2010.”
  • Just Learning The Imperative to Transform Juvenile Justice Systems Into Effective Educational Systems, [PDF]
    Southern Education Foundation, 2014
    “...most students come in and out of the juvenile justice systems with little or no real regard for their education.”
  • From Fingerpaint to Fingerprints: The School-to-Prison Pipeline in Utah,
    The University of Utah S.J. Quinney College of Law, 2014
    “There were 1,230 disciplinary actions in 2011-12, the most recent school year for which data is available.”
  • The Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) in the Lives of Juvenile Offenders,
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2014
    “The top three most prevalent ACE indicators were the same for both males and females: family violence, parental separation or divorce, and household member incarceration.”
  • Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative: 2013 Annual Results Report Inter-Site Conference Summary, [PDF]
    The Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2014
    “In the aggregate, sites reduced the number of youth detained on an average day by nearly 3,600 compared with pre-JDAI levels, a reduction of 44 percent.”
  • Unbalanced Juvenile Justice [Website]
    Burns Institute, 2014
    “To help you better understand racial and ethnic disparities and how juvenile justice is being administered in your county, state, and nationwide, BI's interactive tools provide customizable searches.”
  • Disparities in Discipline: A Look at School Disciplinary Actions for Utah's American Indian Students,
    The University of Utah S.J. Quinney College of Law, 2014
    (In Utah, American Indian students are almost four times (3.8) more likely to receive a school disciplinary action compared to their white counterparts.)
  • High-Risk Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Jail and Offender Experiences [PDF]
    Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice, 2014
    “The majority of UII interviews contained statements of violence (64.8%) and drugs (32.4%).”
  • Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform The Federal Role,
    National Research Council of the National Academies, 2014
    (OJJDP has not been reauthorized since 2002. Appropriated funding has declined by half in current dollars since 2003-2010, but more importantly the discretion that OJJDP has to use its funding has been sharply compromised.)
  • Facilitating Access to Health Care Coverage for Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth, [PDF]
    Models for Change, December, 2013
    “Youth involved in the juvenile justice system have extensive physical and behavior health needs. The majority have at least one mental health condition and substance abuse is also very common.”
  • A Generation Later: What We've Learned about Zero Tolerance in Schools, [PDF]
    Vera Institute of Justice, December, 2013
    “Among middle school students, black youth are suspended nearly 4 times more often than white youth, and Latino youth are roughly twice as likely to be suspended or expelled than white youth.”
  • From Courts to Communities: The Right Response to Truancy, Running Away, and Other Status Offenses, [PDF]
    Vera Institute of Justice, December, 2013
    “Youth who run away from home, routinely skip school, and engage in other risky behaviors that are prohibited ...are acting out in ways that should concern the adults in their lives. They need appropriate attention-but not from the juvenile justice system.”
  • South Bronx Community Connections Technical Report, [PDF]
    John Jay College of Criminal Justice, November, 2013
    “By fall 2013, two years into project implementation, a statistical analysis of SBCC’s available data (see Appendix A) found juvenile project participants to be suggestively, but significantly (p value= 0.09), less likely to be re-arrested within a year.”
  • Alone & Afraid Children Held in Solitary Confinement and Isolation in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities, [PDF]
    American Civil Liberties Union, November, 2013
    “Solitary confinement and isolation of children in juvenile facilities is psychologically, developmentally, and physically damaging and can result in long-term problems and even suicide.”
  • Fout's Spring: A Model Approach to Serving High-Risk Youth, [PDF]
    Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, November, 2013
    “This report analyzes a five-year time period regarding youth committed to the program and its ability to serve th[em]... [It] conclude[s] that Fouts Springs produced substantially better public safety results than DJF, in less time and at reduced cost.”
  • Violent Crime in U.S. Falls to New 32-Year Low [PDF]
    John Jay College of Criminal Justice, October, 2013
    “Compared with trends since 1980, the arrest rate for violent youth crime reached a new low every year from 2009 through 2012.”
  • Juvenile Facility Staff Responses to Organizational Change [PDF]
    Alexandra Cox, SUNY New Paltz, October, 2013
    “Staff and youth perceptions of fairness were rooted in their desire for participation and voice in the organizational landscape.”
  • Coming of Age with Stop and Frisk: Experiences, Perceptions, and Public Safety Implications, [PDF]
    Vera Institute of Justice, September, 2013
    “Young people who have been stopped more often are less willing to report crimes, even when they are the victims. Each additional stop in the span of a year is associated with an 8% drop in the person's likelihood of reporting a violent crime.”
  • Highlights of the 2011 National Youth Gang Survey [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, September, 2013
    “Change estimates from 2010 to 2011 indicate a measurable increase in gangs and gang members and a nearly 8-percent drop in the number of recorded gang-related homicides.”
  • Technology, Teen Dating, Violence and Abuse, and Bullying [PDF]
    Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center, August, 2013
    “26% of youth in a relationship said they experienced some form of cyber dating abuse victimization in the prior year. Females were twice as likely as males to report being a victim of sexual cyber dating abuse in the prior year.”
  • The Comeback States: Reducing youth incarceration in the United States, [PDF]
    National Juvenile Justice Network and the Texas Public Policy Foundation, June, 2013
    “Six policies encourage reductions in reliance on detention and incarceration, including disallowing incarceration for minor offenses, and increasing the availability of evidence-based alternatives to incarceration.”
  • Juvenile Incarceration, Human Capital and Future Crime: Evidence from Randomly-Assigned Judges, [PDF]
    Brown University, MIT, June, 2013
    “"Estimates suggest that juvenile incarceration results in large decreases in the likelihood of high school completion and large increases in the likelihood of adult incarceration."”
  • PTSD, Trauma, and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Detained Youth [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, June, 2013
    “Of the study sample, 92.5 percent of youth had experienced at least one trauma, 84 percent had experienced more than one trauma, and 56.8 percent were exposed to trauma six or more times.”
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2012, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2013
    “In 2011, about 28 percent of 12- to 18-year-old students reported being bullied at school during the school year.”
  • Sexual Victimization in Juvenile Facilities Reported by Youth, 2012 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2013
    “An estimated 9.5% of adjudicated youth in state juvenile facilities and state contract facilities (1,720 youth) reported experiencing one or more incidents of sexual victimization in the past 12 months or since admission, if less than 12 months.”
  • Understanding and Addressing Youth Violence in the Texas Juvenile Justice Department, [PDF]
    Michelle Deitch, Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin, May, 2013
    “Although they represented 57% of TJJD's youth population, youth ages 17-18 committed only 44% of violations involving violence/escapes or riots/group disturbances in 2012. 14- 15-year olds were 12% of the population but 25% of serious violations.”
