Incarceration Rates Growth Causes

  • (New) Probation and Parole in the United States, 2013 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2014
    (At yearend 2013, an estimated 4,751,400 adults were under community supervision---a decline of about 29,900 offenders from yearend 2012.)
  • Prison and Crime: A Complex Link, [PDF]
    Pew Public Safety Performance Project, September, 2014
    “New York and Florida had divergent imprisonment rates, but both cut crime rates by the same amount.”
  • Prisoners in 2013 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, September, 2014
    “On December 31, 2013, the United States held an estimated 1,574,700 persons in state and federal prisons, an increase of approximately 4,300 prisoners (0.3%) from 2012.”
  • Florida's Aging Prisoner Problem [PDF]
    Florida Tax Watch, September, 2014
    “Between 2000 and 2014, the elderly prison population grew from 5,605 to 21,002, at an average increase of 9.9 percent per year, a rate more than three times higher than the general prison population.”
  • Aging Behind Bars: Trends and Implications of Graying Prisoners in the Federal Prison System, [PDF]
    Urban Institute, August, 2014
    “The number of prisoners age 50 or older experienced a 330 percent increase from 1994 to 2011.”
  • (New) Explaining Dimensions of State-Level Punitiveness in the United States: The Roles of Social, Economic, and Cultural Factors, [PDF]
    Baker Institute of Public Policy, August, 2014
    (For incarceration, citizen engagement and property crime have a statistically significant and negative impact on state punitiveness, while the percent of population that is black has a significant and positive effect.)
  • Liberal but Not Stupid: Meeting the Promise of Downsizing Prisons, [PDF]
    Joan Petersilia and Francis T. Cullen, Stanford Journal of Criminal Law and Policy, June, 2014
    “The issue of downsizing will also remain at the forefront of correctional discourse because of the court-ordered reduction in imprisonment in California...a 'criminology of downsizing' must be developed to foster effective policy interventions.”
  • Mississippi's 2014 Corrections and Criminal Justice Reform [PDF]
    Pew's Public Safety Performance Project, May, 2014
    “...nonviolent offenders and those revoked for probation or parole violations accounted for a large and growing share of Mississippi's prison population.”
  • Prison Population Trends 2013 [PDF]
    Massachusetts Department of Correction, May, 2014
    “A steady decline from January 2012 to January 2014 reflects a seven percent decrease in the custody population.”
  • Tracking State Prison Growth in 50 States
    Prison Policy Initiative, May, 2014
    “This briefing fills the gap with a series of more than 100 graphs showing prison growth (and sometimes decline) for every state in the nation to encourage states to confront how their criminal policy choices undermine our national welfare.”
  • Billion Dollar Divide: Virginia's Sentencing, Corrections and Criminal Justice Challenge, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, April, 2014
    “...to understand how Virginia got to where it is today, the Justice Policy Institute has summarized the trends under three major themes: more people serving longer sentences, more people coming into the system and fewer people leaving the system.”
  • Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie,
    Prison Policy Initiative, March, 2014
    “Jail churn is particularly high because at any given moment most of the 722,000 people in local jails have not been convicted...”
  • Reallocation of Responsibility: Changes to the Correctional System in California Post-Realignment, [PDF]
    Stanford Criminal Justice Center, January, 2014
    “California has decarcerated under Realignment. The state prison population has decreased by 29,886 people since 2010, while the jail population has modestly increased by 8,229 people.”
  • Voices from the Field: How California Stakeholders View Public Safety Realignment, [PDF]
    Stanford Criminal Justice Center, January, 2014
    “What is the result of California's great prison experiment? Even after conducting 125 interviews with agencies across California, it remains a challenge to adequately summarize the changes that Realignment (AB 109) has wrought across the state.”
  • Demographic Patterns of Cumulative Arrest Prevalence by Ages 18 and 23 [PDF]
    Brame, Robert, January, 2014
    “...about 30% of Black males have experienced at least one arrest by age 18 (vs. about 22% for White males); by age 23 about 49% of Black males have been arrested (vs. about 38% for White males).”
  • Congressional Action Mandated to Reduce Rising Costs of Incarceration
    Out4Good, January, 2014
    “It becomes evident that more than $100 billion is being spent annually to accommodate the confinement and correctional supervision of these individuals.”
  • Justice Reinvestment Initiative State Assessment Report [PDF]
    Urban Institute, January, 2014
    “Since enacting JRI, all eight states - Arkansas, Hawaii, Louisiana, Kentucky, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, and South Carolina - have experienced reductions in their prison populations since the start of JRI.”
  • The Growth of Incarceration in the United States Exploring causes and consequences, [PDF]
    National Research Council., 2014
    “The study assesses the evidence and its implications for public policy to inform an extensive and thoughtful public debate about and reconsideration of policies.”
  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2010 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2013
    “Among those offenders who were released from federal prison in 2008 and returned within 3 years, 59% returned for a supervision violation and 39% returned for a new offense.”
  • Prisoners in 2012: Trends in Admissions and Releases, 1991-2012, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2013
    “The number of releases from U.S. prisons in 2012 (637,400) exceeded that of admissions for the fourth consecutive year, contributing to the decline in the total U.S. prison population.”
  • Correctional Populations in the United States, 2012 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2013
    “Although the correctional population declined by 0.7% during 2012, this was the slowest rate of decline observed since 2009 when the population first decreased.”
  • Ending Mass Incarceration: Social Interventions that Work, [PDF]
    The Sentencing Project, October, 2013
    “Evidence based research provides the strongest support for school and community-based interventions in lieu of residential placement.”
  • Life Goes On: The Historic Rise in Life Sentences in America, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, September, 2013
    “As of 2012, there were 159,520 people serving life sentences, an 11.8% rise since 2008.”
  • Imprisonment and Disenfranchisement of Disconnected Low-Income Men [PDF]
    Urban Institute, August, 2013
    “When broken out by race and ethnicity, striking differences appear: incarceration rates for African American men are over six times higher than rates for white men and nearly two and a half times higher than rates for Hispanic men...”
  • The Potential of Community Corrections to Improve Safety and Reduce Incarceration, [PDF]
    Vera Institute of Justice, July, 2013
    “Community-based supervision has always had the potential to support individual change, help make communities safer, and reduce public costs. Now it's getting more attention due to budget constraints, prison proliferation, and high recidivism rates.”
  • Preliminary Crack Retroactivity Data Report Fair Sentencing Act, [PDF]
    U.S. Sentencing Commission, July, 2013
    “After federal sentencing guideline changes on crack cocaine were made retroactive, more than 7,300 defendants got on average a 29-month reduction in their sentences.”
  • Recidivism in Delaware: An Analysis of Prisoners Released in 2008 and 2009, [PDF]
    Delaware Criminal Justice Council, July, 2013
    “Recidivism rates are generally higher for Blacks than for Whites, and higher for males than for females. Additionally, recidivism rates were lower for those who had longer prison sentences (i.e., lengths of stay).”
  • Prisoners in 2012 - Advance Counts [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2013
    “The U.S. prison population declined for the third consecutive year in 2012, from a high of 1,615,487 inmates in 2009 to 1,571,013 at yearend 2012.”
