Washington, D.C. has an incarceration rate of 899 per 100,000 people (including prisons, jails, immigration detention, and juvenile justice facilities).
The D.C. criminal justice system is especially unique—after the Lorton Prison Complex was closed down in 2001, the District's prison population has been integrated into the federal Bureau of Prisons system. The District of Columbia's Department of Corrections currently operates two facilities that serve functions similar to local jails. While we don't (yet) have a good annual data source for prison growth after 2001, the data that does exist indicates that District of Columbia has the highest incarceration rate in the U.S., and therefore the world.
Additionally, the number of people impacted by local jails in Washington, D.C. is much larger than the graph above would suggest, because people cycle through local jails relatively quickly. Each year, at least 12,000 different people are booked into local jails in Washington, D.C.
Also see these District of Columbia graphs: