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Appendix 1: State Data
States of Incarceration: The Global Context 2021

by Emily Widra and Tiana Herring
September 2021

States and territories Combined prison and local jail Youth Indian Country jails Civil commitment Pre-trial evaluation Not guilty by reason of insanity Incompetent to stand trial Federal Immigration Military Total incarceration Federal origin percentage State population Incarceration rate Violent crime rate
Alabama 42,200 915 N/A N/A N/A 171 N/A 3,855 N/A N/A 47,141 1.97% 5,024,279 938 511
Alaska 4,500 243 1 N/A 1 1 8 509 N/A N/A 5,263 0.26% 733,391 718 867
American Samoa 196 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1 N/A N/A 197 0.00% 55,191 358 N/A
Arizona 56,000 786 734 82 N/A 82 6 4,364 N/A N/A 62,054 2.23% 7,151,502 868 455
Arkansas 25,500 459 N/A N/A 9 123 55 2,231 N/A N/A 28,377 1.14% 3,011,524 942 585
California 196,100 4,239 N/A 937 N/A 1,369 1,256 13,015 N/A N/A 216,916 6.65% 39,538,223 549 441
Colorado 32,500 837 65 N/A 29 121 164 1,761 N/A N/A 35,477 0.90% 5,773,714 614 381
Connecticut 12,800 81 N/A N/A N/A 118 52 1,174 N/A N/A 14,225 0.60% 3,605,944 394 184
Delaware 5,700 105 N/A N/A 6 7 14 411 N/A N/A 6,243 0.21% 989,948 631 423
District of Columbia 1,800 87 N/A N/A 57 102 25 4,129 N/A N/A 6,200 2.11% 689,545 899 1,049
Florida 151,600 2,301 N/A 543 N/A 462 1,062 15,324 N/A N/A 171,292 7.83% 21,538,187 795 378
Georgia (State) 94,800 1,317 N/A N/A 27 163 213 7,202 N/A N/A 103,722 3.68% 10,711,908 968 341
Guam 559 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 78 N/A N/A 637 0.04% 159,385 400 N/A
Hawaii 5,300 39 N/A N/A 20 38 75 920 N/A N/A 6,392 0.47% 1,455,271 439 286
Idaho 12,700 438 48 N/A N/A 1 14 802 N/A N/A 14,003 0.41% 1,839,106 761 224
Illinois 54,700 912 N/A 553 N/A 359 301 6,909 N/A N/A 63,734 3.53% 12,812,508 497 407
Indiana 47,300 1,329 N/A N/A N/A 9 140 3,151 N/A N/A 51,929 1.61% 6,785,528 765 371
Iowa 14,300 627 N/A 150 N/A 0 N/A 3,503 N/A N/A 18,580 1.79% 3,190,369 582 267
Kansas 18,000 402 N/A 266 19 25 46 1,742 N/A N/A 20,500 0.89% 2,937,880 698 411
Kentucky 38,400 453 N/A N/A 52 N/A N/A 3,014 N/A N/A 41,919 1.54% 4,505,836 930 217
Louisiana 47,600 711 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,623 N/A N/A 50,934 1.34% 4,657,757 1,094 549
Maine 3,800 48 N/A N/A 5 38 10 568 N/A N/A 4,469 0.29% 1,362,359 328 115
Maryland 27,100 510 N/A N/A 259 232 224 4,482 N/A N/A 32,807 2.29% 6,177,224 531 454
Massachusetts 17,200 288 N/A 161 72 17 54 1,546 N/A N/A 19,338 0.79% 7,029,917 275 328
Michigan 53,900 1,473 9 N/A N/A 124 85 4,756 N/A N/A 60,347 2.43% 10,077,331 599 437
Minnesota 15,900 531 64 742 N/A 39 98 2,153 N/A N/A 19,527 1.10% 5,706,494 342 236
