Research Library:

Our mission is to empower activists, journalists, and policymakers to shape effective criminal justice policy, so we go beyond our original reports and analyses to curate a database of virtually all the empirical criminal justice research available online.

Tips: If you know what you are looking for, you may also search the database. We also have an email newsletter (at right)(at bottom) for new research library updates.

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Some of the most recently added reports are:

Friday, May 3 2024:

  • Vaccine Effectiveness Against SARS-CoV-2 Related Hospitalizations in People who had Experienced Homelessness or Incarceration - Findings from the Minnesota EHR Consortium, Malini B. DeSilva, Gregory Knowlton, Nayanjot K. Rai, et al.. December, 2023. "Despite lower vaccination rates and potential for higher COVID-19 exposures in people experiencing homelessness or incarceration, COVID-19 vaccines reduced risk for SARS-CoV-2 related hospitalizations."
  • COVID-19 Vaccination of People Experiencing Homelessness and Incarceration in Minnesota Paywall :( Riley D. Shearer, Katherine Diaz Vickery, Peter Bodurtha, et al.. June, 2022. "By the end of 2021, 64% of the general population in Minnesota and 71% of people recently incarcerated in prison had completed the COVID-19 vaccine series, far exceeding the rate among people experiencing homelessness (34%) or jail incarceration (30%)."
  • Access to Psychiatric and Education Services During Incarceration in the United States Paywall :( Brandy F. Henry & Joy Gray. May, 2023. "Psychiatric disorders were associated with lower educational attainment before incarceration and lower access to education services during incarceration."
  • Forgotten Fundamentals: A Review of State Legislation on Nutrition for Incarcerated Pregnant and Postpartum People, Paywall :( Julia Vitagliano, Talia Shalev, Jennifer B Saunders, Ellen Mason, Jamie Stang, Rebecca Shlafer, & Bethany Kotlar. March, 2024. "Less than a third of states had nutrition-related mandates [for incarcerated pregnant people] and no states had statutes that included all key nutrition recommendations."
  • State level variation in substance use treatment admissions among criminal legal-referred individuals Paywall :( Riley D. Shearer, Tyler N.A. Winkelman, & Utsha G. Khatri. November, 2022. "Methamphetamine use was the most common substance leading to treatment referral from the criminal legal system in 24 states while opioid use was the most common reason for non-criminal legal referrals in 34 states."
  • Health Insurance and Mental Health Treatment Use Among Adults With Criminal Legal Involvement After Medicaid Expansion, Paywall :( Benjamin A. Howell, Laura C. Hawks, Lilanthi Balasuriya, Virginia W. Chang, Emily A. Wang, & Tyler N. A. Winkelman. April, 2023. "Medicaid expansion was associated with an 18 percentage-point increase in insurance coverage but no change in receipt of substance use treatment among individuals with substance use disorder."
  • Cancer incidence among incarcerated and formerly incarcerated individuals: A statewide retrospective cohort study, Jenerius A. Aminawung, Pamela R. Soulos, Oluwadamilola T. Oladeru, et al.. March, 2023. "Among Connecticut residents from 2005-16, cancer incidence was lower in incarcerated individuals, but higher in recently released individuals compared with the general population, and across all race and ethnic strata."
  • Racial differences in testing for infectious diseases: An analysis of jail intake data, Alysse G. Wurcel, Rubeen Guardado, Emily D. Grussing, et al.. December, 2023. "In one Massachusetts jail 2016-2020, Black non-Hispanic and Hispanic people were more likely to opt-in to and complete infectious disease testing than white people. These findings could be related to racial disparities in access to care in the community."
  • The Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Incarcerated Older Adults Paywall :( Jacques Baillargeon, Lannette C Linthicum, Owen J Murray, et al.. December, 2023. "35% of our random sample of incarcerated older adults in Texas prisons met the threshold for mild cognitive impairment and 9.1% met the threshold for dementia."
  • The "Profane Margins" of the State: Florida Sheriff Walter R. Clark and the Local History of Crime, Policing, and Incarceration, Paywall :( Cindy Hahamovitch. 2023. "[...] we can find sheriffs with myriad responsibilities, unbridled power, and little oversight almost everywhere in the United States."
  • Minnesota Statewide Probation and Supervised Release Outcomes Report for 2019 Annual Report 2023, Minnesota Department of Corrections. December, 2023. "70% of the individuals leaving supervised release in Minnesota in 2019 had no new felony convictions within three years."
  • Racial Differences in Self-Report of Mental Illness and Mental Illness Treatment in the Community: An Analysis of Jail Intake Data, Narcissa Plummer, Rubeen Guardado, Yvane Ngassa, et al.. September, 2023. "In a Massachusetts jail, Hispanic, Black (NH), Asian/Pacific Islander (NH), other race/ethnicity people were less likely to report a history of mental illness at jail intake, and less likely to report receiving psychiatric medications in the community."
  • Women and Massachusetts County Jails: An Introduction, Women & Incarceration Project, Center for Women's Health & Human Rights at Suffolk University. March, 2024. "The large majority of women in Massachusetts county jails are aged 39 or younger. In contrast, ages are more evenly distributed among women at MCI-Framingham (a Massachusetts state prison)."
  • Health Care Access and Use Among Children & Adolescents Exposed to Parental Incarceration - United States, 2019, Rohan Khazanchi, Nia J. Heard-Garris, & Tyler N.A. Winkelman. October, 2022. "Parental incarceration was associated with an additional 123,703 children with no usual source of care, 114,795 with forgone dental care needs, 75,434 with delayed mental health care needs, and 53,678 with forgone mental health care needs"

