Research Library:

Our mission is to empower activists, journalists, and policymakers to shape effective criminal justice policy, so we go beyond our original reports and analyses to curate a database of virtually all the empirical criminal justice research available online.

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Some of the most recently added reports are:

Tuesday, March 19 2019:

  • Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2019, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2019. "The American criminal justice system holds almost 2.3 million people."
  • Criminal Immigrants in 2017: Their Numbers, Demographics, and Countries of Origin, Cato Institute. March, 2019. "Legal and illegal immigrants were less likely to be incarcerated than native-born Americans in 2017, just as they were in 2014 and 2016."
  • Failure should not be an option: Grading the parole release systems of all 50 states, Prison Policy Initiative. February, 2019. "Parole systems should give every incarcerated person ample opportunity to earn release and have a fair, transparent process for deciding whether to grant it."
  • Reducing Barriers to Reintegration: Fair chance and expungement reforms in 2018, Collateral Consequences Resource Center. January, 2019. "In terms of sheer volume of new laws, 2018 marks the high point of recent state efforts to restore rights and status to people with a criminal record."
  • Expungement of Criminal Convictions: An Empirical Study, J.J. Prescott and Sonja B. Starr. March, 2019. (Among those legally eligible for expungement in Michigan, just 6.5% obtain it within five years of eligibility.)
  • Diversion in the Criminal Justice System Michael Mueller-Smith and Kevin T. Schnepel. January, 2019. "We find robust evidence across both experiments that diversion cuts reoffending rates in half (-32 p.p.) and grows quarterly employment rates by 53 percent (+18 p.p.) over 10 years."

Monday, March 18 2019:

  • Reforming Restrictive Housing: The 2018 ASCA-Liman Nationwide Survey of Time-in-Cell, The Association of State Correctional Administrators & The Liman Center for Public Interest Law at Yale Law School. October, 2018. "Across all the reporting jurisdictions, the median percentage of the population held in restrictive housing was 4.2%; the average was 4.6%."
  • Community and the Crime Decline: The Causal Effect of Local Nonprofits on Violent Crime, Patrick Sharkey, Gerard Torrats-Espinosa, Delaram Takyar. October, 2017. "We find strong evidence that establishment of community nonprofits had a substantively meaningful negative effect on murder, violent crime, and property crime."
  • Toward Misdemeanor Justice: Lessons from New York City, Greg Berman & Julian Adler. June, 2018. "This article seeks to articulate a new approach to misdemeanor justice that reconciles the maintenance of public safety with the urgent need to reduce unnecessary incarceration."
  • Criminalization of HIV Transmission and Exposure: Research and Policy Agenda, Zita Lazzarini et al.. August, 2013. "More than half the states have HIV-specific criminal laws, whereas all have traditional criminal provisions. Yet criminal laws have not been shown to be effective in reducing rates of HIV infection."
  • Police killings and their spillover effects on the mental health of black Americans: a population-based, quasi-experimental study, Jacob Bor, Atheendar S Venkataramani, David R Williams, Alexander C Tsai. June, 2018. "Police killings of unarmed black Americans have adverse effects on mental health among black American adults in the general population."
  • Too Poor to Pay: How Arkansas's Offender-Funded Justice System Drives Poverty & Mass Incarceration, Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law. March, 2019. "In Arkansas, thousands have been jailed, often repeatedly, for weeks or even months at a time, simply because they are poor and cannot afford to pay court costs, fines and fees."
  • How New Orleans Funds Justice Vera Institute of Justice. September, 2018. "New Orleans's criminal justice system has a funding structure that requires the court and other justice system agencies to raise revenues by imposing fees on people who come in contact with the system."
  • Ending Mass Incarceration: A Presidential Agenda, Brennan Center for Justice. February, 2019. (Presidential candidates should commit to tackling some of the most pervasive and damaging parts of our criminal justice system, including overly punitive sentences, bail practices that favor the rich, and drug policies that unfairly target people of color)
  • Criminalizing Race: Racial Disparities in Plea-Bargaining, Carlos Berdejo. April, 2018. "Efforts to mitigate racial disparities in sentencing and incarceration rates should consider disparities in the plea-bargaining process and initial charging decisions."
  • A New Path to Justice: Getting Women Off Rikers Island, Vera Institute of Justice. November, 2018. "The advisory group developed several recommendations for how New York City can embrace a different approach at three critical junctures in the criminal justice system: (1) at arrest; (2) at arraignment; and (3) when women are held at RMSC."

Friday, March 15 2019:

  • Mass incarceration, public health, and widening inequality in the USA Christopher Wildeman, Emily A Wang. April, 2017. "Soaring incarceration since the mid-1970s has profoundly affected health in the USA, especially in poor and minority communities."
  • Exploring Healthcare Experiences for Incarcerated Individuals Who Identify as Transgender in a Southern Jail Erin McCauley et al.. 2015. "Participants experienced high levels of abuse and harassment, solitary confinement, mental health issues, and lack of access to hormone treatment."
  • Consequences of Policing Prostitution: An Analysis of Individuals Arrested and Prosecuted for Commercial Sex in New York City, Urban Institute. April, 2017. "The history of criminalizing prostitution is long, but its modern incarnation in New York City is inextricably intertwined with "broken windows policing," which originated in the early 1990s."
  • A large-scale analysis of racial disparities in police stops across the United States Stanford Computational Policy Lab. March, 2019. "Our investigation of nearly 100 million traffic stops across the United States reveals evidence of widespread discrimination in decisions to stop and search drivers."
  • Return to Nowhere: The Revolving Door Between Incarceration and Homelessness, Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. February, 2019. "People experiencing homelessness are 11 times more likely to face incarceration when compared to the general population, and formerly incarcerated individuals are almost 10 times more likely to be homeless than the general public."
  • No Safe Place: The Criminalization of Homelessness in U.S. Cities, National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty. July, 2014. "Despite a lack of affordable housing and shelter space, many cities have chosen to criminally punish people living on the street for doing what any human being must do to survive."
  • Seattle's Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD): Program Effects on Recidivism Outcomes, Susan E. Collins, Heather S. Lonczak, Seema L. Clifasefi. 2015. (Findings indicated positive effects of the Seattle's Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion program on criminal recidivism over shorter six-month and longer evaluation-wide timeframes.)
  • Mothers Behind Bars: A state-by-state report card and analysis of federal policies on conditions of confinement for pregnant/parenting women, The Rebecca Project for Human Rights and The National Women's Law Center. October, 2010. "Pregnant women, incarcerated women and their children are subject to federal and state correctional policies that fail to recognize their distinct needs or honor their families."


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