  • Keeping Kids In School and Out of Court: Report and Recommendations, [PDF]
    New York City School-Justice Partnership Task Force, May, 2013
    “During the School Year 2012 there were 882 arrests and 1,666 summonses issued, with over-representation of students of color. Suspension and school arrest patterns are less a function of student misbehavior than a function of the adult response.”
  • Raised on the Registry: The Irreparable Harm of Placing Children on Sex Offender Registries in the US,
    Human Rights Watch, April, 2013
    “Good public policy should deliver measurable protection to the community and measurable benefit to victims. There is little reason to believe that registering people who commit sexual offenses as children delivers either.”
  • The Pennsylvania Juvenile Justice Recidivism Report: Juveniles with a 2007 Case Closure , [PDF]
    Pennsylvanie Juvenile Court Judges' Commission, April, 2013
    “Juveniles with only one written allegation in their juvenile offending history (i.e., first time offenders) reoffended at a rate of 13%. Conversely, juveniles with four or more previous written allegations re-offended at a rate of 37%.”
  • Fostering Change: How investing in D.C.'s child welfare system can keep kids out of the prison pipeline, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, April, 2013
    “In 2010, parental incarceration surpassed parental substance abuse as the third highest reason for District children entering care, and in 2010, one in every six kids entering foster care had anincarcerated parent.”
  • Missouri: Justice Rationed An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Juvenile Defense Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF]
    National Juvenile Defender Center, April, 2013
    “Missouri's indigent defense system is in crisis and has suffers crushing caseloads and inadequate resources. The system remains broken and forced to ration services, and youth are discouraged from and systematically denied counsel throughout the state.”
  • Effective Approaches for Reducing Graffiti in Texas: Strategies to Save Money and Beautify Communities, [PDF]
    Texas Criminal Justice Coalition, March, 2013
    “Efforts aimed at eradicating graffiti should revolve around diversion of graffitists into positive, artistic endeavors that include communities, while reserving the prosecution of graffitists only for those who are involved in other, more serious crimes.”
  • Raising the Age of Juvenile Court Jurisdiction The future of 17-year-olds in Illinois' justice system, [PDF]
    Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission, February, 2013
    “Adding 17-year-old misdemeanants to the juvenile justice system in 2010 did not crash it. In fact, due to a sharp decline in juvenile crime, there are currently fewer juvenile arrests than when the General Assembly began debating the change in 2008.”
  • Common Ground: Lessons Learned from Five States that Reduced Juvenile Confinement by More than Half, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, February, 2013
    “For all states and the District of Columbia, the number of youth in residential placement dropped steadily from its high of 107,493 in 1999 to 70,792 in 2010.”
  • Juvenile Justice Reform in Connecticut: How Collaboration and Commitment Have Improved Public Safety and Outcomes for Youth, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, February, 2013
    “Connecticut has reduced the under-18 population incarcerated in the state's adult prisons from 403 in January 2007 to 151 in July 2012. The number of youth detained for status offenses has dropped from 493 in 2006-07 to 0 in 2008-09.”
  • Reducing Youth Incarceration in the United States a KIDS COUNT Data Snapshot, [PDF]
    Annie E. Casey Foundation, February, 2013
    “Since 1995 the rate of youth in confinement dropped by 41 percent, from 381 per 100,000 youth to 225 per 100,000.”
  • If Not Now, When? A Survey of Juvenile Justice Training in America's Police Academies, [PDF]
    Strategies for Youth, February, 2013
    “Only 2 states' written curricula included training on youth development issues, such as communication techniques with juveniles, understanding the problems adolescents face and recognizing the sources and triggers of their behavior.”
  • Adult and Juvenile Correctional Population Projections Fiscal Years 2013 to 2018, [PDF]
    State of Texas Legislative Budget Board, January, 2013
    “The Texas adult incarceration population is projected to remain relatively flat in fiscal years 2013 and 2014 and begin a gradual increase to reach 156,877 by the end of fiscal year 2018.”
  • Handcuffs on Success The Extreme School Discipline Crisis in Mississippi Public Schools, [PDF]
    Advancement Project, American Civil Liberties Union of Mississippi, Mississippi State Conference of the NAACP, Mississippi Coalition for the Prevention of Schoolhouse to Jailhouse, January, 2013
    “Extreme and destructive approaches to school discipline not only have directly harmed students and families, but also have caused teachers, law enforcement officials, and community members to have their lives and careers made more difficult.”
  • Changing Course Preventing Gang Membership, [PDF]
    U.S. Department of Justice and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2013
    “The complex interplay between poverty, competition over scarce resources and crime creates environments that are conducive to the formation of gangs and their attractiveness to youth.”
  • State Trends Legislative Victories 2011-2013 Removing Youth from the Adult Criminal Justice System, [PDF]
    Campaign for Youth Justice, 2013
    “"[e]ighty-five percent of youth sentenced to life without parole are people of color, with 75 percent of all cases in California being African American or Hispanic youth.”
  • Are Black Kids Worse? Myths and Facts about Racial Differences in Behavior, [PDF]
    Equity Project at Indiana University, 2013
    “Such studies have provided little to no evidence that African American students in the same school or district are engaging in more seriously disruptive behavior that could warrant higher rates of exclusion or punishment.”
  • Report of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence, [PDF]
    Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence, December, 2012
    “It is crucial that incarceration of juveniles not involve sanctions that subject them to additional violence, both to protect them from harm and to avoid teaching them by example that violence is an appropriate means to control other people's behavior.”
  • Violent Crime Against Youth, 1994-2010 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2012
    “The rate of serious violent crime against youth ages 12 to 17 involving weapons declined by 80% from 1994 to 2010, and the rate of serious violent crime involving serious injury decreased by 63%.”
  • Tracked and Trapped: Youth of Color, Gang Databases and Gang Injunctions, [PDF]
    Youth Justice Coalition RealSearch Actions Research Center, December, 2012
    “Currently 291,094 people across California are in the CalGang database. Of these, 94% are male, nearly 20% are African-American, and 66% are Latino.”
  • Who does the Massachusetts juvenile justice system serve? [PDF]
    Citizens for Juvenile Justice, December, 2012
    “The delinquency charging rates in Barnstable and Hampden counties are 2-3 times higher than some other counties, and roughly twice the statewide average. The charging rates in Bristol and Suffolk Counties are 8 and 6 times the state average.”