  • The Comeback States: Reducing youth incarceration in the United States, [PDF]
    National Juvenile Justice Network and the Texas Public Policy Foundation, June, 2013
    “Six policies encourage reductions in reliance on detention and incarceration, including disallowing incarceration for minor offenses, and increasing the availability of evidence-based alternatives to incarceration.”
  • Juvenile Incarceration, Human Capital and Future Crime: Evidence from Randomly-Assigned Judges, [PDF]
    Brown University, MIT, June, 2013
    “"Estimates suggest that juvenile incarceration results in large decreases in the likelihood of high school completion and large increases in the likelihood of adult incarceration."”
  • Impact of Realignment on County Jail Populations [PDF]
    Public Policy Institute of California, June, 2013
    “Between June 2011 and June 2012, the state prison population declined by 26,600 inmates. Concurrently, California's county average daily jail population grew by about 8,600 inmates...”
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2012 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2013
    “At midyear 2012, a total of 2,364 inmates were confined in Indian country jails—a 5.6% increase from the 2,239 inmates confined at midyear 2011.”
  • Prison Population Trends 2012
    Massachusetts Department of Correction, May, 2013
    “The intent of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of inmate statistics specific to CY2012 as well as trends over the last five to ten years.”
  • Jail Inmates at Midyear 2012 - Statistical Tables [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2013
    “The average daily population (ADP) in jails remained stable from 735,565 during the 12-month period ending June 30, 2011, and 735,983 during the 12-month period ending June 30, 2012.”
  • Realignment Report A One-year Examination of Offenders Released from State Prison in the First Six Months of Public Safety Realignment, [PDF]
    California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, May, 2013
    “The 1-year arrest/conviction rates of offenders released pre and post-Realignment is similar, but the 1-year return to prison rate was substantially less post-Realignment since most offenders in this cohort were ineligible to return on a parole violation.”
  • Ending Mass Incarceration: Charting a New Justice Reinvestment, [PDF]
    Experts from a coalition of organizations including The Sentencing Project, JFA Institute, the American Civil Liberties Union, and Justice Strategies., April, 2013
    “While JRI has played a significant role in softening the ground and moving the dial on mass incarceration reform, it runs the danger of institutionalizing mass incarceration at current levels.”
  • The Federal Bureau of Prisons' Compassionate Release Program [PDF]
    U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector, General Evaluation and Inspections Division, April, 2013
    “Procedures and timeliness standards do not reference the compassionate release program or acknowledge the special circumstances of an inmate requesting compassionate release (particularly those with terminal medical conditions/limited life expectancies).”
  • Beyond Realignment: Counties' Large Disparities in Imprisonment Underlie Ongoing Prison Crisis, [PDF]
    Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, March, 2013
    “High-imprisonment, state-dependent jurisdictions consume excessive prison space, contribute to overcrowding and lawsuits, and create higher state taxpayer liabilities than do low-imprisonment, self-reliant counties that manage more offenders locally.”
  • Massachusetts Department of Correction - 2012 [PDF]
    Gordon Haas, Norfolk Lifers Group, March, 2013
    “Report compares the MA Department of Corrections's stated goals with current practices and outcomes, making suggestions for improvements to promote rehabilitation and reduce recidivism.”
  • New Jersey Jail Population Analysis: Identifying Opportunities to Safely and Responsibly Reduce the Jail Populations, [PDF]
    Luminosity and Drug Policy Alliance, March, 2013
    “Inmates who had been indicted but had not yet had a trial had been in custody on average 314 days. 12% of the entire jail population was held in custody solely due to an inability to pay $2500 or less to secure their release pending disposition.”
  • Reducing Youth Incarceration in the United States a KIDS COUNT Data Snapshot, [PDF]
    Annie E. Casey Foundation, February, 2013
    “Since 1995 the rate of youth in confinement dropped by 41 percent, from 381 per 100,000 youth to 225 per 100,000.”
  • Common Ground: Lessons Learned from Five States that Reduced Juvenile Confinement by More than Half, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, February, 2013
    “For all states and the District of Columbia, the number of youth in residential placement dropped steadily from its high of 107,493 in 1999 to 70,792 in 2010.”
  • The Changing Racial Dynamics of Women's Incarceration [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, February, 2013
    “In 2000 black women were incarcerated at six times the rate of white women. By 2009 that ratio had declined by 53%, to 2.8:1. This shift was a result of both declining incarceration of African American women and rising incarceration of white women.”
  • Immigration Enforcement in the United States: The Rise of a Formidable Machinery, [PDF]
    Migration Policy Institute, January, 2013
    “the US government spends more on its immigration enforcement agencies than on all its other principal criminal federal law enforcement agencies combined. In fY 2012, spending for the primary immigration enforcement agencies reached nearly $18 billion.”
  • The Federal Prison Population Buildup: Overview, Policy Changes, Issues, and Options, [PDF]
    Congressional Research Service, January, 2013
    “The per capita cost of incarceration for all inmates increased from $19,571 in FY2000 to $26,094 in FY2011. During this same period of time, appropriations for the BOP increased from $3.668 billion to $6.381 billion.”
  • Adult and Juvenile Correctional Population Projections Fiscal Years 2013 to 2018, [PDF]
    State of Texas Legislative Budget Board, January, 2013
    “The Texas adult incarceration population is projected to remain relatively flat in fiscal years 2013 and 2014 and begin a gradual increase to reach 156,877 by the end of fiscal year 2018.”
  • How New York City Reduced Mass Incarceration: A Model for Change?, [PDF]
    Vera Institute of Justice, the Brennan Center for Justice, and the JFA Institute, January, 2013
    “From 1988 to 2008, the number of felonies reported by New York City to the FBI dropped from 719,887 to 198,419 – a remarkable 72 percent reduction. Outside of New York City, the number of crimes declined by half as much, only 38 percent.”
  • The Growth & Increasing Cost of the Federal Prison System: Drivers and Potential Solutions, [PDF]
    Urban Institute, December, 2012
    “Reducing sentence length, particularly for drug offenders, would be the most direct way to slow the projected growth of the BOP population.”
  • Examining Growth in the Federal Prison Population, 1998 to 2010 [PDF]
    Urban Institute, December, 2012
    “The increase in expected time served by drug offenders was the single greatest contributor to growth in the federal prison population between 1998 and 2010.”
  • Report to the Governor and Legislative Budget Board on the Monitoring of Community Supervision Diversion Funds, [PDF]
    Texas Department of Criminal Justice, December, 2012
    “The felony direct community supervision population increased 5.2% from August 31, 2005 (157,914 offenders) to August 31, 2012 (166,054 offenders), while the number of felony technical revocations decreased 10.9% between FY2005 (13,504) & FY2012 (12,034).”
  • Report to the Governor - 2012 [PDF]
    Oregon Commission on Public Safety, December, 2012
    “Oregon's imprisonment rate has grown at over three times the rate of the national average in the last decade. During that same period, prison admissions have grown to include increasing percentages of nonviolent offenders.”
  • On the Chopping Block 2012: State Prison Closings, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, December, 2012
    “In 2012, at least six states have closed 20 prison institutions or are contemplating doing so, potentially reducing prison capacity by over 14,100 beds and resulting in an estimated $337 million in savings.”
  • Prisoners in 2011 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2012
    “Declining for the second consecutive year, state and federal prison populations totaled 1,598,780 at yearend 2011, a decrease of 0.9% (15,023 prisoners) from yearend 2010.”
