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State prisons and local jails appear indifferent to COVID outbreaks, refuse to depopulate dangerous facilities

While some prison systems and local jails have maintained historically low populations, others have returned to pre-pandemic levels, despite the ongoing dangers of COVID-19 and new, more transmissible variants.

by Emily Widra, February 10, 2022

The COVID-19 pandemic is far from over, particularly inside prisons and jails. The death rate from COVID-19 in prisons is more than double that of the general U.S. population.1 As cases and hospitalizations climb outside prison walls, there is no doubt that cases are spiking in jails and prisons across the country. In state and federal prisons, over 2,900 people have died of COVID-19, almost 476,000 people have been infected, and thousands of additional cases are linked to individual county jails. Even now, when more than 75% of people in the U.S. have received at least one dose of the vaccine, correctional staff are hesitant to get vaccinated or receive boosters, and prison systems are slow to roll out boosters to incarcerated people.2 As the more contagious Omicron variant ravages parts of the nation and renders hospitals completely overrun, nearly three quarters of prisons3 are experiencing COVID-19 outbreaks; public health officials continue to recommend reducing prison populations as a primary method of risk reduction. In fact, in October 2021, the American Public Health Association4 adopted a policy in support of decarceration as a public health matter and new research shows the detrimental effect of COVID-19 on all-cause mortality in state prisons. Despite the clear need for smaller confined populations, the data show that with just a few exceptions, state and local authorities are allowing their prison and jail populations to return to dangerous, pre-pandemic levels.

The federal Bureau of Prisons, state governments and departments of corrections, and local justice system officials have a responsibility to protect the health and lives of those who are incarcerated. After almost two years of outbreak after outbreak in prisons and jails, correctional authorities must be held accountable for their repeated failure to reduce populations enough to prevent the illness and death of those who are incarcerated and in surrounding communities.

Prisons

Even in states where prison populations have dropped, there are still too many people behind bars to accommodate social distancing, effective isolation and quarantine, and the increased health care needs of incarcerated people. For example, although California has reduced the state prison population by about 18% since the start of the pandemic, it has not been enough to prevent large COVID-19 outbreaks in the state’s prisons, and the prison system has witnessed a 300% increase in infections among incarcerated people over the past few weeks and a 212% increase in cases among staff. In fact, as of December 15th, 2021, California’s prisons were still holding more people than they were designed for, at 113% of their design capacity (and up from 103% in January 2021). Considering the continued overcrowding in the California prison system, it’s not surprising that the state is responsible for eight out of the ten largest COVID-19 prison clusters.

Map showing graphs for all 50 states prison population change from January 2020 to December 2021 Figure 1. Prison population data for 50 state prison systems as reported directly from the state Departments of Correction and the Marshall Project and federal data as published weekly by the federal Bureau of Prisons. For the available population data for these 50 states and the Bureau of Prisons, see Appendix A.

Many states’ prison populations are the lowest they’ve been in decades, but this is not because more people are being released from prisons; in fact, fewer people are. Data from 2020, recently released by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, shows that prisons nationwide released 10% fewer people in 2020 than in 2019. Instead, data suggest most of the population drops we’ve seen over the past 20 months are due to reduced prison admissions, not increasing releases. In the states for which we have recent data, both admissions and releases have decreased in recent years, making clear that prisons are not using all available tools at their disposal to stop the spread of the virus in their facilities. The significant drop in admissions to prisons was largely an unintended consequence of court delays and suspension of transfers from local jails early in the pandemic, rather than any dedicated decarceration efforts. Finding ways to continue reducing the number of people admitted to correctional facilities is critical to lowering the number of people behind bars, but to quickly decarcerate, states should release far more people, too.

Line graphs showing admissions and releases for twelve states from 2018 through 2021 Figure 2. These twelve states publish monthly release and admission data for 2018, 2019, 2020, and most of 2021. These data show us a pattern of responses to the COVID-19 pandemic: reducing prison admissions, while releasing fewer people from prison.

Despite evidence that large-scale releases — which have been used periodically in states across the U.S. — do not inherently endanger public safety, most states have elected to release people from prison on a mostly case-by-case basis, which an October 2020 report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine charitably described as “procedurally slow and not well suited to crisis situations.” In short, this choice ignores the crisis of COVID-19.

line graph comparing change in prison population change in New Jersey to national average

Thankfully, some states have recognized the inefficiency of case-by-case releases and the necessity of larger-scale releases. For example, in New Jersey, Governor Phil Murphy signed bill S2519 in October 2020, which allowed for the early release of people with less than a year left on their sentences. A few weeks after the bill was signed, more than 2,000 people were released from New Jersey state prisons on November 4th, 2020.5 In February 2021, North Carolina Governor Roy Cooper announced a legal settlement had been reached to release 3,500 people in state custody (with 1,500 of those releases to take place within 90 days). The releases were the result of a NAACP lawsuit challenging prison conditions in North Carolina during COVID-19. The state said it would release people using discretionary sentence credits (similar to “good time credits”), home confinement, and post-release supervision. But these instances of larger-scale release efforts taking place in state prison systems are the exception, not the rule.

Jails

Jail populations, like prison populations, are lower now than they were pre-pandemic. Initially, many local officials — including sheriffs, prosecutors, and judges — responded quickly to COVID-19 and reduced their jail populations. In a national sample of 415 county jails of varying sizes, almost all (98%) decreased their populations from March to May of 2020, resulting in an average change of a 33% population decrease across all 415 jails at the start of COVID-19. These population reductions came as the result of various policy changes, including police issuing citations in lieu of arrests, prosecutors declining to charge people for “low-level offenses,” courts reducing cash bail amounts, and jail administrators releasing people detained pretrial or those serving short sentences for “nonviolent” offenses.

But those early-pandemic, common-sense policy changes didn’t last long. Between May 2020 and February 2021, the populations of 83% of the jails in our sample increased, reversing course from the earlier months of the pandemic. As of December 2021, 28% of the jails in our sample have higher populations now than they did in March 2020.6 Overall, the average population change across these 415 jails from March 2020 to December 2021 has diminished to only a 10% decrease, while the average population change from July 2021 to December 2021 has dropped to 0%, suggesting that the early reforms instituted to mitigate COVID-19 have largely been abandoned.

For example, by mid-April 2020, the Philadelphia city jail population reportedly dropped by more than 17% after city police suspended low-level arrests and judges released “certain nonviolent detainees” jailed for “low-level charges.” But just two weeks later — as the pandemic raged on — the Philadelphia police force announced that they would resume arrests for property crimes, effectively reversing the earlier reduction efforts. Similarly, on July 10th, 2020, the sheriff of Jefferson County (Birmingham), Alabama, announced that the jail would limit admissions to only “violent felons that cannot make bond.” That effort was quickly abandoned when the jail resumed normal admission operations just one week later. The increasing jail populations across the country suggest that after the first wave of responses to COVID-19, many local officials have allowed jail admissions to return to business as usual.

Line graph of population change from March 2020 to December 2021 across 415 county jails Figure 3. Jails across the country initially responded to COVID-19 by reducing the number of people detained, but that trend reversed direction in May 2020, only two months after the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. Since May 2020, the data show a trend of jail populations slowly increasing. This graph contains aggregated data collected and provided by NYU’s Public Safety Lab and updates a graph in our October 2021 analysis. It includes all jails where the Lab was able to report data on March 10th and for at least 75% of the days in our research period, which ended December 31, 2021. (Data are not available for all facilities for all days, and the Lab interpolated missing data to fill those gaps.) This graph presents the data as 7-day rolling averages, which smooths out most of the variations caused by individual facilities not reporting population data on particular days. To see county level data for all 415 jails included in this analysis, see Appendix B.