Mississippi 28,300 204 62 N/A 15 12 3 1,938 N/A N/A 30,534 0.99% 2,961,279 1,031 278
Missouri 37,600 798 N/A 265 4 217 184 6,165 N/A N/A 45,233 3.15% 6,154,913 735 495
Montana 6,900 117 242 N/A 5 49 5 1,233 N/A N/A 8,551 0.63% 1,084,225 789 405
Nebraska 9,800 435 14 158 1 33 10 1,331 N/A N/A 11,782 0.68% 1,961,504 601 301
Nevada 20,000 540 19 N/A 12 2 44 1,507 N/A N/A 22,124 0.77% 3,104,614 713 494
New Hampshire 4,000 42 N/A 1 N/A N/A N/A 470 N/A N/A 4,513 0.24% 1,377,529 328 153
New Jersey 27,900 507 N/A 458 29 249 100 2,407 N/A N/A 31,650 1.23% 9,288,994 341 207
New Mexico 13,300 288 165 N/A 2 N/A 35 1,742 N/A N/A 15,532 0.89% 2,117,522 733 832
New York 64,000 891 N/A 375 N/A 503 290 9,962 N/A N/A 76,021 5.09% 20,201,249 376 359
North Carolina 54,400 474 N/A N/A 6 50 151 9,296 N/A N/A 64,377 4.75% 10,439,388 617 372
North Dakota 3,300 90 179 51 N/A N/A N/A 920 N/A N/A 4,540 0.47% 779,094 583 285
Northern Mariana Islands 175 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 20 N/A N/A 195 0.01% 53,883 361 N/A
Ohio 70,900 1,815 N/A N/A 24 266 182 4,540 N/A N/A 77,727 2.32% 11,799,448 659 293
Oklahoma 36,300 441 7 N/A 13 66 91 2,407 N/A N/A 39,325 1.23% 3,959,353 993 432
Oregon 21,000 696 37 N/A N/A 290 134 1,350 N/A N/A 23,507 0.69% 4,237,256 555 284
Pennsylvania 77,000 2,307 N/A 55 121 15 87 6,126 N/A N/A 85,711 3.13% 13,002,700 659 306
Puerto Rico 5,610 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 4,403 N/A N/A 10,013 2.25% 3,285,874 305 203
Rhode Island 2,700 138 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 333 N/A N/A 3,171 0.17% 1,097,379 289 221
South Carolina 29,700 501 N/A 208 8 54 166 4,071 N/A N/A 34,708 2.08% 5,118,425 678 511
South Dakota 5,800 150 212 N/A N/A N/A 6 1,135 N/A N/A 7,303 0.58% 886,667 824 399
Tennessee 50,500 423 N/A N/A 29 42 36 6,869 N/A N/A 57,899 3.51% 6,910,840 838 595
Texas 215,100 4,194 N/A 368 1 222 889 24,111 N/A N/A 244,885 12.32% 29,145,505 840 419
Utah 12,500 351 N/A N/A N/A 11 86 1,272 N/A N/A 14,220 N/A 3,271,616 435 236
Vermont 1,600 15 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 235 N/A N/A 1,850 0.65% 643,077 288 202
Virgin Islands 371 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 176 N/A N/A 547 0.12% 106,405 514 N/A
Virginia 57,700 951 N/A 431 13 267 129 5,167 N/A N/A 64,658 0.09% 8,631,393 749 208
Washington 30,800 690 428 175 15 232 156 2,525 N/A N/A 35,021 2.64% 7,705,281 455 294
West Virginia 11,000 576 N/A N/A N/A 52 80 1,409 N/A N/A 13,117 1.29% 1,793,716 731 317
Wisconsin 36,200 588 51 271 1 194 43 1,742 N/A N/A 39,090 0.72% 5,893,718 663 293
Wyoming 4,000 183 48 N/A 15 11 N/A 646 N/A N/A 4,903 0.89% 576,851 850 217
U.S. Total 1,918,911 37,529 2,790 6,250 870 6,438 6,809 217,407 27,292 1,214 2,225,510 N/A 335,110,019 664 379