  • Correctional Populations in the United States, 2011 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2012
    “At yearend 2011, about 1 in every 50 adults in the U.S. was supervised in the community on probation or parole while about 1 in every 107 adults was incarcerated in prison or jail.”
  • Report of the Special Council on Criminal Justice Reform for Georgians [PDF]
    Special Council on Criminal Justice Reform for Georgians, November, 2012
    “The data shows that most individuals sentenced to prison are drug and property offenders, and these offenders are also staying behind bars for longer periods of time. Drug and property offenders represent almost 60 percent of all admissions.”
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2011 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2012
    “At yearend 2011, for the first time since 2002, the U.S. probation population fell below 4 million.”
  • Arrest in the United States, 1990-2010 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2012
    “The number of murder arrests in the U.S. fell by half between 1990 and 2010. The adult and juvenile arrest rates dropped substantially in the 1990s, while both continued to fall about 20% between 2000 and 2010, reaching their lowest levels since at least”
  • What Have We Done? Mass Incarceration and the Targeting of Albany's Black Males by Federal, State, and Local Authorities, [PDF]
    Center for Law and Justice, October, 2012
    “Law enforcement officials are now using a new tool to arrest and prosecute drug-related crimes: racketeering laws. Young African-American men from Albany are now being subjected to additional years in prison, in some cases for committing no new crimes.”
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2011 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, September, 2012
    “At midyear 2011, a total of 2,239 inmates were confined in Indian country jails, a 5.7% increase from „ the 2,119 inmates confined at midyear 2010.”
  • Growing Inmate Crowding Negatively Affects Inmates, Staff, & Infrastructure [PDF]
    United States Government Accountability Office, September, 2012
    “[T]he growth of the federal inmate population and related crowding have negatively affected inmates housed in BOP institutions [and] institutional staff [...] and have contributed to inmate misconduct, which affects staff and inmate security and safety.”
  • Realigning Justice Resources A Review of Population and SPending Shifts in Prison and Community Corrections, [PDF]
    Vera Institute of Justice, September, 2012
    “Between 2009 and 2010, Vera observed a stark downward shift in expenditures across many states and systems of prison and community corrections despite variations in population change—a consequence, perhaps, of shrinking state budgets.”
  • Three Strikes: The Wrong Way to Justice, [PDF]
    Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice, Harvard Law School, June, 2012
    “By properly limiting the applicability of the habitual offender provisions, Massachusetts will be able to reinvest in its people through education, treatment, training, and community development programs.”
  • Survey of Sentencing Practices FY 2011 [PDF]
    Massachusetts Sentencing Commission, May, 2012
    “For state prison sentences, the median minimum state prison sentence was 36.0 months and the median maximum state prison sentence was 48.0 months.”
  • Justice Reinvestment in Pennsylvania A Comprehensive Public Safety Plan for the Commonwealth, [PDF]
    Council of State Governments Justice Center, May, 2012
    (Comprehensive public safety plan that reduces costly inefficiencies in PA's criminal justice system and reinvests savings in law enforcement strategies that deter crime, local diversion efforts that reduce recidivism & services for crime victims.)
  • Reducing the use of imprisonment What can we learn from Europe?, [PDF]
    Criminal Justice Alliance, May, 2012
    “One of the most dramatic changes in prison numbers over the last few years has been experienced by the Netherlands. Germany, too, has seen a significant reduction in use of custody.”
  • World Prison Population List (ninth edition), [PDF]
    International Centre for Prison Studies, April, 2012
    “Prison populations have risen in 78% of countries: in 71% of countries in Africa, 82% in the Americas, 80% in Asia, 74% in Europe and 80% in Oceania.”
  • Public Safety Realignment: California at a Crossroads, [PDF]
    American Civil Liberties Union of California, March, 2012
    “Based upon our review, at least 32 of California's 58 counties have plans to expand jail capacity using AB 109 funds or other tax dollars, even though realignment provides more effective and affordable options for addressing jail overcrowding.”
  • The Disproportionate Impact of the Criminal Justice System on People of Color in the Capital Region, [PDF]
    Center for Law and Justice, February, 2012
    “Statewide, from 2000 to 2011 the number of minorities incarcerated dropped by 29%; in Albany County, the number of minorities incarcerated increased by 60% over the same time period.”
  • Eligibility and Capacity Impact Use of Flexibilities to Reduce Inmates' Time, [PDF]
    Government Accountability Office, February, 2012
    “Increased funding would have reduced the Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program wait lists and enabled eligible inmates to enter the program early enough to earn their maximum allowable sentence reductions.”
  • The State of Sentencing 2011 [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, February, 2012
    “During 2011, state legislatures in at least 29 states adopted 55 criminal justice policies that may contribute to continued population reductions and address the collateral consequences associated with felony convictions.”
  • A Report on the Massachusetts Department of Corrections - 2011 [PDF]
    Gordon Haas, Chairman, Norfolk Lifers Group, January, 2012
    “The DOC's organizational culture [...] continues to be driven by a penchant for retribution. As a result, what the DOC accomplishes is merely to warehouse prisoners until they are released to become someone else's concern.”
  • Old Behind Bars the Aging Prison Population in the United States, [PDF]
    Human Rights Watch, January, 2012
    “Between 1995 and 2010, the number of state and federal prisoners age 55 or older nearly quadrupled (increasing 282 percent), while the number of all prisoners grew by less than half (increasing 42 percent). There are now 124,400 prisoners age 55+.”
  • Correctional Population in the United States, 2010 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2011
    “The decline in the number of jail inmates (down 18,700) accounted for 20% of the decrease in the total correctional population.”
  • Correctional Populations in the United States, 2010 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2011
    “During 2010, the number of persons under supervision of adult correctional authorities declined by 1.3% (91,700 offenders), reaching 7.1 million at yearend. This was the second consecutive year of decline in the correctional population.”
  • Census of Jail Facilities, 2006 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2011
    “A total of 3,283 jail facilities, including jails in the federal system, were operating in 2006, down 93 from 3,376 in 1999.”
  • Prisoners in 2010 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2011
    (During 2010, prison releases (708,677) exceeded prison admissions (703,798) for the first time since BJS began collecting jurisdictional data in 1977.)
  • Jail Needs Assessment for San Mateo County: A preliminary analysis, [PDF]
    Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, December, 2011
    “Based on current trends, CJCJ recommends deferring construction of new jail space until alternative pretrial release [...] expanded probation supervision, reduced probation revocation, and expanded community treatment alternatives have been fully explored”
  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2009 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2011
    “from 2000 to 2006, the rate of arrests made by federal law enforcement increased at 8 times the rate of arrests by state and local law enforcement.”
  • Missouri Working Group on Sentencing and Corrections Consensus Report [PDF]
    Missouri Working Group on Sentencing and Corrections, December, 2011
    “The Working Group conducted extensive analysis of state data and trends and has reached consensus on a package of reforms that will improve public safety, hold offenders accountable, and contain corrections costs by strengthening community supervision.”
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2010 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2011
    “Between 2004 and 2010, the number of inmates held in Indian country jails increased by 21%, from 1,745 to 2,119.”