In New York City, the jail population sharply declined after the pandemic was declared. Importantly, NYC jails – particularly Rikers Island – were some of the first jails in the country to witness a COVID-19 outbreak. And yet, across different demographics, NYC jail populations have slowly leveled out, suggesting that the policies responsible for the necessary decarceration are no longer in practice. In addition to suffering the effects of COVID-19, Rikers Island is also facing an unprecedented crisis following a history of over-incarceration and, according to a federal monitor, “decades of mismanagement.” At a time when jail populations should be at an all-time low, Rikers Island’s confined population surpassed the pre-COVID-19 population in July 2021. The population only dropped back down below the pre-pandemic level at the end of September 2021, when Gov. Hochul signed the Less is More Act, which reduced the number jailed for technical violations of supervision.

Line graph showing percent change in daily count of NYC jail population from January 2020 to December 2021. Figure 4. Graph showing the daily count of the NYC jail population by 5 key metrics. By all metrics, the NYC jail population dropped quickly at the start of the pandemic, but then started to rise again. On July 29, 2021 the total NYC jail population was higher than before the pandemic. Critically, the number of people detained pretrial has actually grown — from 4,284 on January 1, 2020 to 4,881 people on December 31, 2021 (with a peak of 5,768 in early July 2021) — likely because of the rollback of significant bail reform efforts last year. The population drops in September 2021 are encouraging but are largely the consequence of Governor Hochul signing the Less is More Act, releasing people on technical violations from jail, and therefore represent a helpful policy change that will reduce the population. However, the steep slope of the decline in September 2021 is unlikely to continue at that rate on its own without additional policy changes. Even with these reforms, the October 1st NYC jail population was only 7% below its pre-pandemic levels.
(Dotted lines connect periods with missing data, so the start of each dotted line and their bends represent specific historical data points.)

Even before COVID-19, prisons and jails were a threat to public health and considered notoriously dangerous places during any sort of viral outbreak. As the U.S. Supreme Court recognized years before the pandemic, by taking away a person’s ability to care for their own medical needs, carceral facilities must make sure that those who are incarcerated receive proper medical care–failure to do so can constitute a violation of of the Eighth Amendment’s guarantee against cruel and unusual punishment and necessitate a reduction in the carceral population. And yet, correctional facilities continue to be the source of a large number of infections in the U.S. The COVID-19 death rate in prisons is almost three times higher than among the general U.S. population, even when adjusted for age and sex (as the prison population is disproportionately young and male). Since the early days of the pandemic, public health professionals, corrections officials, and criminal justice reform advocates have agreed that decarceration is necessary to protect incarcerated people and the community at large from COVID-19. Decarceration efforts must include releasing more people from prisons and jails. Despite this knowledge, state, federal, and local authorities have failed to release people from prisons and jails on a scale sufficient to protect incarcerated people’s lives – and by extension, the lives of everyone in the communities where incarcerated people eventually return, and where correctional staff live and work.

 
 
 

Footnotes

  1. The COVID-19 death rate in prisons at the end of April 2021 stood at a staggering 200 deaths per 100,000 incarcerated people, much higher than the death rate among the general U.S. population of 81 deaths per 100,000 residents. These rates, calculated by the UCLA COVID-19 Behind Bars Data Project, were adjusted to account for differences in age and sex between the prison population and the general U.S. population. For more details about how these rates were calculated, see “COVID-19 Incidence and Mortality in Federal and State Prisons Compared With the US Population, April 5, 2020, to April 3, 2021” published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.  ↩

  2. Among correctional staff exempt from vaccination mandates, adherence to other protective measures is also inadequate. In California, the twice-weekly testing requirement applies to about 10,000 unvaccinated correctional staff, but “nearly a third of [those employees] weren’t complying [with testing] from mid-October through mid-November, according to the most recent data provided by corrections officials.”  ↩

  3. A recent report from the UCLA COVID-19 Behind Bars Data Project reveals that among the 984 prisons publishing COVID-19 data, 72% reported a COVID-19 outbreak in January 2022.  ↩

  4. The American Public Health Association (APHA) stance includes recommendations for “moving toward the abolition of carceral systems and building in their stead just and equitable structures that advance the public’s health by (1) urgently reducing the incarcerated population; (2) divesting from carceral systems and investing in the societal determinants of health (e.g., housing, employment); (3) committing to noncarceral measures for accountability, safety, and well-being; (4) restoring voting rights to formerly and currently incarcerated people; and (5) funding research to evaluate policy determinants of exposure to the carceral system and proposed alternatives.”  ↩

  5. Unfortunately, this major victory for public health was immediately undercut by the federal Immigration and Custom Enforcement (ICE) agency which quickly arrested 88 people who were released under bill S2519. A spokesperson from ICE claimed that these 88 individuals were “violent offenders or have convictions for serious crimes such as homicide, aggravated assault, drug trafficking and child sexual exploitation.” However, these claims are brought into question when considering that the releases that took place under bill S2519 specifically excluded “people serving time for murder or sexual assault” and those serving time for sexual offenses. Although we did not include ICE facilities in our analysis, there is evidence that ICE detention facilities have a COVID-19 case rate that is up to 13 times higher than that of the general U.S. population.  ↩

  6. 118 jails (28% of our sample) have higher populations now than they had before COVID-19. Some of those jails include large county jails with more than 500 people, including Wayne County, Mich., Lubbock and Galveston Counties, Tex., St. Lucie County, Fla., Prince George’s County, Md., and Bergen County, N.J.  ↩

 
 
 

Appendix A: State and federal prison populations during COVID‑19

Prison populations for the federal Bureau of Prisons and all 50 state prison systems from January 2020 through December 2021. When available, we used prison populations as reported by Departments of Correction to The Marshall Project. If that data point was not available, we then used either the monthly average daily population (ADP) or point-in-time population counts. For the federal system, we used the first weekly population each week as reported by the Bureau of Prisons.