  • Implementing Proven Programs For juvenile Offenders: Assessing State Progress, [PDF]
    Association for the Advancement of Evidence-Based Practice, December, 2012
    “All of the leading states identified at least one person to become fully informed about the available evidence-based practice options and made the time available for them to do this, including travel to operational sites and training in specific models.”
  • Reforming Juvenile Justice A Developmental Approach,
    National Research Council, November, 2012
    “A harsh system of punishing troubled youth can make things worse, while a scientifically based juvenile justice system can make an enduring difference in the lives of many youth who most need the structure and services it can provide.”
  • Families Unlocking Futures Solutions to the Crisis in Juvenile Justice, [PDF]
    Justice for Families, October, 2012
    “The primary problems are: (1) Incarceration doesn't work, as evidenced by recidivism rates and a long record of chronic and shameful abuses; and (2) by and large, probation and other forms of risk management do not help youth succeed in the long-term.”
  • Measuring Change in New Jersey's Treatment of Young Offenders [PDF]
    Advocates for Children of New Jersey, October, 2012
    “n 2011, the state locked up nearly 7,000 fewer juveniles in one year than it did prior to JDAI implementation. On any given day, 446 fewer juveniles are spending time in a New Jersey detention center.”
  • Girls' Experiences in the Texas Juvenile Justice System 2012 Survey Findings, [PDF]
    Texas Criminal Justice Coalition, October, 2012
    “46% of the surveyed girls report that the staff, programs, and treatment in county juvenile facilities did not help them deal with past trauma; an additional 4% said that county facilities actually did more harm than good in dealing with past trauma.”
  • Growing Up Locked Down Youth in Solitary Confinement in Jails and Prisoner Across the United State, [PDF]
    Human Rights Watch and American Civil Liberties Union, October, 2012
    “HRW and ACLU estimate that in 2011, more than 95,000 youth were held in prisons and jails. A significant number of these facilities use solitary confinement to punish, protect, house, or treat some of the young people who are held there.”
  • California Youth Crime Plunges to All-Time Low
    Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, October, 2012
    “All categories of crime fell substantially among youths in 2011. Felony arrests were down 17%, both violent and property felonies were down 16%, misdemeanor and status offenses were down 21%, and homicide was down 26%.”
  • Improving the Juvenile Justice System for Girls Lessons from the States, [PDF]
    Georgetown Center on Poverty, Inequality, and Public Policy, October, 2012
    “The set of challenges that girls often face as they enter the juvenile justice system include trauma, violence, neglect, mental and physical problems, family conflict, pregnancy, residential and academic instability, and school failure.”
  • Community Solutions for Youth in Trouble [PDF]
    Texas Criminal Justice Coalition, October, 2012
    “A 2012 survey of county juvenile probation chiefs in Texas found community-based programming to be the second-highest need for increased funding. Texas legislators should expand their investment in community programs.”
  • Representing Girls in the Juvenile Justice System [PDF]
    North Carolina Office of the Juvenile Defender, August, 2012
    “In an effort to provide information to defense counsel, this document provides a compilation of research regarding girls in the juvenile justice system and suggests best practices and strategies for defense counsel representing girls.”
  • Pioneers of Youth Justice Reform Achieving System Change Using Resolution, Reinvestment, and Realignment Strategies, [PDF]
    John Jay College of Criminal Justice, July, 2012
    “Incarcerated juveniles, especially those low in risk, tend to recidivate at higher rates than youth treated in their homes or communities... many youth courts place juveniles in state facilities for committing non-violent offenses/violating probation.”
  • Performance Audit Report Evaluating the Kansas Juvenile Correctional Complex, Part I, [PDF]
    State of Kansas Legislative Division of Post Audit, July, 2012
    “Overall, the environment at KJCC has not been conducive to ensuring the safety and security of juvenile offenders and staff.”
  • Trends in Juvenile Justice State Legislation 2001-2011 [PDF]
    National Conference of State Legislatures, June, 2012
    “States are reevaluating their juvenile justice systems [to] produce better results for kids at lower cost. This has contributed to a state legislative trend to realign fiscal resources from state institutions toward more effective community-based services”
  • A Juvenile Justice Reprieve: California's 2012 Mid-Year Budget, [PDF]
    Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, May, 2012
    “Counties cannot continue to oppose both budget triggers which attempt to more realistically balance DJF fees, and juvenile justice realignment, which transitions away from an archaic and dysfunctional state system to build on county successes.”
  • Juvenile Justice Alternative Edu. Programs Performance Assessment Report School Year 2010-2011, [PDF]
    Texas Juvenile Justice Department, May, 2012
    “The average passing rate for reading/ELA was 68.8% compared to 38.2% for math. The overall passing rates are up from 67.6% in reading/ELA and 34.5% for math in school year 2008-2009.”
  • Juvenile Court Statistics 2009 [PDF]
    National Center for Juvenile Justice, May, 2012
    “Between 1997 and 2009, the number of public order offense cases increased 1%, person offense cases and drug law violation cases decreased 13% and 12%, respectively, and property offense cases decreased 35%..”
  • Arrested Future The Criminalization of School Discipline in Massachusetts' Three Largest School Districts, [PDF]
    ACLU of Massachusetts, May, 2012
    “While there are undoubtedly many reasons why there are more public order arrests in Springfield than in Boston or Worcester, it appears that the manner in which Springfield deploys police officers in its public schools is a contributing factor.”
  • Highlights of the 2010 National Youth Gang Survey [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, April, 2012
    “Gang-related homicides increased more than 10 percent from 2009 in cities with populations of more than 100,000.”
  • Youth in Minnesota Correctional Facilities and the Effects of Trauma Responses to the 2010 Minnesota Students Survey, [PDF]
    Minnesota Department of Public Safety, March, 2012
    “[O]ver half of youth in correctional facilities report at least one form of trauma on the MSS (53%) compared to just over one-quarter of a matched sample of mainstream students (28%).”
  • The Education of DC How Washington D.C.'s investments in education can help increase public safety, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, February, 2012
    “This national trend is seen in D.C. as the funding for the justice system continues to increase at the expense of public education.”
  • Indicators Of School Crime And Safety, 2011 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, February, 2012
    “In 2009–10, about 74 percent of public schools recorded one or more violent incidents of crime, 16 percent recorded one or more serious violent incidents, and 44 percent recorded one or more thefts.”
  • Juvenile Justice Reform In Arkansas Building a Better Future for Youth, their Families, and the Community, [PDF]
    Arkansas Division of Youth Services, February, 2012
    “Almost all youth committed to DYS are non-violent offenders. During the first 3 quarters of FY 2008, more than 90% of all commitments were for non-violent offenses.”