  • Iowa Prison Population Forecast FY2011-2021 [PDF]
    Iowa Department of Human Rights Division of Criminal and Juvenile Justice Planning, November, 2011
    “If current offender behaviors and justice system trends, policies, and practices continue, Iowa's prison population may be expected to increase from 8,787 inmates on June 30, 2011 to about 11,300 inmates on June 30, 2021 [29%].”
  • Report to Congress Mandatory Minimum Penalties in the Federal Criminal Justice System, [PDF]
    United States Sentencing Commission, October, 2011
    “[C]ertain mandatory minimum provisions apply too broadly, are set too high, or both, to warrant the prescribed minimum penalty for the full range of offenders who could be prosecuted under the particular criminal statute.”
  • Probation And Parole In The United States, 2010 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2011
    “The state parole population declined by 0.3% during 2010. The number of adults on supervised release in the federal system increased by 4.9%, which contributed to the increase in the U.S. parole population.”
  • Oregon Corrections Population Forecast (updated regularly) [PDF]
    State of Oregon Office of Economic Analysis, October, 2011
    “The number of inmates housed in Oregon's prisons, currently about 14,000, is expected grow to 16,000 inmates by the end of the decade, with much of that growth occurring over the next four years.”
  • Arrest In The United States, 1980-2009 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, September, 2011
    “The U.S. murder arrest rate in 2009 was about half of what it was in the early 1980s. Over the 30-year period ending in 2009, the adult arrest rate for murder fell 57%, while the juvenile arrest rate fell 44%.”
  • Smart Reform is Possible States Reducing Incarceration Rates and Costs While Protecting Communities, [PDF]
    ACLU, August, 2011
    “As states across the country are realizing that reducing prison populations and corrections budgets is a necessity, they can look to the examples in this report as ways to reform their criminal justice systems with promising results.”
  • Rethinking the State-Local Relationship [PDF]
    Public Policy Institute of California, August, 2011
    “The legislature has passed and Governor Jerry Brown has signed legislation (AB 109) to send roughly 30,000 prisoners to county jail rather than state prison.”
  • Misguided Measures The Outcomes and Impacts of Measure 11 on Oregon's Youth, [PDF]
    Partnership for Safety and Justice, July, 2011
    “Over the three-year period from 2006 to 2008, data from the 36 Oregon counties show no discernible pattern between the number of young people charged with a Measure 11 offense and the juvenile crime rate.”
  • Time Served The High Cost, Low Returns of Long Prison Terms, [PDF]
    Pew Center on the States, June, 2011
    “Nationally, the fastest period of growth in time served came between 1995 and 2000. In that period, length of stay rose 28 percent, compared with less than 5 percent in the five-year periods before and after.”
  • Creating the Roadmap for Reduction Reducing the Number of Women in Prison in Alabama, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, April, 2011
    “In the summer of 2009, Corrections and JPI staff recognized the opportunity to expedite the reclassification of currently-incarcerated women using the new classification module and the need to add capacity to identify women who can be safely released.”
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2009 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, February, 2011
    “Over the 12 months ending June 2009, the average daily jail population in Indian country increased by 12%, and the percentage of occupied bed space increased from 64.2% to 73.5%.”
  • The State of Sentencing 2010 Developments in Policy and Practice, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, February, 2011
    “During 2010, state legislatures in at least 23 states and the District of Columbia adopted 35 [...] policies that may contribute to reductions in the prison population and eliminate barriers to reentry while promoting effective approaches to public safety”
  • When More is Less How a Larger Women's Jail in Baltimore will Reduce Public Safety and Diminish Resources for Positive Social Investments, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, January, 2011
    “Given that research indicates that increased incarceration does not equal less crime—it actually is the opposite — the negative public safety, economic and community impacts of the planned expansion are not justifiable.”
  • Turning the Corner Opportunities for Effective Sentencing and Correctional Practices in Arizona, [PDF]
    Justice Strategies, January, 2011
    “Arizona policymakers can restore judicial discretion to sentence people to more effective, less costly correctional supervision and treatment options in lieu of prison in cases where such measures would clearly better serve both justice and public safety.”
  • Institution Length of Stay: January 2011, [PDF]
    Massachusetts Department of Corrections, January, 2011
    “This research brief provides an overview of the number of days that inmates spend at each facility—the average institution length of stay.”
  • Tough on Crime (on the State's Dime): How Violent Crime Does Not Drive California Counties' Incarceration Rates - And Why it Should, [PDF]
    Georgia State University Law Review, 2011
    “California's prison overcrowding is due in large part to county decisions about how to deal with crime. Counties use state prison resources at dramatically different rates, and the counties which use state prisons the most have below-average crime rates.”
  • Examination of Cook County Bond Court Report of the Justice Advisory Council, [PDF]
    Justice Advisory Council of the County of Cook, 2011
    “A cash bond for the release of over 66% of pretrial detainees, a full two-thirds, has been set by the Court at a bond hearing. However, the large majority of pretrial detainees, who procedurally have not been adjudicated guilty, are unable to post [bail].”
  • Correctional Populations In The United States, 2009 Bureau of Justice Statistics, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2010
    “The rate of decline in the jail population during 2009 was the highest rate of change observed among all four correctional populations, including the probation, parole, jail, and prison populations.”
  • Prisoners in 2009 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2010
    “The imprisonment rate—the number of sentenced prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents—declined for the second straight year, falling to 502 per 100,000 from 506 per 100,000 in 2007.”
  • Texas' School-to-Prison Pipeline Ticketing, Arrest & Use of Force in Schools, [PDF]
    Texas Appleseed, December, 2010
    “Where a child attends school, and not the nature of the offense, is the great determining factor in whether a student will be arrested at school.”
  • California Sentencing Institute
    Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, November, 2010
    “comprehensive analysis of sentencing policies and practices in all of California's 58 counties.”
    (Contains detailed county-level statistics)
  • Preventable Error A Report on Prosecutorial Misconduct in California 1997 - 2009, [PDF]
    Northern California Innocence Project, Santa Clara University School of Law, October, 2010
    “[This report] is the most comprehensive, up-to-date, quantitative and actionable study on the extent of prosecutorial misconduct in CA, how the justice system identifies and addresses it, and its cost and consequences, including [wrongful convictions].”
  • Incarceration and Social Inequality [PDF]
    Bruce Western & Becky Pettit, August, 2010
    “The social inequality produced by mass incarceration is sizable and enduring for three reasons: it is invisible, it is cumulative, and it is intergenerational.”
  • Prison Inmates at Midyear 2009 Statistical Tables [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2010
    “Of the 16 states reporting decreases, California (down 3,644), Texas (down 2,347), and Michigan (down 1,554) reported the largest decreases.”
  • Jail Inmates at Midyear 2009 Statistical Tables [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2010
    “During the 12 months ending June 30, 2009, the number of male (-1.7%), female (-6.0%), and adult (-2.2%) inmates declined.”
  • Prisoners at Yearend 2009-Advance Counts [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2010
    “At yearend 2009, state and federal correctional authorities had jurisdiction over 1,613,656 prisoners, an increase of 0.2% (3,897 prisoners) from yearend 2008.”