Prison system January 2020 February 2020 March 2020 April 2020 May 2020 June 2020 July 2020 August 2020 September 2020 October 2020 November 2020 December 2020 January 2021 February 2021 March 2021 April 2021 May 2021 June 2021 July 2021 August 2021 September 2021 October 2021 November 2021 December 2021 Sources
Alabama 21,154 21,272 21,114 20,655 20,170 19,752 19,342 18,901 18,693 18,262 17,914 17,725 17,454 17,308 17,134 17,051 16,792 17,189 17,724 17,765 17,769 The Marshall Project
& DOC Monthly Reports
Alaska 4,776 4,277 4,216 4,334 4,414 4,511 4,586 4,581 4,559 4,523 4,505 4,493 4,478 4,487 The Marshall Project
Arizona 42,422 42,282 42,360 41,777 41,005 40,529 39,339 39,153 38,894 38,495 38,141 37,731 37,396 36,975 36,704 36,569 36,266 35,954 35,746 35,489 35,410 34,643 34,202 33,855 The Marshall Project
& DOC monthly capacity reports
Arkansas 17,989 18,181 17,860 17,331 16,694 16,552 16,511 16,367 16,215 16,311 16,165 16,094 16,119 16,120 16,085 16,250 16,476 16,560 16,638 16,655 16,698 16,821 DOC monthly director’s board reports
California 117,454 117,432 117,639 113,632 111,072 109,800 102,715 97,342 94,852 94,433 94,179 92,350 91,341 91,516 92,079 92,836 94,103 95,107 95,809 96,194 95,950 96,253 96,556 96,478 The Marshall Project
& CDCR weekly population reports
Colorado 17,751 17,600 17,585 16,382 15,797 15,807 15,531 15,022 14,935 14,673 14,257 13,687 13,558 13,556 13,553 13,537 13,650 13,730 13,968 14,042 14,009 14,149 14,271 14,322 The Marshall Project
& DOC end-of-month population reports
Connecticut 12,381 12,386 12,290 11,454 10,640 10,206 9,645 9,391 9,348 9,233 9,111 9,053 9,100 9,039 9,011 8,947 8,965 9,009 9,143 9,253 9,357 9,426 9,518 The Marshall Project
& DOC monthly reports
Delaware 5,194 5,156 5,042 4,624 4,233 4,195 4,216 4,322 4,457 4,168 4,358 4,677 4,360 4,326 4,269 4,267 The Marshall Project
Federal 164,284 163,635 163,886 163,498 157,340 151,066 145,399 143,071 140,970 140,540 139,446 138,776 137,084 137,361 137,260 137,686 137,633 138,394 138,773 140,295 140,627 140,518 140,803 141,598 BOP weekly population report
Florida 93,764 91,828 88,305 85,839 84,601 82,997 82,027 81,795 79,523 79,322 79,476 79,660 80,298 80,271 The Marshall Project
Georgia 55,218 55,221 55,025 55,019 53,642 51,219 51,213 50,446 49,848 49,365 48,433 48,132 47,703 47,027 46,530 46,309 46,195 46,296 47,364 47,515 47,409 47,736 47,658 47,815 The Marshall Project
& DOC weekly reports
Hawaii 5,208 5,258 4,836 4,260 4,311 4,404 4,508 4,162 4,140 4,184 4,183 4,171 4,200 4,153 4,117 4,084 4,134 4,104 4,113 4,149 4,134 4,114 4,145 4,126 The Marshall Project
& DPS monthly reports
Idaho 7,816 7,641 7,798 7,626 7,426 7,155 7,496 7,407 7,343 7,461 7,827 7,867 7,921 7,878 The Marshall Project
Illinois 36,931 34,668 31,945 31,195 31,236 31,002 30,651 30,001 29,225 29,151 28,160 27,503 27,313 27,313 The Marshall Project
Indiana 27,268 27,298 26,891 26,936 26,418 26,409 25,385 25,691 24,513 24,350 24,203 23,978 23,726 23,745 23,745 23,769 23,554 23,510 23,464 23,435 23,388 23,332 23,229 23,035 The Marshall Project
& DOC monthly reports
Iowa 8,474 8,533 8,401 7,902 7,600 7,493 7,362 7,395 7,415 7,441 7,542 7,489 7,554 7,627 7,673 7,680 7,717 7,741 7,790 7,852 7,951 8,042 8,106 The Marshall Project
& DOC daily statistics
Kansas 9,804 9,673 9,091 8,735 8,580 8,486 8,414 8,408 8,574 8,665 8,719 8,745 8,682 8,650 8,556 8,530 8,445 8,457 8,400 8,345 8,351 The Marshall Project
& DOC end-of-month reports
Kentucky 12,306 12,225 12,162 11,782 11,549 11,272 11,002 10,589 10,391 10,242 10,151 9,854 9,706 9,655 9,625 9,708 9,899 9,930 9,967 10,084 9,990 9,986 9,955 9,835 The Marshall Project
& DOC daily count sheets
Louisiana 15,019 15,067 15,066 14,967 14,775 14,623 14,443 14,313 14,241 14,134 14,052 13,903 13,822 13,722 13,724 13,546 13,522 The Marshall Project
& DOC population trends report
Maine 2,176 2,170 2,138 2,019 1,922 1,922 1,828 1,788 1,783 1,779 1,766 1,718 1,695 1,712 1,679 1,672 1,661 1,603 1,614 1,609 1,597 1,592 1,610 1,599 The Marshall Project
& DOC monthly reports
Maryland 20,314 19,731 19,109 17,635 17,455 18,003 18,280 18,426 The Marshall Project
Massachusetts 7,958 7,950 7,841 7,466 7,260 7,125 7,033 6,973 6,891 6,778 6,729 6,609 6,570 6,524 6,374 6,363 6,318 6,303 6,268 6,180 6,165 6,117 6,098 6,002 The Marshall Project
& DOC weekly counts
Michigan 37,687 35,798 35,798 34,973 34,561 34,134 33,917 33,617 33,370 33,185 32,962 32,822 32,698 The Marshall Project
Minnesota 9,381 8,904 8,718 8,402 8,330 7,736 7,576 7,674 7,549 7,427 7,315 7,327 7,342 7,228 7,251 7,369 7,511 The Marshall Project