Sources and methodology

Combined prison and local jail
Combined population of state prisons and local jails at year end 2019, including an adjustment to avoid double-counting people under state jurisdiction being held in local jails. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Populations in the United States, 2019 Appendix Table 1 and Prisoners in 2019 Table 21 for territorial populations.
Youth
People younger than 21 detained or committed to juvenile residential placement facilities (not adult prisons or jails) because of justice system involvement as of October 24, 2018. The totals reported for states do not match the U.S. total due to rounding for anonymity. Source: Juvenile Residential Facility Census Databook: 2000-2018.
Indian Country jails
Average daily population of adults and youth held in jails in Indian country in June 2018. Nine facilities did not report data, so the totals reported for the states do not match the estimated U.S. total, which imputes data for the missing facilities. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Jails in Indian Country, 2017-2018, Appendix Table 1.
Civil commitment
People convicted of sexual offenses who are detained or committed in “civil commitment centers” (typically prison-like facilities) under civil commitment laws after their sentences are complete. Source: An annual survey conducted by the Sex Offender Civil Commitment Programs Network, the results of which were shared with the Prison Policy Initiative.
Pre-trial evaluation
People involuntarily committed by the court to state psychiatric hospitals for evaluation of competency to stand trial. Survey data are only available for 37 states. Source: NRI report, Forensic Patients in State Psychiatric Hospitals, 1999-2016, pages 91-92. Arkansas count for pre-trial evaluation was corrected after consulting with an official in the state’s forensic psychiatry program to only include the 9 inpatient evaluations conducted in 2014.
Not guilty by reason of insanity
People involuntarily committed by the court to state psychiatric hospitals after being found Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity or Guilty but Mentally Ill. Survey data are only available for 37 states. Source: NRI report, Forensic Patients in State Psychiatric Hospitals, 1999-2016, pages 103-104.
Incompetent to stand trial
People involuntarily committed by the court to state psychiatric hospitals for evaluation or restoration services for incompetency to stand trial. Survey data are only available for 37 states. Source: NRI report, Forensic Patients in State Psychiatric Hospitals, 1999-2016, pages 98-99.
Federal
Population under authority of the Federal Bureau of Prisons (as of July 15, 2021) or U.S. Marshals Service (average daily population in fiscal year 2020). The combined population of 216,925 was reallocated to the states using a ratio of the state of legal residence for the BOP population as of 2019, based on the reuslts of FOIA request 2019-04597. Unlike other categories, this population is based on state of residence rather than jurisdictional authority. In addition, 9.07% of the people in Bureau of Prisons custody are identified as “foreign.” We did not reallocate this 9.07% of the custody population to the states, but we did include them in the U.S. total. Source: Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) Population Statistics and the U.S. Marshals Service 2021 Prisoner Operations Fact Sheet.
Immigration
The average daily population under the custody of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) in July 2021. We could not reallocate this population to states of residence as we did with other federal detainees, but included the population in the U.S. total incarceration rate. Source: Immigration and Customs Enforcement Detention Statistics.
Military
People under military correctional authority at yearend 2019. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prisoners in 2019 Table 19.
Total incarceration
The combined total of all confined populations reported in other columns.
Federal origin percentage
Percentage of people under federal Bureau of Prisons or U.S. Marshals Service authority reporting the given state as their state of legal residence, as of as of July 15, 2021. This was used to reallocate people listed under BOP and USMS jurisdiction back to the states. Source: FOIA request 2019-04597.
State population
Total resident population on April 1, 2020 from the Census Bureau 2020 Apportionment Data Table 2.
Incarceration rate
Number of people confined per 100,000 residents of each state (the national rate is based on the total number of U.S. residents).
Violent crime rate
Number of violent crimes per 100,000 residents of each state (the national rate is based on the total number of U.S. residents). Violent crime is defined as the cumulative rate of assault, robbery, sexual assault/rape, and homicide reported to law enforcement. Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Crime in the United States, 2019 Table 5. For more information on how and why we measured “violent crime,” see the "Violent crime" analysis and methodology section of the report.

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