  • Baltimore Behind Bars How to Reduce the Jail Population, Save Money, and Improve Public Safety, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, June, 2010
    “9 out of 10 people in the [Baltimore] jail are awaiting trial, compared to about 2 out of 3 in the rest of the country. [Reducing] the number of people held pretrial in a safe and effective way can greatly reduce the jail population & associated costs.”
  • Prison Count 2010 State Population Declines for the First Time in 38 Years, [PDF]
    Pew Center on the States, April, 2010
    “[A]s of January 1, 2010, there were 1,404,053 persons under the jurisdiction of state prison authorities, 4,777 (0.3 percent) fewer than there were on December 31, 2008. This marks the first year-to-year drop in the state prison population since 1972.”
  • It's about time Aging Prisoners, Increasing Costs, and Geriatric Release, [PDF]
    Vera Institute of Justice, April, 2010
    “Given that many state policymakers have expressed an intention to permit the release of elderly inmates who are not a threat to public safety, it is remarkable that geriatric release policies have had little impact.”
  • The State of Sentencing 2009 Developments in Policy and Practice, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, January, 2010
    “During 2009 state legislatures in at least 19 states enacted policies that hold the potential to reduce prison populations and/or promote more effective approaches to public safety.”
  • Integration Debate Two Tiered Justice, [PDF]
    Marc Mauer, Sentencing Project, January, 2010
    “[I]n the most profound betrayal of the promise of integration and opportunity, the United States has created a world-record prison population, fueled by policies that have exposed substantial portions of African Americans to the.. criminal justice system.”
  • Life Without Parole A Reconsideration, [PDF]
    Criminal Justice Policy Coalition and the Norfolk Lifers Group, 2010
    “Everyone serving a Life Without Parole sentence in MA, after 25 years should be afforded an opportunity to demonstrate both a rehabilitated character and a low public safety risk through access to a parole hearing and, where appropriate, parole.”
  • Prisoners in 2008 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2009
    “These are the only comprehensive national-level data on prison admissions and releases.”
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2009
    “The report examines… changes in the probation and parole populations, such as the number of entries and exits, the rate at which probationers and parolees exit supervision, changes in the populations within jurisdictions, and compositional changes.”
  • Fact Sheet DOJ Report on Prisoners 2008, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, December, 2009
    (The report shows that although the growth in imprisonment is down, the number of people in prison is still increasing, up more than 12,000 people from last year. This number continues to grow even as crime goes down.)
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2008 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2009
    “The report includes data on the number of adults and juveniles held, type of offense, number of persons confined on the last weekday of each month, average daily population, peak population, and admissions in June 2008.”
  • Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, October, 2009
    ([An] overview of the factors that contribute to racial disparity in the justice system, and recommend[ed] changes in policy and practice that could reduce these disparities without compromising public safety.)
  • Fact Sheet Response to 2008 FBI Uniform Crime Report, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, September, 2009
    (The 2008 FBI Uniform Crime Report shows that during 2008, at a time in which prison and jail growth rates dropped, the United States experienced a 1.9 percent decline in violent crimes and a 0.8 percent decline in property crimes reported.)
  • Denying parole at first eligibility How much public safety does it actually buy?, [PDF]
    Citizens Alliance on Prisons and Public Spending, August, 2009
    “Substantially increasing the rate of parole on the earliest release date would reduce the prisoner population without threatening public safety.”
  • No Exit: The Expanding Use of Life Sentences in America
    Sentencing Project, July, 2009
    “A record 140,610 individuals are now serving life sentences in state and federal prisons, 6,807 of whom were juveniles at the time of the crime.”
  • Pruning Prisons How Cutting Corrections Can Save Money and Protect Public Safety, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, May, 2009
    (The United States spends spend billions to incarcerate people in prisons and jails with little impact on public safety, but redirecting funds to community-based alternatives will decrease prison populations, save money, and preserve public safety.)
  • Parental Imprisonment, the Prison Boom, and the Concentration of Childhood Disadvantage, [PDF]
    Christopher Wildeman, May, 2009
    “Parental imprisonment has emerged as a novel—and distinctively American—childhood risk that is concentrated among black children and children of low-education parents.”
  • Fact Sheet on FY2010 Department of Justice Budget [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, May, 2009
    (The Factsheet on 2010 Department of Justice Budget finds that the 2010 DOJ budget directs more money to law enforcement than prevention with the likely long-term outcome being increased arrests, incarceration, and money spent on corrections.)
  • Jailing Communities The Impact of Jail Expansion and Effective Public Safety Strategies, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, April, 2009
    “In 2006, prison population growth was half what it was in 1996, but in recent years, jail population growth has exceeded that of prisons.”
  • Bearing Witness Baltimore City's Residents Give Voice to What's Needed to Fix the Criminal Justice System, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, April, 2009
    (Bearing Witness captures the perspectives of the people of Baltimore City impacted by the criminal justice system and their suggestions for alternatives to addressing social problems.)
  • The Changing Racial Dynamics of the War on Drugs [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, April, 2009
    “Reports a sharp decline in black incarceration for drug offenses for the first time in 25 years.”
  • One in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections, [PDF]
    The Pew Center on the States, March, 2009
    “For eight geographically diverse states [...] 88% of the increase in corrections spending was directed towards prisons, which now consume nearly nine out of every ten state corrections dollars.”
  • The Release Valve: Parole in Maryland, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, March, 2009
    “[I]n 2007 [Maryland] spent approximately $1,422 per person on parole or probation, and $33,310 per person incarcerated.”
  • Judging Maryland Baltimore Judges on Effective Solutions to Working with Substance Abusers in the Criminal Justice System, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, March, 2009
    “Judges recommend an increase in or expansion of residential care facilities and a more holistic approach to helping substance abusers caught up in the criminal justice system.”
  • Justice Re-investment in New Orleans [PDF]
    Spatial Information Design Lab, February, 2009
    “By 2007, the citywide incarceration rate was at 57 percent of its 2003 level, while the overall population was estimated at 71 percent of its pre-Katrina figure.”
  • Prisoners in 2007 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2008
    “At yearend 2007, federal and state prisons and local jails held just under 2.3 million inmates (2,293,157). The number of inmates incarcerated in prison or jail increased by 1.5% during the year.”
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2007 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2008
    “Eighty-three jails in Indian country held an estimated 2,163 inmates at midyear 2007, up from 1,745 inmates held in 68 facilities at midyear 2004.”
  • Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 2005 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2008
    “The number of prisoners held in custody in state and federal correctional facilities increased 10% from 1,305,253 in 2000 to 1,430,208 in 2005.”
  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2005 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, September, 2008
    “In 2005, immigration (27%) was the most prevalent arrest offense followed by drug (24%) and supervision violations (17%).”
  • Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2008
    “Parents held in the nation's prisons—52% of state inmates and 63% of federal inmates—reported having an estimated 1,706,600 minor children, accounting for 2.3% of the U.S. resident population under age 18.”
  • Do More Prisoners Equal Less Crime? A Response to George Will
    Sentencing Project, June, 2008
    “Will's selective use of data and limited vision provide an inaccurate portrayal of current criminal justice policy and its effects. [This piece] is an assessment of some of the key arguments raised in the column.”
  • Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2008
    “The total rated capacity of local jails at midyear 2007 reached 813,502 beds, up from an estimated 677,787 beds at midyear 2000.”