& DOC population summary reports
Mississippi 19,147 19,031 18,886 17,794 18,045 17,651 17,448 17,390 17,303 17,274 17,224 17,118 17,137 17,070 17,099 17,225 17,267 17,264 17,380 17,316 17,209 17,187 17,011 16,953 The Marshall Project
& DOC daily population reports
Missouri 25,740 25,133 24,000 23,877 23,777 23,602 23,554 23,397 23,106 23,037 22,783 22,939 23,044 23,057 The Marshall Project
Montana 4,508 4,318 3,962 3,907 3,886 3,812 3,746 3,709 3,620 3,686 3,762 3,782 3,858 3,908 The Marshall Project
Nebraska 5,621 5,539 5,384 5,307 5,272 5,297 5,296 5,308 5,275 5,265 5,302 5,320 5,301 5,363 The Marshall Project
Nevada 12,379 12,403 12,384 12,152 11,937 11,231 11,696 11,696 11,354 11,273 11,222 11,134 11,007 10,926 10,841 10,777 10,640 10,505 10,429 10,260 10,183 10,059 10,015 The Marshall Project
& DOC weekly fact sheets
New Hampshire 2,433 2,359 2,256 2,228 2,209 2,203 2,184 2,155 2,136 2,107 2,071 2,053 2,030 2,016 The Marshall Project
New Jersey 18,439 17,958 16,613 15,866 15,480 15,380 12,800 11,463 11,434 11,128 10,962 10,875 10,722 The Marshall Project
New Mexico 6,573 6,588 6,328 6,175 6,159 6,040 6,012 5,847 5,817 5,772 5,710 5,731 5,708 The Marshall Project
New York 42,784 40,956 38,723 37,559 37,053 36,528 35,983 35,353 34,446 33,376 32,384 31,412 31,456 31,890 The Marshall Project
North Carolina 32,933 33,347 29,886 34,046 30,877 30,873 30,779 30,198 29,922 29,740 29,916 35,140 29,415 29,535 29,487 29,528 The Marshall Project
& DPS population reports
North Dakota 1,254 1,519 1,321 1,247 1,237 1,185 1,191 1,235 1,211 1,293 1,351 1,384 1,368 The Marshall Project
Ohio 48,697 48,695 48,765 48,927 47,620 46,212 45,876 44,972 44,536 44,598 44,441 44,027 43,665 43,495 43,246 43,005 43,014 43,046 42,963 43,080 43,134 43,056 43,193 43,405 The Marshall Project
& DRC weekly population count reports
Oklahoma 25,055 25,039 24,956 24,395 23,891 22,875 22,201 21,980 21,769 21,747 21,678 21,778 21,718 21,665 21,670 21,772 21,725 21,615 21,601 21,597 21,398 21,353 21,347 21,315 The Marshall Project
& DOC weekly counts
Oregon 14,483 14,497 14,459 14,407 14,351 14,055 13,721 13,507 13,484 13,306 13,149 12,989 12,742 12,593 12,404 12,322 12,190 12,098 12,068 12,067 12,045 12,097 12,044 12,020 The Marshall Project
& DOC population trend report
Pennsylvania 47,579 47,382 46,559 45,251 44,556 43,916 43,204 41,964 41,438 41,140 40,786 40,403 40,088 39,499 39,296 39,080 38,868 38,998 38,950 36,979 36,954 36,740 36,541 36,555 The Marshall Project
& DOC monthly population reports
Rhode Island 2,601 2,664 2,674 2,275 2,198 2,180 2,200 2,211 2,184 2,233 2,179 2,076 2,118 2,150 2,120 2,078 2,125 2,118 The Marshall Project
& DOC monthly reports
South Carolina 18,106 18,074 18,028 18,229 17,687 17,455 17,224 16,361 16,121 16,230 15,806 16,013 15,676 15,720 15,586 15,548 15,213 15,420 15,458 15,171 15,275 15,408 15,151 15,182 DOC daily population counts
South Dakota 3,790 3,833 3,701 3,546 3,580 3,367 3,309 3,258 3,235 3,205 3,205 3,159 3,145 3,174 3,180 3,181 3,228 3,339 3,381 3,418 3,462 3,406 The Marshall Project
& DOC monthly reports
Tennessee 21,826 21,793 21,616 21,150 20,394 20,079 19,249 19,279 19,143 19,566 19,605 19,453 19,510 19,433 19,687 19,687 20,537 20,502 20,429 20,485 20,098 20,069 19,998 19,998 The Marshall Project
& DOC monthly reports
Texas 119,541 140,124 135,833 127,200 124,181 121,128 120,709 122,177 121,876 120,873 117,843 117,491 116,926 117,838 The Marshall Project
Utah 6,900 6,441 5,993 5,915 5,824 5,814 5,898 5,496 5,485 5,581 5,602 5,663 5,728 The Marshall Project
Vermont 1,656 1,406 1,395 1,417 1,390 1,417 1,413 1,369 1,380 1,292 1,281 1,272 1,238 1,228 1,395 1,285 1,291 1,300 1,322 1,308 1,319 1,281 The Marshall Project
& DOC daily population reports
Virginia 29,233 29,208 29,161 28,559 27,871 28,595 26,749 26,190 25,659 25,156 24,731 24,235 23,811 23,644 23,796 23,897 23,966 24,229 24,467 24,625 24,694 24,738 24,584 The Marshall Project
& DOC monthly reports
Washington 18,998 19,151 18,797 17,587 16,906 16,703 15,313 15,185 15,093 14,900 14,682 14,518 14,312 14,064 13,875 13,693 13,497 13,380 13,348 12,809 13,200 DOC monthly population reports
West Virginia 5,952 5,556 4,898 4,398 4,331 4,275 4,247 4,189 3,977 3,987 3,962 4,053 4,071 4,425 The Marshall Project
Wisconsin 23,392 23,362 23,591 22,507 22,304 21,576 21,252 21,372 21,136 21,495 20,494 20,401 20,033 19,513 19,539 19,301 19,271 19,380 19,548 19,796 20,070 20,142 20,188 20,088 The Marshall Project
& DOC weekly population counts
Wyoming 2,156 2,098 2,001 1,986 1,959 1,996 2,232 2,157 2,134 2,133 2,252 The Marshall Project

