Research Library:

Looking for resources about COVID-19 and the criminal justice system?
See our regularly-updated coronavirus page.

Our mission is to empower activists, journalists, and policymakers to shape effective criminal justice policy, so we go beyond our original reports and analyses to curate a database of virtually all the empirical criminal justice research available online.

Tips: If you know what you are looking for, you may also search the database. We also have an email newsletter (at right)(at bottom) for new research library updates.


Enter one word from the title, author or topic to search the library:

Advanced search options or view entire database by the date added.


Some of the most recently added reports are:

Thursday, July 2 2020:

  • Police Officers Rarely Charged for Excessive Use of Force in Federal Court TRAC. June, 2020. "In fact, in the twenty-year period between 1990 and 2019, federal prosecutors filed SS 242 charges about 41 times per year on average."
  • Race and Reasonableness in Police Killings Jeffrey Fagan and Alexis Campbell. May, 2020. "Black suspects are more than twice as likely to be killed by police than are persons of other racial or ethnic groups; even when there are no other obvious circumstances during the encounter that would make the use of deadly force reasonable."
  • Second Look for Justice, Safety and Savings: A Plan to Address Rehabilitated Youth Serving Extreme Sentences in Adult Prisons, Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. May, 2020. "Texas' 40-year requirement before parole can be considered a harsh outlier, rendering its ban on juvenile LWOP virtually meaningless because the "remedy" is equally punitive and extreme."

Wednesday, July 1 2020:

  • The Cumulative Probability of Arrest by Age 28 Years in the United States by Disability Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender, Erin J. McCauley. 2015. "Estimates demonstrated that those with disabilities have a higher cumulative probability of arrest than those without. The risk was disproportionately spread across races/ethnicities, with Blacks with disabilities experiencing the highest risk of arrest."
  • "Whatever they do, I'm her comfort, I'm her protector." How the foster system has become ground zero for the U.S. drug war, Movement for Family Power, NYU Family Defense Clinic, Drug Policy Alliance. June, 2020. "We estimate this number jumps to one in three Black and/or Latinx children having had contact with ACS in the past five years, either through an investigation, service provision or foster care."
  • The Broad Scope and Variation of Monetary Sanctions: Evidence From Eight States, Sarah Shannon, Beth M. Huebner, Alexes Harris, et al.. June, 2020. (Key trends include: the lack of transparent processes in implementing this form of punishment, the wide variation in practices and policies across jurisdictions, and the ways that noncompliance deepens legal entanglements and collateral consequences.)
  • Incarcerated Parents and Child Welfare in Washington Sayer Rippey. March, 2020. "From 2006 to 2016, 32,000 incarcerated parents in the United States permanently lost their parental rights without ever being accused of child abuse.1 Of these, approximately 5,000 lost their parental rights solely because of their incarceration."
  • Incarceration Weakens a Community's Immune System: Mass Incarceration and COVID-19 Cases in Milwaukee Preliminary Results, Measures for Justice. June, 2020. "The number of incarcerations is a strong predictor of the number of COVID-19 cases above and beyond the effect of other predictors in the model, including poverty, unemployment, and population not in the labor force."
  • Examining the Relationship Between Incarceration and Population Health: The Roles of Region and Urbanicity, Paywall :( Robert R. Weidner and Jennifer Schultz. May, 2020. "Results indicate that level of incarceration has a detrimental effect on both mortality (i.e., premature death) and morbidity (i.e., self-reported health), and that these effects are more pronounced in rural and Southern counties."
  • Injustice and the Disappearance of Discretionary Detention under Trump: Detaining Low Risk Immigrants without Bond, Robert Koulish and Katherine Evans. May, 2020. "The data show that officers have manipulated the risk tool by subjecting low-risk immigrants to blanket detention, which has come to define the no-release Trump immigration policy in the New York City area."
  • Trauma and Loss During Reentry: Early Findings from a Multi-State Trial, Florida State University Institute for Justice Research and Development. May, 2020. "47% of our participants experienced at least one traumatic event in the 8 months after their release from incarceration."
  • Sending New Yorkers to Jail: Police Unions, Campaign Contributions, and the Political Fight to Rollback Bail Reform, Center for Community Alternatives, Citizen Action of New York, and the Public Policy and Education Fund of New York. June, 2020. (On average, Senators who voted to expose more New Yorkers to money bail received 10 times as much in law enforcement union donations as those who voted in opposition.)
  • Widespread Desire for Policing and Criminal Justice Reform The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research. June, 2020. "Americans, regardless of race, strongly support policies that include body cameras, holding police accountable for excessive force and racially biased policing, and creating criteria for the use of force."
  • To Serve and Protect Each Other: How Police-Prosecutor Codependence Enables Police Misconduct, Somil Trivedi and Nicole Gonzalez Van Cleve. May, 2020. "The persistent, codependent relationship between police and prosecutors exacerbates police misconduct and violence and is aided by prosecutors in both legal and extralegal ways."
  • Police Brutality Bonds: How Wall Street Profits from Police Violence, Action Center on Race & the Economy. June, 2020. "In the twelve cities and counties included here, we found a total of nearly $878 million in bond borrowing to cover police related settlements and judgments."
  • #DefundPolice Toolkit: Concrete Steps Toward Divestment from Policing & Investment in Community Safety, Interrupting Criminalization: Research in Action & Movement for Black Lives. June, 2020. "#DefundPolice is a strategy that goes beyond dollars and cents--it is not just about decreasing police budgets, it is about reducing the power, scope, and size of police departments."
  • Police Killings in the US: Inequalities by Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Position, People's Policy Project. June, 2020. "Whites in the poorest areas have a police killing rate of 7.9 per million, compared to 2 per million in the least-poor areas. Blacks in the poorest areas have a police killing rate of 12.3 per million, compared to 6.7 per million in the least-poor areas."
  • The Limits of Fairer Fines: Lessons from Germany, Criminal Justice Policy Program at Harvard Law School. June, 2020. "Germany also shows us that considering ability to pay at sentencing in every case is possible without being unduly cumbersome."
  • Why Bail Reform is Safe and Effective: The Case of Cook County, The JFA Institute. April, 2020. "Judge Evans' Order has resulted in over 3,000 people each year who no longer are needlessly jailed because they can't afford bail. Thousands more are either spending less time in jail or avoiding prison sentences. And crime rates have dropped."
  • Paying on Probation: How Financial Sanctions Intersect with Probation to Target, Trap, and Punish People Who Cannot Pay, Criminal Justice Policy Program at Harvard Law School. June, 2020. "All but two states have statutes authorizing the imposition of supervision fees on people sentenced to some or all types of supervised probation.75 Most supervision fees are assessed monthly, and can be quite high, ranging from $10 to $150 per month."
  • Physical Health and Disability Among U.S. Adults Recently on Community Supervision Paywall :( Tyler N. A. Winkelman, Michelle S. Phelps, Kelly Lyn Mitchell, Latasha Jennings, Rebecca J. Shlafer. April, 2020. "Compared to the general population, adults recently on community supervision were significantly more likely to report fair or poor health, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hepatitis B or C, one or more chronic conditions, and any disability."
  • The Complexities of Race and Place: Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adult Incarceration for Whites, Blacks, and Latinos, Steven Elias Alvarado. June, 2020. "Blacks, the findings suggest, experience the weakest neighborhood associations with incarceration, suggesting that residential mobility for blacks does not protect against incarceration as much as it does for whites and Latinos."
  • Whitewashing the Jury Box: How California Perpetuates the Discriminatory Exclusion of Black and Latinx Jurors, Berkeley Law Death Penalty Clinic. 2015. "We evaluated nearly 700 cases decided by the California Courts of Appeal from 2006 through 2018, which involved objections to prosecutors' peremptory challenges. In nearly 72% of these cases, district attorneys used their strikes to remove Black jurors."
  • Do Public Defender Resources Matter? The Effect of Public Defender and Support Staff Caseloads on the Incarceration of Felony Defendants, Aaron Gottlieb and Kelsey Arnold. April, 2020. "Results suggest that felony defendants in counties with higher public defender and support staff caseloads are more likely to be detained pretrial and that felony defendants in counties with smaller support staff caseloads receive shorter incarceration."

Friday, June 26 2020:

  • Physical Health and Disability Among U.S. Adults Recently on Community Supervision Paywall :( Tyler N. A. Winkelman, Michelle S. Phelps, Kelly Lyn Mitchell, Latasha Jennings, and Rebecca J. Shlafer. April, 2020. "Compared to the general population, adults recently on community supervision were significantly more likely to report fair or poor health, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hepatitis B or C, one or more chronic conditions, and any disability."
  • Failing Grades: States' Responses to COVID-19 in Jails & Prisons, Prison Policy Initiative and ACLU. June, 2020. "Despite all of the information, voices calling for action, and the obvious need, state responses ranged from disorganized or ineffective, at best, to callously nonexistent at worst."
  • Police Disciplinary Appeals Stephen Rushin. 2019. "Many communities have established appeals procedures that may hamper reform efforts, contribute to officer misconduct, and limit public oversight of police departments."

Tuesday, June 23 2020:



Stay Informed


Get the latest updates:



Tweet this page Donate