  • Growth in Michigan's Corrections System: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, [PDF]
    Citizen's Research Counsel of Michigan, June, 2008
    “Michigan's prison population growth is the product of a combination of several different factors including: increases in felony dispositions, swelling prison commitments, higher recidivism rates, and an increased average prisoner length of stay.”
  • Prison Inmates at Midyear 2007 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2008
    “Between January and June 2007, the prison population increased by 1.6% (or 24,919 prisoners), compared to a 2% increase during the first six months of 2006.”
  • One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008, [PDF]
    The Pew Center on the States, February, 2008
    “[F]or the first time in history, more than one in every 100 adults in America are in jail or prison-a fact that significantly impacts state budgets without delivering a clear return on public safety.”
  • The State of Sentencing 2007: Developments in Policy and Practice,
    The Sentencing Project, January, 2008
    “Confronted with the high cost of continued prison growth, policymakers in 18 states took steps during 2007 to review the effectiveness of their criminal justice systems or institute reforms to limit recidivism and sentence lengths...”
  • Prisoners in 2006 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2007
    “During 2006 the number of women in prison increased by 4.5%, reaching 112,498 prisoners.”
  • Housing and Public Safety
    Justice Policy Institute, November, 2007
    “For populations who are the most at-risk for criminal justice system involvement, supportive or affordable housing has been shown to be a cost effective public investment.”
  • Unlocking America: Why and How to Reduce America's Prison Population, [PDF]
    JFA Institute, November, 2007
    “Not only are our lengths of imprisonment significantly longer than they were in earlier periods in our penal history, but they are considerably longer than in most Western nations.”
  • Justice, Where Art Thou? A Framework for the Future,
    Council on Crime and Justice, October, 2007
    (This report analysies past and current incarceration trends in Minnesotra and makes projection through the year 2030.)
  • Felony Sentences in State Courts, 2004 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2007
    “Between 1994 and 2004, the number of felony convictions in State courts increased 24%.”
  • Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2007
    “For the 12 months ending June 30, 2006, State systems reported a larger increase than the Federal system in the number of inmates housed in private prisons.”
  • DTAP (Drug Treatment Alternative-to-Prison) Sixteenth Annual Report [PDF]
    Kings County (Brooklyn) District Attorney, April, 2007
    “In its sixteenth year of operation, DTAP continued to maintain high treatment retention and low recidivism rates and to produce enormous cost savings.”
  • Changing Direction? State Sentencing Reforms 2004-2006, [PDF]
    The Sentencing Project, March, 2007
    “The report... identifies that the most popular approach for reducing prison crowding -- implemented by 13 states -- was the diversion of low-level drug offenders from prison to drug treatment programs.”
  • Public Safety, Public Spending: Forecasting America's Prison Population 2007-2011, [PDF]
    Public Safety Performance Project of The Pew Charitable Trusts, February, 2007
    “This report provides forecasts for prison populations and incarceration rates for all 50 states.”
  • The Myth of Immigrant Criminality and the Paradox of Assimilation: Incarceration Rates among Native and Foreign-Born Men, [PDF]
    American Immigration Law Foundation, February, 2007
    “[F]or every ethnic group without exception, incarceration rates among young men are lowest for immigrants, even those who are the least educated.”
  • World Prison Population List (Eighth Edition), [PDF]
    Roy Walmsley, International Centre for Prison Studies, King's College London, February, 2007
    “Over 9.8 million people are incarcerated, with over 30% held in the Unites States.”
  • Addressing Key Criminal Justice Issues in the 21st Century [PDF]
    Correctional Association of New York, February, 2007
    “This special report presents some of our top reform proposals for the state's new administration to consider and the benefits they will provide for people caught up in the criminal justice system and for society as a whole.”
  • Solving California's Corrections Crisis: Time is Running Out, [PDF]
    Little Hoover Commission, January, 2007
    “California's correctional system is in a tailspin that threatens public safety and raises the risk of fiscal disaster.”
    (An overview of the current state of the California corrections system, with recommendations.)
  • Reconsidering Incarceration: New Directions for Reducing Crime, [PDF]
    Vera Institute of Justice, January, 2007
    “An increase in the number of police per capita, a reduction in unemployment, and increases in real wage rates and education have all been shown to be associated with lower rates of crime.”
  • The Criminal Justice System in Washington State: Incarceration Rates, Taxpayer Costs, Crime Rates, and Prison Economics,
    Washington State Institute for Public Policy, 2007
    (In Washington state increasing the rate of incarceration reduces crime rates, however because of diminishing returns, the proportional decrease in crime is much lower now than it was in the 1980's.)
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2005 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2006
    “In 2005 the Nation's parole population grew 1.6%. This was an increase of 12,556 parolees during the year.”
  • Prisoners in 2005 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2006
    “State prisons were operating between 1% below and 14% above capacity; Federal prisons were operating at 34% above capacity.”
  • Evidence-Based Public Policy Options to Reduce Future Prison Construction, Criminal Justice Costs, and Crime Rates,
    Washington State Institute for Public Policy, October, 2006
    “We find that some evidence-based programs can reduce crime, but others cannot. Per dollar of spending, several of the successful programs produce favorable returns on investment.”
  • 2006 Crime and Justice Index [PDF]
    Chicago Metropolis 2020, October, 2006
    “This Index presents data on crime trends and justice patterns in the region over time. It also explores specific policy issues and some promising practices intended to address seemingly intractable problems in the criminal justice systems.”
  • Estimated Prevalence of Felons Among the Oklahoma Adult Population [PDF]
    Oklahoma Criminal Justice Resource Center, September, 2006
    “Nearly one in seven adult males and one in every 30 adult females in Oklahoma have either been to prison or supervised on probation.”
  • When A Historical Analysis of Life Sentences Imposed in Michigan Since 1900, [PDF]
    Citizens Alliance on Prisons & Public Spending, September, 2006
    “The historical record makes it indisputably clear that a life sentence in Michigan did not always mean”
  • Who's in Prison? The Changing Demographics of Incarceration, [PDF]
    Public Policy Institute of California, August, 2006
    “Forty-four percent of California prisoners do not have a high school diploma or GED; the comparable number for the general California adult population is 21 percent.”
  • Task Force on California Prison Crowding [PDF]
    National Council on Crime and Delinquency, August, 2006
    “Essential services, procedures, and structures designed to reduce recidivism, break the intergenerational cycle of violence, and save taxpayer dollars for more positive expenditures will reduc[e] crime in our communities and enhanc[e] public safety.”
  • Profile of Inmates Under Custody on January 1, 2006
    State of New York Department of Corrections and Community Supervision., June, 2006
  • Recent Trends in New Hampshire's Prison Population [PDF]
    New Hampshire Center for Public Policy Studies, June, 2006
    “Parole revocation is the main factor driving prison admissions, and most revocations are not due to new crimes. In 2002... 66 percent were for technical violations.”
  • Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2005 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2006
  • Strengthening Criminal Justice System Practices in Chemung County, NY [PDF]
    Center for Governmental Research, Inc., May, 2006
    “[A]bout 125 defendants a year are released from jail after 45 days due to lack of timely prosecution. If the jail time for these individuals could be cut in half, almost 8 fewer persons would need to be housed in jail every night.”