 
 
 

Appendix B: County jail populations during COVID-19

This table shows the jail populations for 415 county jails where data was available where data was available for March 10th, 2020 (the day before the pandemic was declared) and for 75% of the days between March 10th, 2020 and December, 2021. (This table is a subset of the population data available for over 1,000 local jails from the NYU Public Safety Lab Jail Data Initiative.)

*For jails without a population reported on the days we selected, we included the reported population from the closest available date.

State County Jail population on 3/10/2020 Jail population on 5/1/2020 Jail population on 8/22/2020 Jail popualtion on 2/3/2021 Jail population on 7/18/2021 Jail population on 12/31/2021 Percent change in jail population from 3/10/20 to 5/1/20 Percent change in jail population from 5/1/20 to 12/31/21 Percent change in jail population from 3/10/20 to 12/31/21
Ala. Autauga 172 155 156 184 151 115 -10% -26% -33%
Ala. Chilton 212 170 157 204 221 211 -20% 24% 0%
Ala. Clay 39 27 31 37 56 50 -31% 85% 28%
Ala. Cleburne 84 66 64 52 72 47 -21% -29% -44%
Ala. Coffee 127 63 88 111 151 111 -50% 76% -13%
Ala. Coosa 27 17 25 21 31 37 -37% 118% 37%
Ala. Dale 75 65 74 62 85 82 -13% 26% 9%
Ala. DeKalb 169 105 171 167 196 105 -38% 0% -38%
Ala. Houston 394 246 350 393 382 344 -38% 40% -13%
Ala. Jackson 177 122 202 209 191 136 -31% 11% -23%
Ala. Marion 131 89 98 155 166 121 -32% 36% -8%
Ala. Morgan 617 529 575 582 635 502 -14% -5% -19%
Ala. Pike 63 39 50 59 68 64 -38% 64% 2%
Ala. Randolph 64 55 51 69 66 50 -14% -9% -22%
Ala. St. Clair 222 195 185 218 249 201 -12% 3% -9%
Ala. Talladega 301 205 238 318 324 287 -32% 40% -5%
Ala. Washington 58 31 31 37 67 80 -47% 158% 38%
Ariz. Yavapai 537 398 498 479 543 496 -26% 25% -8%
Ariz. Yuma 432 370 389 456 461 422 -14% 14% -2%
Ark. Baxter 121 74 94 124 129 126 -39% 70% 4%
Ark. Crawford 217 121 176 242 232 277 -44% 129% 28%
Ark. Franklin 36 17 58 84 81 91 -53% 435% 153%
Ark. Howard 41 18 21 20 32 39 -56% 117% -5%
Ark. Johnson 64 28 44 83 79 90 -56% 221% 41%
Ark. Marion 42 23 24 61 77 57 -45% 148% 36%
Ark. Nevada 56 39 69 52 49 55 -30% 41% -2%
Ark. Poinsett 81 39 66 79 92 88 -52% 126% 9%
Ark. Pope 193 115 162 159 205 191 -40% 66% -1%
Ark. Saline 235 124 139 185 218 233 -47% 88% -1%
Ark. Stone 36 29 39 36 42 30 -19% 3% -17%
Ark. Union 199 127 135 170 184 156 -36% 23% -22%
Ark. Van Buren 78 33 31 40 80 70 -58% 112% -10%
Ark. Washington 679 343 415 548 630 728 -49% 112% 7%
Ark. White 287 105 110 217 258 269 -63% 156% -6%
Calif. El Dorado 390 306 331 339 313 306 -22% 0% -22%
Calif. Shasta 379 373 473 422 379 384* -2% 3% 1%
Calif. Siskiyou 94 55 82 70 79 72 -41% 31% -23%
Calif. Stanislaus 1,357 1,118 1,118 1,183 1,204 1,283 -18% 15% -5%
Calif. Tulare 1,571 1,095 1,265 1,355 1,444 1,319* -30% 20% -16%
Calif. Yuba 385 257 243 222 198 189 -33% -26% -51%
Colo. Arapahoe 1,134 709 675 820 768 738 -37% 4% -35%
Colo. Bent 55 29 42 77 53 60 -47% 107% 9%
Colo. Boulder 652 385 418 411 474 493 -41% 28% -24%
Colo. Douglas 341 209 212 269 291 342 -39% 64% 0%
Colo. Jefferson 1,265 691 748 795 1,039 1,052 -45% 52% -17%
Colo. Pueblo 646 396 427 416 484 509 -39% 29% -21%
Fla. Alachua 735 592 693 839 762 784 -19% 32% 7%
Fla. DeSoto 147 132 157 154 158 171 -10% 30% 16%
Fla. Flagler 205 165 163 191 193 201 -20% 22% -2%
Fla. Lake 21 17 22 12 27 34 -19% 100% 62%
Fla. Monroe 514 383 395 484 478 517 -25% 35% 1%
Fla. Nassau 243 168 197 236 214 270 -31% 61% 11%
Fla. Sarasota 872 788 820 891 938 964 -10% 22% 11%
Fla. St. Lucie 1,301 1,176 1,278 1,384 1,350 1,332 -10% 13% 2%
Fla. Walton 436 375 404 432 425 438 -14% 17% 0%
Ga. Bartow 673 506 594 610 588 501 -25% -1% -26%
Ga. Berrien 98 61 90 86 83 76 -38% 25% -22%
Ga. Brantley 122 99 135 109 109 97 -19% -2% -20%
Ga. Bulloch 343 251 251 346 367 348 -27% 39% 1%
Ga. Burke 106 87 91 109 103 121 -18% 39% 14%
Ga. Camden 112 103 130 140 136 125 -8% 21% 12%
Ga. Carroll 444 294 343 394 527 447 -34% 52% 1%
Ga. Columbia 276 197 177 218 279 269 -29% 37% -3%
Ga. Decatur 117 103 121 146 123 115 -12% 12% -2%
Ga. Dodge 123 118 121 125 134 140 -4% 19% 14%
Ga. Dougherty 586 378 477 514 542 599 -35% 58% 2%
Ga. Douglas 683 395 472 359 664 631 -42% 60% -8%
Ga. Effingham 237 184 139 158 224 191 -22% 4% -19%
Ga. Elbert 95 54 55 73 68 64 -43% 19% -33%
Ga. Fayette 205 120 141 198 266 230 -41% 92% 12%
Ga. Floyd 645 425 538 566 561 532 -34% 25% -18%
Ga. Gordon 290 192 230 270 227 235 -34% 22% -19%
Ga. Habersham 164 100 120 143 111 119 -39% 19% -27%
Ga. Haralson 185 124 131 136 158 116 -33% -6% -37%
Ga. Jackson 143 93 116 184 166 117 -35% 26% -18%
Ga. Lamar 58 45 41 52 64 50 -22% 11% -14%
Ga. Laurens 337 273 244 318 322 280 -19% 3% -17%
Ga. Liberty 209 156 194 187 202 159 -25% 2% -24%
Ga. Monroe 128 100 105 140 133 118 -22% 18% -8%
Ga. Oconee 28 16 22 18 32 60 -45% 287% 114%
Ga. Pickens 77 50 65 93 96 53 -34% 5% -31%
Ga. Polk 179 117 146 107 205 260 -35% 122% 45%
Ga. Rabun 108 42 66 78 95 74 -61% 76% -31%
Ga. Richmond 1,033 876 914 988 989 928 -15% 6% -10%
Ga. Spalding 388 245 284 343 423 405 -37% 65% 4%
Ga. Sumter 159 106 130 151 172 136 -33% 28% -14%
Ga. Tattnall 86 37 44 82 88 100 -57% 170% 16%
Ga. Tift 229 198 230 268 272 264 -14% 33% 15%
Ga. Turner 67 52 56 50 80 58 -22% 12% -13%
Ga. Union 52 27 37 46 55 44 -48% 63% -15%
Ga. Upson 104 53 74 104 131 147 -49% 177% 41%