  • You're an Adult Now Youth in Adult Criminal Justice Systems, [PDF]
    National Institute of Corrections, December, 2011
    “Youth transferred to the adult corrections system recidivate at a higher rate than those kept in the juvenile justice system.”
  • The Effects of Parental Incarceration on Children: Needs and Responsive Services, [PDF]
    Joint State Government Commission, General Assembly of Pennsylvania, December, 2011
    “In accordance with the HR 203 and SR 52, the present report focuses on ameliorative intervention, at mitigating the negative impacts of parental incarceration on children, and assisting these children in becoming healthy, productive and responsible adults”
  • Juvenile Arrests 2009 [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, December, 2011
    “The number of juvenile violent crime arrests in 2009 was less than any year in the 1990s, and 14% less than the number of such arrests in 2006.”
  • Education Under Arrest The Case Against Police in Schools, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, November, 2011
    “[School resource officers] and law enforcement in schools are not needed to keep kids safe, especially when youth pay the price of becoming involved in the juvenile justice system and suffer a lifetime of negative effects as a result.”
  • Arrests Effected by SSA or Officers assigned to School Safety Division [PDF]
    New York City Police Department, October, 2011
  • No Place for Kids The Case for Reducing Juvenile Incarceration, [PDF]
    Annie E. Casey Foundation, October, 2011
    “The time has come for states to embrace a [...] different orientation to treating adolescent offenders—an approach grounded in evidence that promises to be far more humane, cost-effective, & protective of public safety than [juvenile incarceration].”
  • Breaking Schools' Rules: A Statewide Study of How School Discipline Relates to Students' Success and Juvenile Justice Involvement, [PDF]
    The Council of State Governments Justice Center, July, 2011
    “Nearly six in ten public school students studied were suspended or expelled at least once between their seventh- and twelfth-grade school years.”
  • Juvenile Court Statistics 2008 [PDF]
    US Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, July, 2011
    “Drug offense case rates increased dramatically for all age groups between 1991 and 1998: 229% for juveniles ages 10–12, 165% for youth ages 13–15, 146% for 16-year-olds, and 148% for 17-year-olds.”
  • Misguided Measures The Outcomes and Impacts of Measure 11 on Oregon's Youth, [PDF]
    Partnership for Safety and Justice, July, 2011
    “Over the three-year period from 2006 to 2008, data from the 36 Oregon counties show no discernible pattern between the number of young people charged with a Measure 11 offense and the juvenile crime rate.”
  • Tribal Youth in the Federal Justice System [PDF]
    Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center, May, 2011
    “Tribal youth represented about 40-55% of all juveniles in the federal system, depending on the stage in the system.”
  • Collecting DNA from Juveniles [PDF]
    Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center, April, 2011
    “The lack of data about the number and characteristics of juveniles with profiles in CODIS limits the ability of policymakers and researchers to understand the ramifications of collecting DNA from juveniles.”
  • Thinking Outside the Cell Alternatives to Incarceration for Youth with Mental Illness, [PDF]
    Texas Appleseed, April, 2011
    “...youth should be supported close to their families and home environments and that detention should always be a last resort.”
  • Restructuring Texas' Juvenile Justice System Saving Money, Saving Communities & Saving Youth, [PDF]
    Texas Appleseed, March, 2011
    “Building a continuum of care – reserving secure facilities for only those youth who cannot be safely treated in the community – provides for quality treatment.”
  • The Lives of Juvenile Lifers: Findings from a National Survey, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, March, 2011
    “The proportion of African Americans serving JLWOP sentences for the killing of a white person (43.4%) is nearly twice the rate at which African American juveniles are arrested for taking a white person's life (23.2%).”
  • Law Enforcement Officers in Wake County Schools: The Human, Educational, and Financial Costs, [PDF]
    Advocates for Children's Services, Legal Aid of North Carolina, February, 2011
    (This report examines the effects of the proliferation of police officers in Wake County, NC (Raleigh area) public schools.)
  • Children on the Outside Voicing the Pain and Human Costs of Parental Incarceration, [PDF]
    Justice Strategies, January, 2011
    “Too often, society dismisses the children of incarcerated parents as future liabilities to public safety while overlooking opportunities to address the pain and trauma with which these children struggle.”
  • Think Before You Plea Juvenile Collateral Consequences in the United States (A guide to 50 states), [Website]
    American Bar Association, 2011
    (State-by-state analysis of the procedures and consequences of the juvenile justice system.)
  • Falling Through the Cracks A New Look at Ohio Youth in the Adult Criminal Justice System, [PDF]
    Children's Law Center, Inc., 2011
    “Ohio must begin to shift direction with regard to youth in the adult criminal justice system and move toward a more humane, research-driven approach to these youth.”
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis of Raising the Age of Juvenile Jurisdiction in North [PDF]
    Vera Institute of Justice, 2011
    “Raising the age of juvenile jurisdiction from 16 to 18 for alleged misdemeanants and low-level felons will generate $52.3 million in net benefits, per annual cohort of youth aged 16 and 17, from the combined perspectives of taxpayers, victims, and youth.”
  • Texas' School-to-Prison Pipeline Ticketing, Arrest & Use of Force in Schools, [PDF]
    Texas Appleseed, December, 2010
    “Where a child attends school, and not the nature of the offense, is the great determining factor in whether a student will be arrested at school.”
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2010 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2010
    “In 2008, among students 12-18, there were about 1.2 million victims of nonfatal crimes at school, including 619,000 thefts and 629,800 violent crimes.”
  • No Better Off An Update on Swanson Center for Youth, [PDF]
    Juvenile Justice Project of Louisiana, November, 2010
    “Lack or programming in the facility and on overreliance on lockdown result in youth's being "warehoused" at Swanson, rather than developing meaningful skills that would allow for successful transitions upon release.”
  • Hot Spots of Juvenile Crime Findings From Seattle, [PDF]
    US Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, October, 2010
    “Juvenile crime was concentrated in public and commercial areas where youth gather—schools, youth centers, shops, malls, and restaurants—rather than residential areas.”
  • Healing Invisible Wounds Why Investing in Trauma-Informed Care for Children Makes Sense, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, July, 2010
    “Joseph Tulman between 75 and 93 percent of youth entering the juvenile justice system annually in this country have experienced some degree of trauma.”
  • Juvenile Transfer Laws: An Effective Deterrent to Delinquency?,
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, June, 2010
    “This Bulletin provides an overview of research on the deterrent effects of transferring youth from juvenile to criminal courts[.]”
  • Sexual Victimization in Juvenile Facilities Reported by Youth, 2008-09 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, January, 2010
    “The report provides national-level and facility-level estimates of sexual victimization by type of activity, including youth-on-youth sexual contact, staff sexual misconduct, and level of coercion.”