  • Alabama Sentencing Commission 2006 Report [PDF]
    Alabama Sentencing Commission, January, 2006
    “Of Alabama's inmate population, almost 1 out of 3 inmates are sentenced as an habitual offender.”
  • Reducing Racial Disparity While Enhancing Public Safety: Key Findings and Recommendations, [PDF]
    Council on Crime and Justice, 2006
    “The racial disparity in Minnesota's justice system is exceptionally high compared to other states. From arrest to imprisonment, the disparity is over twice the national average.”
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2004 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2005
  • Hennepin County Disproportionate Minority Contact Study Examining Extended Jurisdiction Juvenile and Adult Certification Cases, [PDF]
    Council on Crime and Justice, October, 2005
    “[R]ace was not significant when considering the disposition of Extended Jurisdiction Juvenile or Adult Certification motioning. Instead, weapons and firearms appear to be the most influential factor in both motioning and dispositions.”
  • Prisoners in 2004 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2005
  • A Primer: Three Strikes - The Impact After More Than a Decade, [PDF]
    Legislative Analyst's Office (LAO) - California's Nonpartisan Fiscal and Policy Advisor, October, 2005
  • Searching for Justice: American Indian Perspectives on Disparities in Minnesota's Criminal Justice System, [PDF]
    Council on Crime and Justice, August, 2005
    “This report indicates that in one county, while American Indians make up only 11.5% of the population, they account for over 50% of the arrest rates.”
  • Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2004 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2005
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2003 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2005
  • Profile of Inmates Under Custody on January 1, 2005 [PDF]
    New York Department of Correctional Services, April, 2005
  • Tipping Point: Maryland's Overuse of incarceration and the impact on Public Safety,
    Justice Policy Institute, March, 2005
  • California Corrections at the Crossroads [PDF]
    National Council on Crime and Delinquency, March, 2005
    “California was once a leader in innovative corrections legislation and programming. However... the last twenty years... have left California with a huge and dysfunctional criminal justice system in woeful need of reform.”
  • Adult and Juvenile Correctional Population Projections Fiscal Years 2005-2010, [PDF]
    Texas Legislative Budget Board, January, 2005
    (Texas prison population projections: the adult prison population is projected to increase, while probation population decreases, in juvenile populations both groups projected to grow.)
  • Race and Incarceration in Delaware: A Preliminary Consideration, [PDF]
    Thomas P. Eichler, Published by Delaware Center for Justice and Metropolitan Wilmington Urban League, 2005
    “Delaware's criminal justice system treats Blacks differently and far less favorably than similarly situated Whites. The data shows that the racial disparities in the criminal justice system are increasing.”
  • Felony Sentences in State Courts, 2002 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2004
  • Prisoners in 2003 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2004
  • Difficult times in Kentucky corrections: Aftershocks of a "tough on crime" philosophy, [PDF]
    Robert G. Lawson, November, 2004
  • Racial Divide: California's 3 Strikes Law,
    Justice Policy Institute, October, 2004
  • 3 Strikes & You're Out: An examination of 3-Strike Laws 10 years after their Enactment,
    Justice Policy Institute, September, 2004
  • No way out Michigan's parole board redefines the meaning of, [PDF]
    Citizens Alliance on Prisons & Public Spending, September, 2004
    (When judges imposed a life sentence, they assumed that the prisoner would be parolled in 10-15 years, but in the 1990's the parol board started denying parol, in effect changing the sentence, contributing to overcrowding and increasing costs of prisons.)
  • Swing States: Crime, Prisons and the Future of the Nation,
    Justice Policy Institute, August, 2004
  • Profile of Jail Inmates, 2002 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2004
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2003 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2004
  • ABA Justice Kennedy Commission Recommendations [PDF]
    American Bar Association, June, 2004
  • Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2003 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2004
  • The Meaning of "Life" Long Prison Sentences in Context,
    Sentencing Project, May, 2004
  • Virginia Criminal Sentencing Commission Annual Report 2003, [PDF]
    Virginia Criminal Sentencing Commission, March, 2004
    (An increasing number of people on probation or parole who have not committed new crimes are being sent to prison for breaking their release conditions)
  • Still Striking Out: Ten Years of California's Three Strikes, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, March, 2004
  • Building Bridges: From Conviction to Employment - One Year Later [PDF]
    Council of State Governments, February, 2004
    (contains detailed maps of high incarceration areas in Hartford and New Haven Connecticut)
  • Pennsylvania Parole and Life Imprisonment, [PDF]
    Jon E. Yount, February, 2004
    ([This report] provides an overview of the evolution of parole in Pennsylvania and how this "penological measure" has or has not been applied to terms of life imprisonment.)
  • Options for Policymakers Considering a Justice Reinvestment Initiative in Louisiana, [PDF]
    Council of State Governments, January, 2004
  • The high cost of denying parole: an analysis of prisoners eligible for release, [PDF]
    Citizens Alliance on Prisons & Public Spending, November, 2003
    “Although other important factors exist, the single biggest reason for prison growth has been changed parole practices. Far more people who have served their minimum sentences and are, by law, eligible for release, are being denied parole.”
  • Positive Trends in State-Level Sentencing and Corrections Policy [PDF]
    Families Against Mandatory Minimums, November, 2003
    “Texas policymakers introduced parole reforms in 2000. The parole board's approval rate for non-violent offenders rose, parole revocations fell sharply, and prison populations dropped by 7,698 from September 2000 to December 2001.”
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2002 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2003
  • Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 2000 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2003
  • Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1974-2001, [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2003
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2002 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2003
  • Prisoners in 2002 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2003
  • New Prison Statistics: Nation's Use of Incarceration On the Rise Again, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, July, 2003
  • Profile of Inmates Under Custody on January 1, 2003 [PDF]
    New York Department of Correctional Services, May, 2003
  • U.S. Prison Populations Trends and Implications, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, May, 2003
  • Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2002 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2003
  • Texas Tough: 3 Years Later, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, April, 2003
    “After a three-year-decline in the prison population, Texas? prison population may once again be on the rise”
  • Deep Impact: Quantifying the Effect of Prison Expansion in the South, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, April, 2003
  • The population of women in prison increases rapidly [PDF]
    Women's Prison Association, March, 2003
  • Building Bridges: From Conviction to Employment A Proposal to Reinvest Corrections Savings in an Employment Initiative, [PDF]
    Council of State Governments, January, 2003
  • Profile of Inmates Under Custody on January 1, 2002 [PDF]
    New York Department of Correctional Services, January, 2003
  • Education and Correctional Populations [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, January, 2003
    “compares educational attainment of correctional populations to the general population”
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2001 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2002
    (See Trends in State Parole 1990-2000 for more detail and explanations about this potentially misleading report)
  • Prisoners in 2001 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2002
    “State prison population drops in second half of 2001-Federal inmate growth continues”
  • Analysis of recent Justice Department report: Prisoners in 2001, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, July, 2002
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2001 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2002
    “At midyear 2001, jails in Indian country supervised 2,030 persons”
  • Analysis of new Justice Department report, Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2001, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, April, 2002
  • Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2001 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2002
  • New Justice Department Study: As Some State Prison Populations Decline, Federal Prison Population Grows,
    Justice Policy Institute, April, 2002
    “While Some State Prison Populations Decline, Federal Lock-up Boom Continues As States Find Alternatives for Nonviolent and Drug Offenders, Federal Imprisonment of Non-Citizens and Drug Offenders Grows”
  • The Influences of Truth-in-Sentencing Reforms on Changes in States' Sentencing Practices and Prison Population,
    Urban Institute, April, 2002
  • Criminal Justice and Health and Human Services: An Exploration of Overlapping Needs, Resources, and Interests in Brooklyn Neighborhoods, [PDF]
    Urban Institute, January, 2002
    (by Eric Cadora)
  • African American Males in the Criminal Justice System [PDF]
    Council on Crime and Justice, 2002
    “In 2000, 37.2% of the state's prisoners were African American. By comparison only 3.5% of the population of Minnesota was African American.”