Ga. Ware 421 319 361 450 443 387 -24% 21% -8%
Ga. Washington 79 74 81 91 93 102 -6% 38% 29%
Ga. Whitfield 486 333 389 442 435 366* -31% 10% -25%
Ga. Worth 69 54 92 75 122 85 -22% 57% 23%
Idaho Blaine 67 52 45 13 12 12 -22% -77% -82%
Idaho Bonneville 392 283 290 256 296 293 -28% 4% -25%
Idaho Canyon 446 343 410 350 365 391 -23% 14% -12%
Idaho Nez Perce 126 83 103 94 102 88 -34% 6% -30%
Idaho Power 15 9 11 5 9 8 -42% -9% -47%
Idaho Washington 40 28 35 37 35 23 -30% -18% -43%
Ill. Kendall 157 132 129 142 144 130 -16% -2% -17%
Ill. Macon 300 236 307 314 282 310 -21% 31% 3%
Ill. Randolph 25 12 13 22 23 19 -52% 60% -24%
Ill. Will 693 570 568 614 542 617* -18% 8% -11%
Ill. Woodford 52 34 65 72 65 66 -35% 94% 27%
Ind. Dearborn 233 186 283 279 284 235 -20% 26% 1%
Ind. Hamilton 298 171 250 283 287 292 -43% 71% -2%
Ind. Hendricks 266 172 229 206 257 230 -35% 34% -14%
Ind. Jackson 250 156 199 196 235 220 -38% 41% -12%
Ind. Starke 119 98 87 107 133 129 -17% 31% 8%
Iowa Buena Vista 23 6 7 21 18 14 -74% 133% -39%
Iowa Cerro Gordo 69 42 55 53 57 60 -39% 43% -13%
Iowa Clinton 59 26 49 54 56 77 -56% 196% 31%
Iowa Dallas 28 26 43 33 47 43 -7% 65% 54%
Iowa Dickinson 13 5 7 6 7 7 -62% 40% -46%
Iowa Hardin 85 38 75 62 44 34 -55% -11% -60%
Iowa Polk 896 481 691 728 819 701 -46% 46% -22%
Iowa Scott 449 241 272 215 224 219 -46% -9% -51%
Iowa Story 73 30 46 62 48 49 -59% 63% -33%
Kans. Brown 12 12 21 19 21 11 0% -8% -8%
Kans. Crawford 76 51 49 65 87 95 -33% 86% 25%
Kans. Dickinson 20 16 18 4 15 30 -20% 88% 50%
Kans. Doniphan 9 11 4 3 7 5 22% -55% -44%
Kans. Finney 95 56 90 57 99 84 -41% 50% -12%
Kans. Geary 101 64 88 89 93 87 -37% 36% -14%
Kans. Jackson 83 58 57 71 59 70 -30% 21% -16%
Kans. Shawnee 553 368 450 476 535 541 -33% 47% -2%
Kans. Sherman 18 14 18 15 20 9 -22% -36% -50%
Kans. Sumner 143 47 58 94 117 118 -67% 151% -17%
Kans. Thomas 14 11 18 14 12 19 -21% 73% 36%
Kans. Wabaunsee 9 7 5 9 9 8 -21% 12% -11%
Ky. Allen 80 29 54 58 87 81* -64% 181% 1%
Ky. Bell 117 62 111 131 130 136 -47% 121% 16%
Ky. Boone 457 348 450 438 480 375 -24% 8% -18%
Ky. Campbell 591 434 495 524 392 355 -27% -18% -40%
Ky. Christian 768 566 605 633 639 780 -26% 38% 2%
Ky. Clark 305 156 135 175 166 225 -49% 44% -26%
Ky. Daviess 740 485 552 622 586 598 -34% 23% -19%
Ky. Franklin 293 179 198 167 242 238 -39% 33% -19%
Ky. Graves 183 137 147 140 168 195* -25% 42% 7%
Ky. Jackson 128 82 79 80 91 103 -36% 25% -20%
Ky. Jessamine 143 77 83 106 154 117 -47% 53% -18%
Ky. Larue 143 95 85 138 131 152 -33% 59% 6%
Ky. Mason 188 104 113 98 170 163 -45% 57% -13%
Ky. Muhlenberg 278 200 230 234 244 276 -28% 38% -1%
Ky. Nelson 118 73 116 114 84 93 -38% 27% -21%
Ky. Pike 449 347 317 368 392 379 -23% 9% -16%
Ky. Pulaski 352 192 282 266 300 363 -45% 89% 3%
Ky. Rockcastle 104 52 60 53 74 83 -50% 60% -20%
Ky. Todd 135 114 91 127 143 146 -16% 28% 8%
Ky. Wayne 197 127 136 123 136 138 -36% 9% -30%
La. Allen 103 58 62 57 90 96 -44% 66% -7%
La. Assumption 101 84 85 126 135 200 -17% 138% 98%
La. Avoyelles 424 358 340 320 325 373 -16% 4% -12%
La. Beauregard 164 122 130 145 156 225 -26% 84% 37%
La. Bienville 42 29 30 22 21 23 -31% -21% -45%
La. Bogalusa City 19 12 11 13 8 20 -39% 71% 5%
La. Caldwell 611 560 508 572 586 585 -8% 4% -4%
La. Catahoula 72 28 49 51 71 75 -61% 168% 4%
La. Claiborne 579 502 488 430 465 561 -13% 12% -3%
La. East Feliciana 244 220 239 238 237 233 -10% 6% -5%
La. Evangeline 74 54 60 63 67 60 -27% 11% -19%
La. Franklin 815 705 721 818 809 773 -13% 10% -5%
La. Hammond City 14 7 9 10 2 11 -50% 57% -21%
La. Iberville 106 99 124 110 95 89 -7% -10% -16%
La. Jefferson Davis 159 100 79 101 113 102 -37% 2% -36%
La. Lafayette 997 657 500 552 612 636 -34% -3% -36%
La. Lafourche 458 324 320 358 510 586 -29% 81% 28%
La. LaSalle 73 55 66 76 114 111 -25% 102% 52%
La. Morehouse 464 440 491 432 393 383 -5% -13% -17%
La. Pointe Coupee 100 74 73 86 103 81 -26% 10% -19%
La. Rapides 877 743 806 869 904 896 -15% 21% 2%
La. Red River 64 59 49 56 57 46 -8% -22% -28%
La. Richland 751 654 645 696 696 666 -13% 2% -11%
La. Sabine 203 161 167 165 185 230 -21% 43% 13%
La. Shreveport 63 14 30 40 47 42 -78% 200% -33%
La. St. Charles 458 409 415 394 379 385 -11% -6% -16%
La. St. James 68 50 45 57 64 80 -26% 60% 18%
La. St. John 147 132 106 81 72 67 -10% -49% -54%
La. Sulphur 11 7 18 19 8 6 -36% -14% -45%
La. Tangipahoa 573 460 506 563 580 548 -20% 19% -4%
La. Terrebonne 647 514 533 539 573 548 -21% 7% -15%
La. Vermilion 147 124 122 162 142 152 -16% 23% 3%
La. Vernon 131 94 125 119 107 131 -28% 40% 0%
La. Ville Platte 15 19 15 11 9 16 27% -16% 7%
La. Washington 163 116 177 186 187 207 -29% 78% 27%
La. Webster 627 563 538 555 605 618 -10% 10% -1%
La. West Feliciana 25 12 35 123 116 113 -54% 878% 352%
Maine Cumberland 354 240 329 305 304 255 -32% 6% -28%
Mass. Worcester 771 524 498 494 545 572* -32% 9% -26%
Md. Allegany 191 125 153 134 184 169 -35% 35% -12%
Md. Prince Georges 885 699 865 975 1,004 1,016* -21% 45% 15%
Mich. Delta 125 81 103 90 105 122 -35% 51% -2%
Mich. Midland 108 70 78 64 67 87 -36% 25% -19%
Mich. Wayne 2,103 1,746 2,377 3,042 3,051 3,211 -17% 84% 53%
Minn. Beltrami 117 63 78 86 81 82 -46% 30% -30%
Minn. Blue Earth 114 70 89 74 71 59* -39% -16% -48%
Minn. Brown 18 8 17 17 19 20 -56% 150% 11%
Minn. Carlton 33 13 13 24 28 14 -61% 8% -58%
Minn. Chisago 61 22 30 31 35 34 -64% 55% -44%
Minn. Clay 121 65 66 99 110 117 -47% 81% -3%
Minn. Clearwater 17 6 12 7 23 20 -65% 233% 18%
Minn. Crow Wing 157 88 100 87 114 115 -44% 31% -27%
Minn. Fillmore 7 8 5 6 9 6 14% -25% -14%
Minn. Hubbard 64 27 44 49 40 63 -58% 133% -2%
Minn. Isanti 60 22 35 28 29 25 -63% 14% -58%
Minn. Kanabec 40 16 16 17 12 11 -60% -31% -73%
Minn. Kandiyohi 91 60 75 45 52 79 -34% 32% -13%
Minn. Koochiching 4 2 5 10 11 11 -50% 450% 175%
Minn. Le Sueur 24 16 12 13 7 19 -33% 19% -21%
Minn. McLeod 36 10 20 24 30 16 -72% 60% -56%
Minn. Mille Lacs 81 32 38 40 43 47 -60% 47% -42%
Minn. Morrison 33 19 30 25 37 31 -42% 63% -6%
Minn. Nicollet 26 11 14 15 13 12 -58% 9% -54%
Minn. Pipestone 14 2 9 8 12 2 -86% 3% -85%
Minn. Redwood 12 10 14 14 12 13 -17% 30% 8%
Minn. Renville 39 10 20 23 21 36 -74% 260% -8%
Minn. Roseau 21 9 15 7 9 10 -57% 11% -52%
Minn. Scott 141 53 61 103 126 112 -62% 111% -21%
Minn. Sherburne 307 237 255 242 274 300* -23% 27% -2%
Minn. Sibley 10 8 4 6 8 8 -20% 0% -20%
Minn. Swift 4 2 3 3 9 5 -50% 150% 25%
Minn. Wilkin 9 2 6 5 5 15 -78% 650% 67%
Minn. Winona 31 18 28 16 24 18 -42% 0% -42%
Minn. Wright 186 92 108 145 122 132 -51% 43% -29%
Minn. Yellow Medicine 15 10 13 11 17 19 -33% 90% 27%
Miss. Adams 77 69 58 71 90 86 -10% 25% 12%
Miss. Clay 68 59 53 67 83 84 -13% 43% 24%
Miss. Hancock 203 171 211 177 204 193 -16% 13% -5%
Miss. Jackson 340 292 352 368 379 423 -14% 45% 24%
Miss. Jasper 30 20 33 24 27 24 -33% 20% -20%
Miss. Lamar 107 74 92 80 115 86 -31% 16% -20%
Miss. Lee 194 182 205 232 33 33 -6% -82% -83%
Miss. Tunica 27 23 21 27 23 31 -15% 35% 15%
Mo. Barry 46 43 53 65 68 73 -7% 70% 59%
Mo. Bates 31 19 9 14 22 22 -39% 16% -29%
Mo. Benton 35 9 19 25 35 31 -74% 244% -11%
Mo. Boone 253 183 225 240 239 171 -28% -7% -32%
Mo. Buchanan 222 128 177 196 205 145 -42% 13% -35%
Mo. Cape Girardeau 148 149 174 196 222 240 1% 61% 62%
Mo. Christian 102 49 68 74 71 61 -52% 24% -40%
Mo. Clay 301 179 236 207 262 228 -41% 27% -24%
Mo. Jackson 851 643 753 786 777 718 -24% 12% -16%
Mo. Johnson 202 80 108 119 149 165 -60% 106% -18%
Mo. Joplin 54 30 34 36 36 49 -45% 64% -9%
Mo. Lewis 9 10 8 15 14 9 11% -10% 0%
Mo. Marion 81 41 64 82 82 72 -49% 76% -11%
Mo. McDonald 35 19 36 32 45 40 -46% 111% 14%
Mo. Saline 57 41 48 44 63 57 -29% 40% 0%
Mo. Stone 65 38 66 44 50 38 -42% 0% -42%
Mont. Big Horn 38 28 27 33 33 28 -26% 0% -26%
Mont. Lewis and Clark 106 86 103 113 102 102 -19% 19% -4%
Mont. Ravalli 41 26 44 49 50 41 -37% 58% 0%
Mont. Valley 42 20 22 17 19 17 -53% -14% -60%
N.C. Alamance 363 237 218 243 256 323 -35% 36% -11%
N.C. Burke 135 95 124 118 128 88 -30% -7% -35%
N.C. Cabarrus 327 202 188 206 238 254 -38% 26% -22%
N.C. Carteret 167 128 140 103 103 102 -23% -20% -39%
N.C. Catawba 302 183 249 215 299 261 -39% 43% -14%
N.C. Clay 316 228 197 169 261 317 -28% 39% 0%
N.C. Cleveland 325 168 203 232 282 286 -48% 70% -12%
N.C. Davidson 340 219 207 234 287 276 -36% 26% -19%
N.C. Gaston 585 393 505 496 567 501 -33% 27% -14%
N.C. Guilford 1,093 813 764 731 832 860 -26% 6% -21%
N.C. Lee 119 92 124 117 131 134 -23% 46% 13%
N.C. Lincoln 153 80 63 111 129 116 -48% 45% -24%
N.C. Moore 140 113 115 146 153 142 -19% 26% 1%
N.C. Pender 89 72 74 78 81 94 -19% 31% 6%
N.C. Randolph 260 182 263 171 244 227 -30% 25% -13%
N.C. Richmond 114 76 92 76 96 99 -33% 30% -13%
N.C. Rowan 345 216 243 243 333 279 -37% 29% -19%
N.C. Sampson 254 157 164 169 234 262 -38% 67% 3%
N.C. Stanly 157 121 145 139 160 150 -23% 24% -4%
N.C. Transylvania 77 39 43 31 51 45 -49% 15% -42%
N.C. Wake 1,266 1,113 1,074 1,201 1,229 1,289 -12% 16% 2%
N.C. Washington 457 332 303 291 341 323 -27% -3% -29%
N.D. Stutsman 47 42 50 44 47 39 -11% -7% -17%
N.D. Williams 91 88 105 105 83 57 -3% -35% -37%
N.J. Bergen 618 246 301 375 379 663 -60% 170% 7%
N.J. Cumberland 341 221 278 289 339 344 -35% 56% 1%
N.J. Ocean 329 191 292 280 290 319 -42% 67% -3%
N.J. Salem 303 216 292 340 357 352 -29% 63% 16%
N.M. Curry 184 121 174 174 164 149 -34% 23% -19%
N.M. Hobbs 12 7 13 24 8 13* -42% 86% 8%
N.M. Lea 238 121 145 159 180 186 -49% 54% -22%
N.M. San Juan 519 287 410 428 542 515 -45% 79% -1%
N.Y. Monroe 769 634 675 745 744 704 -18% 11% -8%
Nebr. Hall 276 178 227 204 226 251 -36% 41% -9%
Nebr. Lancaster 629 446 535 568 647 661* -29% 48% 5%
Nebr. Lincoln 117 101 115 120 150 115 -14% 14% -2%
Ohio Adams 43 14 34 18 37 32 -67% 129% -26%
Ohio Clermont 379 255 337 333 316 300 -33% 18% -21%
Ohio Clinton 81 52 68 51 71 46 -36% -12% -43%
Ohio Delaware 235 118 161 138 157 154 -50% 31% -34%
Ohio Franklin 2,009 1,350 1,591 1,663 1,683 1,601 -33% 19% -20%
Ohio Gallia 59 33 40 59 63 61 -44% 85% 3%
Ohio Guernsey 105 54 92 77 105 108 -49% 100% 3%
Ohio Hamilton 1,512 925 1,298 1,342 1,276 1,249 -39% 35% -17%
Ohio Morrow 104 79 73 66 110 107 -24% 35% 3%
Ohio Ottawa 92 48 59 51 74 61 -48% 27% -34%
Ohio Pickaway 121 61 106 90 82 99 -50% 62% -18%
Okla. Carter 36 8 40 18 32 6 -78% -25% -83%
Okla. Comanche 357 331 218 289 364 326 -7% -2% -9%
Okla. Garvin 67 35 68 66 81 59 -48% 69% -12%
Okla. Okmulgee 176 161 234 139 130 130 -9% -19% -26%
Okla. Pottawatomie 204 119 201 228 225 158 -42% 33% -23%
Ore. Baker 32 14 12 24 23 16 -56% 14% -50%
Ore. Clackamas 434 138 221 229 244 216 -68% 57% -50%
Ore. Clatsop 58 32 45 50 61 55 -45% 72% -5%
Ore. Douglas 206 72 78 147 175 133 -65% 85% -35%
Ore. Harney 8 2 4 7 8 7 -71% 204% -13%
Ore. Jackson 327 243 264 257 282 266* -26% 9% -19%