  • The Missouri Model Reinventing the Practice of Rehabilitating Youthful Offenders, [PDF]
    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2010
    “For instance, the average length of stay in North Carolina juvenile facilities was 386 days in 2007,18 while California youth average three years in confinement.”
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2009 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2009
    “This annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It... provides the most current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools and school environments and responses to violence and crime.”
  • Back on Track Supporting Youth Reentry from Out-of-Home Placement to the Community, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, November, 2009
    “Presents promising practices and recommendations for federal leadership on youth reentry.”
  • Until They Die A Natural Death Youth Sentenced to Life Without Parole in Massachusetts, [PDF]
    Children's Law Center of Massachusetts, September, 2009
    “Massachusetts [...] stands apart in giving the adult court exclusive jurisdiction over murder cases against children as young as 14 and then imposing a mandatory life without parole sentence for all first degree murder convictions.”
  • The Costs of Confinement Why Good Juvenile Justice Policies Make Good Fiscal Sense, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, May, 2009
    (Cost of Confinement shows that states spend billions to imprison youth in secure facilities, but could save money, preserve public safety, and improve life outcomes for individual youth by redirecting the money to community-based alternatives.)
  • Incarcerated Parents and their Children Trends 1991-2007, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, February, 2009
    “In 2007, 1.7 million minor children had a parent in prison, an 82% increase since 1991.”
  • Juvenile Suicide in Confinement A National Survey, [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, February, 2009
    “Almost half (48.1 percent) the suicides occurred in facilities administered by state agencies, 39.2 percent took place in county facilities, and 12.7 percent occurred in private programs.”
  • Reclaiming Michigan's Throwaway Kids: Students Trapped in the School-to-Prison Pipeline, [PDF]
    Michigan ACLU, 2009
    “When school administrators refer some student discipline matters to law enforcement agencies, there is a consequent criminalization of many students whose offenses would otherwise have been dealt with entirely by school officials.”
  • Registering Harm How Sex Offense Registries Fail Youth Communities, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, November, 2008
    “Continued investments in registries put our families in danger with short-sighted policies that alienate people who are trying to safely re-enter the community.”
    (See also the Wash Act Briefing Book here: http://www.justicepolicy.org/content-hmID=1811&smID=1581&ssmID=80.htm)
  • A Call to Action for Juvenile Justice [PDF]
    American Bar Association, October, 2008
    “Juvenile justice advocates' transition document offers suggestions to the new admininstration.”
  • Sexual Violence Reported by Juvenile Correctional Authorities, 2005-06 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2008
    “Sexual misconduct involving staff-on-youth accounted for 28 percent of all substantiated incidents, while staff sexual harassment of youth accounted for 8 percent.”
    (Males were more likely to be victims of youth-on-youth sexual violence (73%) than victims of staff sexual violence (49%). Females were more likely to be victims of staff sexual violence (51%) than victims of youth-on-youth sexual violence (27%).)
  • Kids Count 2008 Data Book, [PDF]
    The Annie E. Casey Foundation, June, 2008
    “[In 2006] the ratio of rates of youth of color to white youth in custody was 3:1; and two out of three (66 percent) of all youth in custody were there due to a non-violent offense.”
  • Understanding the Experiences and Needs of Children of Incarcerated Parents Views from Mentors, [PDF]
    Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center, February, 2008
    “Stigma and shame represented an experience shared by most children of incarcerated parents that distinguished them from other at-risk peers.”
  • "When I Die, They'll Send Me Home" Youth Sentenced to Life without Parole in California, [PDF]
    Human Rights Watch, January, 2008
    “African American youth arrested for murder are sentenced to life without parole in California at a rate that is 5.83 times that of white youth arrested for murder.”
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2007 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2007
    “In 2005, 10 percent of male students in grades 9–12 reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property in the past year, compared to 6 percent of female students.”
  • Jailing Juveniles: The Dangers of Incarcerating Youth in Adult Jails in America, [PDF]
    Campaign for Youth Justice, November, 2007
    “The report "Jailing Juveniles" shows how difficult is it to keep children safe in adult jails. In fact, youth have the highest suicide rates of all inmates in jails... Youth in adult jails are also at great risk of physical and sexual assault.”
  • Cruel and Unusual: Sentencing 13- and 14-Year-Old Children to Die in Prison, [PDF]
    Equal Justice Initiative, November, 2007
    “In many states, 13- and 14-year-olds are subjected to the harshest possible prison sentence... In most of these cases, the judges who imposed death in prison sentences on young children had no other legal option.”
  • America's Cradle to Prison Pipeline [PDF]
    Children's Defense Fund, October, 2007
    “A Black boy born in 2001 has a 1 in 3 chance of going to prison in his lifetime; a Latino boy a 1 in 6 chance; and a White boy a 1 in 17 chance.”
  • Real Impacts: The actual results of Rhode Island's new policy that charges 17-year-olds as adults, [PDF]
    Rhode Island Family Life Center, October, 2007
    “[A]lthough it was not an explicit intention of the bill, one of the most important outcomes is that these juveniles will now have adult records, seriously limiting them as they become adults.”
  • Sixth Semi-Annual Report of the Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections [PDF]
    Arizona Consultants Committee, September, 2007
    (Sixth semi-annual report of the Consultants Committee prepared pursuant to Section III F(5) of the Memorandum of Agreement between the US Dept. of Justice and the State of Arizona, regarding compliance with the MOA provisions.)
  • Evidence-Based Juvenile Offender Programs: Program Description, Quality Assurance, and Cost,
    Washington State Institute for Public Policy, June, 2007
    “Six juvenile offender programs identified by Institute as evidence-based are profiled through program descriptions, quality assurance information, and cost-benefit figures.”
  • Juvenile Court Statistics 2003-2004
    National Center for Juvenile Justice, March, 2007
    “This Report describes delinquency cases handled between 1985 and 2004 by U.S. courts with juvenile jurisdiction and status offense cases handled between 1995 and 2004.”
  • The Consequences Aren't Minor: The Impact of Trying Youth as Adults and Strategies for Reform, [PDF]
    Campaign for Youth Justice, March, 2007
    “Despite the data, surveys report that the public believes the juvenile crime rate is increasing and that youth account for a large proportion of overall crime. In reality, national statistics show that more than 80% of all crimes are committed by adults.”
  • Attitudes of US Voters toward Youth Crime and the Justice System [PDF]
    National Council on Crime and Delinquency, February, 2007
    “Approximately 7 in 10 feel that putting youth under age 18 in adult correctional facilities makes them more likely to commit future crime.”
  • And Justice for Some: Differential Treatment of Youth of Color in the Justice System, [PDF]
    The National Council on Crime and Delinquency, January, 2007
    “This report details the accumulated disadvantage for youth of color as they move through the juvenile justice system and, too often, into the adult system.”
  • Models for Change: Building Momentum for Juvenile Justice Reform,
    Justice Policy Institute, December, 2006
    “This brief tells the story of how the four Models for Change states -- Pennsylvania, Illinois, Louisiana, and Washington -- are already moving to reform and reshape their own state juvenile justice systems.”
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2006 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics and National Center for Education Statistics, December, 2006
    “The percentage of public schools experiencing one or more violent incidents increased between the 1999-2000 and 2003-04 school years, from 71 to 81 percent.”
  • The Dangers of Detention: The Impact of Incarcerating Youth in Detention and Other Secure Facilities,
    Justice Policy Institute, November, 2006
    “[I]ncarcerated youth have higher recidivism rates than youth supervised in other kinds of settings.”
  • Custody and Control Conditions of Confinement in New York's Juvenile Prisons for Girls,
    Human Rights Watch, September, 2006
    “[G]irls experience abusive physical restraints and other forms of abuse and neglect, and are denied the mental health, educational, and other rehabilitative services they need.”
  • California Youth Crime Declines: The Untold Story, [PDF]
    Center on Juvenile & Criminal Justice, September, 2006
    “Juvenile crime rates in California are at 30-year lows.”
  • Do you know where the children are? A Report of Massachusetts Youth Unlawfully Held Without Bail,
    Barbara Fedders and Barbara Kaban, September, 2006
  • An Analysis of Racial Disproportionality in Juvenile Confinement An Analysis of Disproportionate Minority Confinement in the Hennepin County Juvenile Detention Center, [PDF]
    Council on Crime and Justice, August, 2006
    “The major findings show that all nine police departments studied refer a disproportionate number of minority juveniles to the JDC.”
  • Testing Incapacitation Theory: Youth Crime and Incarceration in California, [PDF]
    Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, July, 2006
    “Between 1980 and 2004, the rate of juvenile incarceration in California fell by nearly 50 percent.”
  • Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report,
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, June, 2006
    “[D]raws on reliable data and relevant research to provide a comprehensive and insightful view of juvenile crime across the nation.”
  • Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2002: Selected Findings, [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, June, 2006
    “13% of facilities did not have an in-house mental health professional evaluate youth.”
  • Stopping Sexual Assaults in Juvenile Corrections Facilities: A Case Study of the California Division of Juvenile Justice, [PDF]
    National Council on Crime and Delinquency, June, 2006
    “Unchecked violence and sexual assault in juvenile facilities will lead to more tragedies and victims in the community.”
    (Barry Krisberg, Ph.D.'s Testimony Before the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission)
  • Treated Like Trash: Juvenile Detention in New Orleans Before, During, and After Hurricane Katrina, [PDF]
    Juvenile Justice Project of Louisiana, May, 2006
    “In their own words, a harrowing tale of escape, mismanagement and neglect unfolds, illustrating deep problems in New Orleans' system of juvenile justice and how we treat children in New Orleans.”
  • Youth Under Age 18 in the Adult Criminal Justice System [PDF]
    National Council on Crime and Delinquency, May, 2006
    “Youth held in adult facilities are more likely to recidivate than similar offenders.”
  • The Juvenile Offender Study: A Retrospective Examination of Youth Offenders, [PDF]
    Council on Crime and Justice, April, 2006
    “This study was undertaken to identify and examine interventions with juvenile offenders whose criminal behavior continued into adulthood.”
  • Cost-Effective Youth Corrections Rationalizing the Fiscal Architecture of Juvenile Justice Systems, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, March, 2006
    “The experience of secure confinement can change the kind of routine law-breaking that is often part of adolescence into a stable pattern that, unfortunately, endures over time. States are actually paying additional money to generate worse outcomes.”
  • Hidden Challenges: Juvenile Justice and Education Issues Affecting Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Youth in Richmond, California, [PDF]
    National Council on Crime and Delinquency, March, 2006
    “The intent of [this] report is to provide a detailed assessment of the status of Southeast Asian youth in Richmond. To this end, the report contains data from the areas of juvenile justice and education, with relevant demographic data provided for context”
  • Second Chances  Juveniles serving life without parole in Michigan prisons, [PDF]
    American Civil Liberties Union of Michigan, January, 2006
    “The majority (221) of juvenile lifers are minority youth, 211 of whom are African-American. The percentage of African-American juvenile lifers (69%) is greatly disproportionate to the general population in Michigan, which is 15% African-American.”
  • Children of Incarcerated Parents [PDF]
    Council on Crime and Justice, January, 2006
    “Results indicate that children and caregivers often had limited support systems, faced social isolation and encountered barriers with the criminal justice system and correctional institutions.”
  • No Turning Back: Promising Approaches to Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities Affecting Youth of Color in the Justice System, [PDF]
    Building Blocks for Youth, October, 2005
  • Community Based Management Pilot Programs for Youth with Mental Illness... Program Evaluation Report: Year Four, [PDF]
    Colorado Department of Public Safety, October, 2005
    (The number of new offenses after the program is strongly influenced by the program. Of program completers, 46% fewer individuals received a new court case in the 12 months after the program as the 12 months before.)
  • The Rest of Their Lives: Life without Parole for Child Offenders in the United States,
    Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, October, 2005
    “there are currently at least 2,225 people incarcerated in the United States who have been sentenced to spend the rest of their lives in prison for crimes they committed as children”
  • Restructuring Juvenile Corrections in California: A Report to the State Legislature, [PDF]
    Center on Juvenile & Criminal Justice, September, 2005
    “This report... present[s] research findings showing how structural changes require closing structurally outdated large correctional institutions in favor of smaller county or regionally based facilities.”
  • The Economics of Juvenile Jurisdiction [PDF]
    Urban Institute, September, 2005
  • Juvenile Victimization and Offending, 1993-2003 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2005
  • Reforming Juvenile Detention in Florida [PDF]
    National Council on Crime and Delinquency, August, 2005
    (Current conditions and proposed alternatives for the Florida juvenile detention system.)
  • A Look At The Impact Schools [PDF]
    Drum Major Institute, June, 2005
    “...the Impact Schools initiative has brought increased police and security presence into 22 New York City middle and high schools...”
    (The report shows that low income, over-crowding and race are as characteristic of the schools as their crime-rates.)