  • Felony Sentences in State Courts, 1998 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2001
    “In 1998 federal and state courts convicted 978,211 adults of a felony.”
  • A Tale of Two Jurisdictions: Youth Crime and Detention Rates in Maryland & the District of Columbia, [PDF]
    Building Blocks for Youth, October, 2001
  • Census of Jails 1999 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, September, 2001
    “At midyear 1999 the Nation's jails held 605,943 inmates, up 32% since the last census in 1993.”
  • Prisoner Statistics, 2000 England and Wales [PDF]
    Home office, August, 2001
  • Nations' Incarcerated Population Went Up, Not Down, in 1999-2000
    Justice Policy Institute, August, 2001
  • Prisoners in 2000 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2001
  • New prison population figures show slowing of growth but uncertain trends [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, August, 2001
  • Aging Behind Bars: Three Strikes, Seven Years Later, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, August, 2001
  • U.S. continues to be world leader in rate of incarceration [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, August, 2001
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2000 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2001
    “National correctional population reaches new high -- Grows by 117,400 during 2000 to total 6.5 million adults”
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2000 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2001
  • Analysis of BJS June 30, 2000 statistics [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, March, 2001
  • Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2000 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2001
  • Too Little Too Late: President Clinton's Prison Legacy, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, February, 2001
  • The Expanding Federal Prison Population [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, 2001
  • Responsibility, Rehabilitation, and Restoration: A Catholic Perspective on Crime and Criminal Justice, [PDF]
    Catholic Bishops of the United States, November, 2000
  • Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2000
  • Diminishing Returns: Crime and Incarceration in the 1990s, [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, September, 2000
  • State and Federal Prisoners: Profiles of Inmate Characteristics in 1991 and 1997, [PDF]
    General Accounting Office, May, 2000
  • The Punishing Decade: Prison and Jail Estimates at the Millennium, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, May, 2000
  • Veterans in Prison and Jail [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, January, 2000
    “Male military veterans are incarcerated at less than half the rate of non-veterans”
  • Do Drug Courts Save Jail and Prison Beds? [PDF]
    Vera Institute of Justice, 2000
  • Shattering "Broken Windows": An Analysis of San Francisco's Alternative Crime Policies, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, October, 1999
  • Felony Sentences in the United States, 1996 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 1999
  • Time Served in Prison by Federal Offenders, 1986-97 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 1999
    “Describes changes in sentences imposed and time served brought about by the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984”
  • Prior Abuse Reported by Inmates and Probationers [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 1999
  • Striking Out: The Failure of California's, [PDF]
    Justice Policy Institute, March, 1999
  • America's One Million Nonviolent Prisoners
    Justice Policy Institute, March, 1999
  • Truth in Sentencing in State Prisons [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, January, 1999
    “State sentencing law changes linked to increasing time served in State prisons”
  • Crime and Justice Atlas 1999 Update [PDF]
    United States Department of Justice, 1999
    “Between 1992 and 1997, 35 states, along with the District of Columbia, experienced decreased rates of serious violent crime.”
  • Crime and Justice Atlas 1999 Update, [PDF]
    U.S. Department of Justice, 1999
    “Since 1980, the numbers of prisoners, new court commitments, and releases from state prisons have risen by a yearly average of 8.1 %, 5.5%, and 7.9%, respectively.”
  • Federal Offenders under Community Supervision, 1987-96 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 1998
  • Crime and Justice Atlas [PDF]
    U.S. Department of Justice, June, 1998
    “The latest rapid increases for both violent crime and violent crime arrest rates occurred during the period 1987-1991. The latest data show violent crime has begun to decline steadily, falling 16% since 1991.”
  • Profile of Jail Inmates, 1996 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 1998
  • Three strikes: 5 years later [PDF]
    Sentencing Project, 1998
  • Characteristics of Adults on Probation, 1995 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 1997
  • Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 1995 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 1997
  • Did Getting Tough on Crime Pay?
    Urban Institute, August, 1997
  • Prisoners in 1996 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 1997
    “On December 31, 1996, State prisons were operating at between 16% and 24% above capacity, while Federal prisoners were operating at 25% over capacity.”
  • Lifetime Likelihood of Going to State or Federal Prison [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 1997
  • Criminal Justice in Massachusetts: Putting Crime Control First, [PDF]
    BOTEC Analysis Corporation of Cambridge, October, 1996
    “Opportunities to reduce crime are systematically neglected, as policy making is dominated by the need to appease the public's justifiable fear and anger and by a wide variety of organizational and professional interests and ideological postures.”
  • Noncitizens in the Federal Criminal Justice System, 1984-94 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 1996
  • Prison and Jail Inmates, 1995 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 1996
  • Prisoners at Midyear 1995 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 1995
  • Probation and Parole Violators in State Prison, 1991 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 1995
  • Jails and Jail Inmates, 1993-94 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 1995
  • Prison Sentences and Time Served for Violence [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 1995
  • Continuing Crime of Black Imprisonment
    Committee to End the Marion Lockdown, 1995
  • Profile of Inmate Population Under Custody on January 1, 1995 (New York) [PDF]
    State of New York Department of Correctional Services, 1995
  • Three Strikes and You're Out: Estimated Benefits and Costs of California's New Mandatory-Sentencing Law,
    RAND Foundation, 1994
  • Survey of State Prison Inmates, 1991 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 1993
  • Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 1991
    “The recorded number of black prisoners In 1986 was nearly 9 times larger than the number recorded In 1926 (80,814 In 1986 versus 9,292 in 1926). The recorded number of white prisoners was 3 times larger (100,874 in 1986 versus 33,626 In 1926)...”
  • State and Federal Prisoners, 1925-85 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 1986
    “At the end of 1985 the incarceration rate was 201 per 100,000, the highest ever recorded.”
  • Prisoners 1925-81 [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 1982
    “The average annual growth rate for the prison population during 1925-81 was 2.4 percent; for the residential population of the United States it was 1.2 percent.”
  • Prisons and Prisoners [PDF]
    Bureau of Justice Statistics, January, 1982
    “State prison populations have risen 18% since the 1979 study was conducted without a commensurate increase in prison space. Consequently, space shortages in State prisons are considerably more acute than the 1979 data indicate.”

Pages Updated On: 31-Oct-2014 - 08:57:11
Links Engine 2.0 By: Gossamer Threads Inc.

Meet us

Nothing scheduled right now. Invite us to to your city, college or organization or apply for an internship.

Newsletters:

Get the latest updates by signing up for our newsletters:


Tweet this page Follow @PrisonPolicy on Twitter Donate Contact Us