Thursday, April 25 2024:

  • Lethal injection in the modern era: Cruel, unusual, and racist, Reprieve. April, 2024. "Black people had 220% higher odds of suffering a botched lethal injection execution than white people from 1976 to 2023."
  • Evaluation of Changes in US Health Insurance Coverage for Individuals With Criminal Legal Involvement in Medicaid Expansion and Nonexpansion States, 2010 to 2017, Benjamin A. Howell, Laura Hawks, Emily A. Wang, and Tyler N. A. Winkelman. April, 2022. "Medicaid expansion was associated with a 14.9-percentage point increase in insurance coverage...for low-income adults with recent criminal legal involvement."
  • The Affordable Care Act, Insurance Coverage, & Health Care Utilization of Previously Incarcerated Young Men: 2008-2015, Tyler N.A. Winkelman, HwaJung Choi, and Matthew M. Davis. March, 2017. "Uninsurance declined significantly among previously incarcerated men after the 2014 ACA implementation (-5.9 percentage points), primarily because of an increase in private insurance."
  • Employment and Health Among Recently Incarcerated Men Before and After the Affordable Care Act (2009-2017), Carmen M. Gutierrez and Becky Pettit. January, 2020. "After ACA implementation, uninsurance decreased by 26 percentage points among recently incarcerated, unemployed men."
  • Justice-Involved Adults With Substance Use Disorders: Coverage Increased But Rates Of Treatment Did Not In 2014, Brendan Saloner, Sachini N. Bandara, Emma E. McGinty, and Colleen L. Barry. June, 2016. "In 2014, after ACA implementation, the uninsurance rate among justice-involved individuals with substance use disorders declined from 38% to 28%... [and those] receiving treatment were more likely to have care paid for by Medicaid than in the prior decade"
  • Criminal record stigma, race, and neighborhood inequality Laura M. DeMarco. July, 2023. "The criminal record effect is estimated to be twice as large in gentrifying compared with nongentrifying neighborhoods and stronger in communities where the relative size of the Black population is shrinking."
  • Following Incarceration, Most Released Offenders Never Return to Prison Paywall :( William Rhodes, Gerald Gaes, Jeremy Luallen, Ryan Kling, Tom Rich, and Michael Shively. September, 2014. "Roughly two of every three offenders who enter and exit prison will never return to prison."
  • Racial and ethnic differences in the consequences of school suspension for arrest Benjamin W. Fisher & Alex O. Widdowson. June, 2023. "Within a given wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort, students who experienced an increase in suspension also experienced an increase of approximately 56.2% in their odds of being arrested in that same wave."

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