  • Root Causes and Solutions to Disparities for Hispanics/Latinos in the Juvenile Justice System, [PDF]
    Council on Crime and Justice, May, 2005
    “Statistical analysis indicated that Hispanic/Latino youth were over represented in the juvenile system by 227% in 1990 and by 92% in 2000.”
  • Implementation and Outcome Evaluation of the Intensive Aftercare Program Final Report,
    National Council on Crime and Delinquency, May, 2005
    (The report assesses the implementation and effectiveness of IAP - deigned to reduce recidivism among high-risk juvenile parolees, it failed.)
  • First Semi-Annual Report [PDF]
    Arizona Department Of Juvenile Corrections - Consultant's Committee, March, 2005
    (Results of a CRIPA investigation into conditions in Arizona's juvenile correctional facilities.)
  • Education on Lockdown: The Schoolhouse to Jailhouse Track, [PDF]
    Advancement Project, March, 2005
    “Examination of the emergence of zero tolerance school discipline policies and how these policies have pushed students away from an academic track to a future in the juvenile justice system.”
  • California Youth Authority Warehouses: Failing Kids, Families & Public Safety, [PDF]
    Books Not Bars and the Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, March, 2005
  • Accountability Audit: Review of Audits of the California Youth Authority, 2000-2003, [PDF]
    California Office of the Inspector, January, 2005
  • Childhood on Trial The Failure of Trying and Sentencing Youth in Adult Criminal Court, [PDF]
    Coalition for Juvenile Justice, 2005
    “Overview of report that identifies the public safety and rehabilitative failures of our nation's widespread”
  • Youth Court: A Community Solution for Embracing At-Risk Youth--A National Update, [PDF]
    The American Youth Policy Forum, 2005
  • Juvenile Court Statistics 2000 [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, December, 2004
  • Washington State's Family Integrated Transitions Program for Juvenile Offenders: Outcome Evaluation and Benefit-Cost Analysis, [PDF]
    Washington State Institute for Public Policy, December, 2004
  • Juvenile Arrests 2002 [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, September, 2004
  • Trends in the Murder of Juveniles: 1980-2000 [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, September, 2004
  • Washington's Juvenile Basic Training Camp: Outcome Evaluation, [PDF]
    Washington State Institute for Public Policy, August, 2004
  • Benefits and Costs of Prevention and Early Intervention Programs for Youth
    Washington State Institute for Public Policy, July, 2004
    “[S]ome prevention and early intervention programs for youth can give taxpayers a good return on their dollar.”
  • Reforming Juvenile Justice Through Comprehensive Community Planning [PDF]
    National Council on Crime and Delinquency, March, 2004
    “The experience [with Comprehensive Community Planning] suggests that there are productive ways in which the federal government can interact with and assist local initiatives.”
  • Juvenile Justice in Florida: What Kind of Future?, [PDF]
    National Council on Crime and Delinquency, March, 2004
    “The National Council on Crime and Delinquency (NCCD) conducted a study to determine the potential benefits to Florida of adopting a data-driven approach to juvenile corrections that is based on the best national research.”
  • The Dimensions, Pathways, and Consequences of Youth Reentry [PDF]
    Urban Institute, January, 2004
    “Because young people in their teens and early twenties undergo considerable physical, mental, and emotional changes, the process and experience of youth reentry may fundamentally differ from what adults face.”
  • Juvenile Arrests, 2001 [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, December, 2003
    (juvenile crime drop continues, 7th year in a row)
  • Juvenile Crime in Washington, D.C. [PDF]
    Urban Institute, December, 2003
  • Maine: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF]
    American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center, October, 2003
  • Montana An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF]
    American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center, October, 2003
  • Washington: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF]
    American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center, October, 2003
  • Maryland: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF]
    American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center, October, 2003
  • North Carolina: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF]
    American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center, October, 2003
  • Pennsylvania: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF]
    American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center, October, 2003
  • Correctional Boot Camps: Lessons from a Decade of Research, [PDF]
    National Institute of Justice, June, 2003
  • Disproportionate Minority Confinement In Massachusetts: Failures in Assessing and Addressing Overrepresentation of Minorities in the Massachusetts Juvenile Justice System, [PDF]
    American Civil Liberties Union, June, 2003
  • Juvenile Court Statistics 1999 [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, June, 2003
  • Juveniles in Court
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, June, 2003
  • Juvenile Felony Defendants in Criminal Courts: Survey of 40 Counties, 1998, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2003
  • Derailed: The Schoolhouse to Jailhouse Track, [PDF]
    Advancement Project, May, 2003
    “how zero-tolerance policies are derailing students from an academic track in schools to a future in the juvenile justice system”
    (it's a huge (13MB) PDF file)
  • Youth Victimization: Prevalence and Implications, [PDF]
    National Institute of Justice, April, 2003
    “youth victimization is clearly linked to mental health problems and delinquent behavior. Results are analyzed across gender and race/ethnicity and translated into national estimates”
  • Justice Cut Short: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings in Ohio, [PDF]
    American Bar Association, March, 2003
  • Unintended Consequences: The Impact of 'zero tolerance' and other exclusionary policies on Kentucky students, [PDF]
    Building Blocks for Youth, February, 2003
  • Juveniles' Competence to Stand Trial: A Comparison of Adolescents' and Adults' Capacities as Trial Defendants, [PDF]
    MacArthur Foundation, February, 2003
  • Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2000: Selected Findings, [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, January, 2003
  • Violent Victimization as a Risk Factor for Violent Offending Among Juveniles, [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, January, 2003
  • Juvenile Arrests: 2000 [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, January, 2003
    “6 straight years of a decline in arrests of juveniles for violent crimes”
  • Unlocking the Future: Detention Reform in the Juvenile Justice System, [PDF]
    Coalition for Juvenile Justice; Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2003
    “Juvenile court jurisdictions... needlessly sweep into locked detention many young people with mental health, substance abuse and family problems - most of whom are 15 years or younger, nonviolent, and disproportionately youth of color.”
  • On The Level: Disproportionate Minority Contact in Minnesota's Juvenile Justice System, [PDF]
    Minnesota Department of Public Safety, October, 2002
    “African American youth, who comprise just 8% of the youth population White but are 34% of juvenile delinquency arrests. On a smaller scale, American Indian youth are 2% of the youth population but account for 4% of juvenile delinquency arrests.”