Ore. Josephine 192 94 167 97 181 147 -51% 56% -23%
Ore. Klamath 136 75 79 84 111 115 -45% 53% -15%
Ore. Lincoln 161 70 97 108 110 117 -57% 67% -27%
Ore. Linn 207 105 129 122 154 116 -49% 10% -44%
Ore. Marion 430 275 289 318 297 348 -36% 27% -19%
Ore. Marion Work Center 91 31 70 55 59* 59* -66% 90% -35%
Ore. Multnomah 1,122 718 625 812 802 796 -36% 11% -29%
Ore. Polk 110 24 72 67 98 80 -78% 233% -27%
Ore. Tillamook 65 38 37 26 36 17 -42% -55% -74%
Ore. Wasco 132 51 49 65 78 69 -61% 35% -48%
Ore. Washington 878 477 527 456 583 580 -46% 22% -34%
Ore. Yamhill 167 53 60 77 75 85 -68% 60% -49%
Pa. Clinton 46 46 191 175 185 138 0% 200% 200%
Pa. Cumberland 409 265 252 242 299 311 -35% 17% -24%
Pa. Dauphin 1,110 890 871 975 970 1,003 -20% 13% -10%
Pa. Lancaster 786 625 670 619 710 740 -20% 18% -6%
S.C. Aiken 460 380 418 430 302 289 -17% -24% -37%
S.C. Anderson City 97 83 88 93 94 80 -14% -4% -18%
S.C. Berkeley 439 327 326 396 414 434 -26% 33% -1%
S.C. Cherokee 358 265 297 316 344 330 -26% 25% -8%
S.C. Darlington 164 160 142 181 204 165 -2% 3% 1%
S.C. Kershaw 80 73 111 92 110 116 -9% 59% 45%
S.C. Laurens 226 165 177 175 229 185 -27% 12% -18%
S.C. Lexington 493 314 339 424 504 457 -36% 46% -7%
S.C. Marion 7 7 1 1 2 1 0% -86% -86%
S.C. Pickens 303 203 253 209 252 305 -33% 50% 1%
S.C. Sumter 310 266 259 295 334 325 -14% 22% 5%
S.D. Clay 12 7 13 19 15 18 -42% 157% 50%
Tenn. Blount 533 371 517 444 463 465 -30% 25% -13%
Tenn. Macon 300 236 307 314 283 308 -21% 31% 3%
Tenn. Polk 181 147 147 149 144 125 -19% -15% -31%
Tenn. Shelby 1,857 1,576 1,339 1,228 1,021 1,355 -15% -14% -27%
Tenn. Wayne 152 124 121 128 138 134 -18% 8% -12%
Tex. Archer 26 20 31 20 25 34 -23% 70% 31%
Tex. Bell 869 623 815 1,028 1,222 1,281 -28% 106% 47%
Tex. Brown 166 135 173 165 162 194* -19% 44% 17%
Tex. Calhoun 78 64 73 83 77 69 -18% 8% -12%
Tex. Coleman 33 32 40 35 37 38 -3% 19% 15%
Tex. Cooke 163 148 155 145 148 150 -9% 1% -8%
Tex. DeWitt 81 79 87 90 96 90 -2% 14% 11%
Tex. Ellis 375 295 328 394 464 435 -21% 47% 16%
Tex. Erath 80 45 73 55 95 79 -44% 76% -1%
Tex. Galveston 997 697 862 987 1,020 1,028 -30% 47% 3%
Tex. Hopkins 159 129 191 162 177 181 -19% 40% 14%
Tex. Jim Wells 62 60 44 46 54 69 -3% 15% 11%
Tex. Lavaca 27 17 15 11 23 26 -37% 53% -4%
Tex. Lubbock 1,255 1,154 1,295 1,227 1,340 1,315* -8% 14% 5%
Tex. Parmer 28 19 21 24 22 25 -32% 32% -11%
Tex. Polk 188 143 193 193 207 224 -24% 57% 19%
Tex. Randall 416 356 411 393 411 357 -14% 0% -14%
Tex. Rockwall 226 184 236 188 208 189 -19% 3% -16%
Tex. Terry 84 77 93 97 91 88 -8% 14% 5%
Tex. Titus 133 82 101 79 93 88 -38% 7% -34%
Tex. Tom Green 393 341 454 462 516 491 -13% 44% 25%
Tex. Wharton 145 83 117 102 123 122 -43% 47% -16%
Utah Salt Lake 2,144 1,356 1,215 1,489 1,725 1,724 -37% 27% -20%
Va. Blue Ridge Bedford 100 81 98 88 93 82 -19% 2% -18%
Va. Blue Ridge Halifax 180 184 164 183 40 149 2% -19% -17%
Va. Blue Ridge Lynchburg 470 397 415 491 516 299 -15% -25% -36%
Va. Chesapeake 1,031 965 912 1,001 1,026 904 -6% -6% -12%
Va. Danville 364 298 328 300 274 268 -18% -10% -26%
Va. Middle Peninsula 178 144 161 168 159 147 -19% 2% -17%
Va. Middle River 901 747 836 840 786 789 -17% 6% -12%
Va. Norfolk 935 727 717 963 912 801 -22% 10% -14%
Va. Pamunkey 391 265 406 444 400 362 -32% 37% -7%
Va. Riverside 1,376 1,154* 1,203* 1,262* 1,231* 1,069 -16% -7% -22%
Va. Roanoke 172 149 195 164 178 125 -13% -16% -27%
Va. Virginia Beach 1,509 1,207* 1,172* 1,299 1,269 1,120 -20% -7% -26%
Va. Virginia Peninsula 377 336 339 358 367 354 -11% 5% -6%
Va. Western Virginia 944 765 808 811 848 789 -19% 3% -16%
Wash. Chelan 197 141 160 135 125 101 -28% -28% -49%
Wash. Clallam Forks 17 11 11 12 17 9 -35% -18% -47%
Wash. Clark 663 364 429 432 353 350 -45% -4% -47%
Wash. Grays Harbor 180 109 139 136 118 132 -39% 21% -27%
Wash. Grays Harbor Aberdeen 22 9 9 10 11 10 -59% 11% -55%
Wash. Grays Harbor Hoquiam 31 15 29 23 17 18 -52% 20% -42%
Wash. Island 68 37 41 51 42 44 -46% 19% -35%
Wash. Jefferson 30 21 29 15 25 23 -30% 10% -23%
Wash. King Issaquah 57 19 30 39 28 38 -67% 100% -33%
Wash. Kitsap 385 167 237 274 258 285 -57% 71% -26%
Wash. Klickitat 40 19 40 40 40 38 -53% 100% -5%
Wash. Lewis 192 106 167 189 151 139 -45% 31% -28%
Wash. Okanogan 161 71 79 106 92 83 -56% 17% -48%
Wash. Skagit 280 131 137 176 170 174 -53% 33% -38%
Wash. Skamania 25 9 23 20 16 12 -64% 33% -52%
Wash. Snohomish 747 336 443 403 464 399 -55% 19% -47%
Wash. Snohomish Lynnwood 49 9 18 15 14 10 -82% 11% -80%
Wash. Snohomish Marysville 35 4 7 14 24 10 -89% 150% -71%
Wash. Thurston Olympia 23 13 13 7 12 18 -43% 38% -22%
Wash. Walla Walla 89 66 72 80 52 46 -26% -30% -48%
Wash. Whatcom 291 150 211 207 222 240 -48% 60% -18%
Wash. Whitman 31 19 24 26 23 27 -38% 41% -13%
Wash. Yakima 879 489 444 585 615 578 -44% 18% -34%
Wis. Brown 719 634 587 652 660 663 -12% 5% -8%
Wis. Eau Claire 275 168 168 186 213 173 -39% 3% -37%
Wis. La Crosse 152 64 81 98 115 85 -58% 33% -44%
Wis. Lincoln 105 61 74 80 66 53 -42% -13% -50%
Wis. Manitowoc 209 180 161 131 211 166 -14% -8% -21%
Wis. Sawyer 114 80 84 88 108 100 -29% 24% -12%
Wyo. Big Horn 70 68 60 59 60 53 -3% -22% -24%
Wyo. Lincoln 44 37 35 21 21 26 -16% -30% -41%
Wyo. Park 42 31 26 33 42 44 -26% 42% 5%

Emily Widra is a Senior Research Analyst at the Prison Policy Initiative. (Other articles | Full bio | Contact)



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