  • Virginia: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings,
    American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center and the Mid-Atlantic Juvenile Defender Center, October, 2002
  • Kentucky-Advancing Justice: An Assessment of Access to Counsel in Juvenile Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF]
    American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center and the Children's Law Center, September, 2002
  • Aftercare as afterthought: Re-entry and the California Youth Authority, [PDF]
    Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, August, 2002
  • ¿Dónde Está la Justicia? A Call to Action on behalf of Latino and Latina Youth in the U.S. Justice System (English Version), [PDF]
    Building Blocks for Youth, July, 2002
    (Available in English and Spanish)
  • ¿Dónde Está la Justicia? Un llamado a la acción a favor de los jóvenes latinos en el sistema de justicia de los EE.UU. (Spanish), [PDF]
    Building Blocks for Youth, July, 2002
  • Burglary Cases in Juvenile Court 1989-1998, [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, May, 2002
  • OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, April, 2002
    “frequently updated”
    (provides basic information on juvenile crime and victimization and on youth involved in the juvenile justice system. Data in the six topics (left menu) provide ... statistical answers to the most frequently asked questions)
  • Robbery Cases in Juvenile Court 1989-1998, [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, March, 2002
  • National Youth Gang Survey Trends from 1996 to 2000, [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, March, 2002
  • Highlights of the 2000 National Youth Gang Survey [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, March, 2002
  • Juvenile Offenders in Residential Placement: 1997-1999, [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, March, 2002
    “There were 108,931 juvenile offenders in residential placement on October 27, 1999”
  • Juvenile Court Placement of Adjudicated Youth 1989-1998, [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, March, 2002
  • The Rise and Fall of American Youth Violence: 1980 to 2000,
    Urban Institute, March, 2002
  • A Preliminary Cost Analysis Of Alameda County Juvenile Detention Expansion
    Justice Policy Institute, January, 2002
  • Juvenile Transfer to Criminal Court: Final Report, [PDF]
    Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, January, 2002
    (see summary with graphs at http://sentencingproject.org/pdfs/2083.pdf)
  • Youth, Guns, and the Juvenile Justice System [PDF]
    Urban Institute, January, 2002
  • Detention in Delinquency Cases, 1989-1998 [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, January, 2002
  • Lost Opportunities: Our Children Are Not Rehabilitated When They Are Treated And Incarcerated As Adults, [PDF]
    Roslyn M. Satchel, Southern Center for Human Rights, 2002
  • Schools and Suspensions Self-Reported Crime and the Growing Use of Suspensions, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, September, 2001
    “Students Report School Crime at Same Level as 1970s, But Use of Suspension Doubles”
  • Georgia: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings,
    American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center and the Southern Center for Human Rights, August, 2001
  • The Children Left Behind: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings in Louisiana, [PDF]
    American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center and Juvenile Justice Project of Louisiana, June, 2001
  • Justice by Gender: The Lack of Appropriate Prevention, Diversion and Treatment Alternatives for Girls in the Juvenile Justice System, [PDF]
    American Bar Association, May, 2001
  • Off Balance: Youth, Race & Crime in the News [PDF]
    Building Blocks for Youth, April, 2001
  • Selling Justice Short: Juvenile Indigent Defense in Texas, [PDF]
    Texas Appleseed, October, 2000
  • Youth Crime/Adult Time: Is Justice Served?, [PDF]
    Building Blocks for Youth, October, 2000
  • Incarcerated Parents and Their Children [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2000
    “Almost 1.5 million minor children have a mother or father in prison”
  • Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2000
  • Online Victimization: A Report on the Nation's Youth, [PDF]
    Crimes Against Children Research Center, June, 2000
    “Approximately one in five received a sexual solicitation or approach over the Internet in the last year.”
  • Opportunities Suspended: The Devastating Consequences of Zero Tolerance and School Discipline Policies, [PDF]
    Advancement Project & Harvard Civil Rights Project, June, 2000
    “The report illustrates that Zero Tolerance is unfair, is contrary to the developmental needs of children, denies children educational opportunities, and often results in the criminalization of children.”
  • Profile of State Prisoners under Age 18, 1985-97 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, February, 2000
    “The number of people under 18 sent to adult State prisons more than doubled between 1985 and 1997”
  • Prosecuting Juveniles in Adult Court An Assessment of Trends and Consequences, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, January, 2000
  • No Minor Matter: Children in Maryland's Jails,
    Human Rights Watch, November, 1999
  • Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report, [Website]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, September, 1999
  • The Florida Experiment: An Analysis of the Practice of Sending Kids to Adult court., [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, September, 1999
  • Critical Choices: New Options in Juvenile Crime Policy, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, February, 1999
  • Crime and Justice Atlas 1999 Update, [PDF]
    U.S. Department of Justice, 1999
    “Since 1980, the numbers of prisoners, new court commitments, and releases from state prisons have risen by a yearly average of 8.1 %, 5.5%, and 7.9%, respectively.”
  • Juvenile Felony Defendants in Criminal Courts [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, September, 1998
  • The Impact of Juvenile Curfew Laws in California [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, June, 1998
  • Runaway Juvenile Crime?: The Context of Juvenile Crime Arrests,
    Justice Policy Institute, March, 1998
    (Special release version just after the Jonesboro shootings)
  • The Will of the People The Public's Opinion of the Violent and Repeat Juvenile Offender Act of 1997, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, March, 1998
  • Beyond the Walls: Improving Conditions of Confinement for Youth in Custody, [PDF]
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, January, 1998
  • Juvenile Justice and Disproportionality: Patterns of Minority Over-Representation in Washington's Juvenile Justice System, [PDF]
    State of Washington Sentencing Guidelines Commission, December, 1997
  • The Pods of Elmore County A glimpse into the rhetoric behind the juvenile crime bill, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, September, 1997
  • High Country Lockup: Children in Confinement in Colorado,
    Human Rights Watch, September, 1997
  • More Than Meets the Eye: Rethinking Assessment, Competency and Sentencing for a Harsher Era of Juvenile Justice,
    American Bar Association, August, 1997
  • The Risks Juveniles Face When They Are Incarcerated With Adults [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, July, 1997
  • Juveniles Prosecuted in State Criminal Court [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 1997
  • Juvenile Delinquents in the Federal Criminal Justice System [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, February, 1997
  • A Call for Justice: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF]
    American Bar Association, December, 1995
  • Children in Confinement in Louisiana
    Human Rights Watch, October, 1995

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  • March 25, 2017:
    Policy Analyst Wendy Sawyer will be at the panel discussion of criminal justice reform in Massachusetts at the First Parish Unitarian Universalist of Arlington at 12:45-5pm.
  • April 5, 2017:
    Policy Analyst Wendy Sawyer will discuss PPI’s recent research as it relates to a community-wide reading of Orange is the New Black. 6:30-8 pm at Emily Williston Memorial Library, Easthampton, MA

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