General

Atlases, indices, and broad-based source material

On this page, the Prison Policy Initiative has curated all of the broad-based research about the criminal justice system that we know of. For research on other criminal justice topics, see our Research Library homepage.


  • The Pandemic Gender Gap Behind Bars: Meeting the Needs of Women in Custody During COVID-19 and Planning for the Future Alycia Welch and Michele Deitch, May, 2021“Even before the pandemic, women were overlooked in correctional facilities that were not designed for them and that are not administered with them in mind.”
  • (New) Just over half of incarcerated people are vaccinated, despite being locked in COVID-19 epicenters Prison Policy Initiative, May, 2021“Most states did not prioritize incarcerated people in their vaccination plans. As a result, seven months since the first vaccines were distributed, just 55% of people in prison have been vaccinated, leaving them vulnerable to infection.”
  • (New) Youth in Adult and Juvenile Correctional Facilities: Comparison of Services and Behavioral Management Paywall :( Insun Park and Christopher J. Sullivan, May, 2021“Given contemporary efforts to prevent adolescents from experiencing the negative consequences of incarceration, it is critical to assess the impact of juvenile transfer.”
  • (New) Juvenile Life Without Parole: An Overview Sentencing Project, May, 2021“The United States stands alone as the only nation that sentences people to life without parole for crimes committed before turning 18.”
  • Campaign for Criminal Justice Data Modernization: Recommendations From an Expert Roundtable Arnold Ventures, April, 2021“Unfortunately, criminal justice reform is made more difficult by data that is incomplete and fraught with error.”
  • A Better Path Forward for Criminal Justice: A Report by the Brookings-AEI Working Group on Criminal Justice Reform The Brookings Institution, American Enterprise Institute, April, 2021“The essays in this volume are intended to provide...research-grounded guidance and insight on core issues and strategies that can sustain bipartisan support for critically needed criminal justice reforms.”
  • What Doesn't Get Measured Doesn't Get Done: A Roadmap for Data Collection and Reporting in the Era of Bail Reform Joanna Thomas, Abdiaziz Ahmed, New York City Criminal Justice Agency, April, 2021“Proper pretrial data collection, analysis, and reporting can help to build systems that meet local needs, save money, improve program practices, and decrease jail crowding.”
  • Redefining the Narrative: On Behalf of the Statewide Women's Justice Task Force of Illinois Deanna Benos, Alyssa Benedict, The Women's Justice Institute, April, 2021“Prisons have been deployed as a default response to women's attempts to survive untenable social conditions, yet there is no evidence that any amount of time in prison is helpful or even improves public safety.”
  • Mortality in State and Federal Prisons, 2001-2018 - Statistical Tables Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2021“In 2018, a total of 4,135 state prisoners died in publicly or privately operated prisons, and an additional 378 federal prisoners died in facilities operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP).”
  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2017-2018 Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2021“Of the 372,354 persons under some form of federal correctional control at fiscal year-end 2018, 60% were in secure confinement and 40% were under community supervision.”
  • Veterans in Prison Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2021“An estimated 107,400 veterans were serving time in state or federal prison in 2016.”
  • Time Served in State Prison, 2018 Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2021“The average time served by state prisoners released in 2018, from initial admission to initial release, was 2.7 years, and the median time served was 1.3 years.”
  • Federal Prisoner Statistics Collected Under The First Step Act, 2020 Bureau of Justice Statistics, February, 2021“The portion of federal prisoners who were the parent, step-parent, or guardian of a minor child (defined as a dependent age 20 or younger by the BOP) grew from 45% to 49% from year-end 2018 to year-end 2019.”
  • More states need to use their "good time" systems to get people out of prison during COVID-19 Prison Policy Initiative, January, 2021“The suspension of programs during the pandemic makes it impossible for people in prison to work toward earlier release.”
  • (New) Prisons and Penny-Pinching: Finding Budget Savings in the Time of COVID-19 Texas Public Policy Coalition, January, 2021“Even a small percentage reduction in the number of annual revocations can potentially yield millions in annual cost savings.”
  • How Governors Can Use Categorical Clemency as a Corrective Tool Urban Institute, November, 2020“Though many clemency deliberations are independent case-by-case assessments, in some cases, governors can also extend clemency eligibility categorically to groups of people in prison to mitigate structural issues or accomplish larger reform goals.”
  • People in Prison in 2019 Vera Institute of Justice, May, 2020“"Vera researchers collected data on the number of people who were incarcerated in state and federal prisons as of December 31, 2019...[and] updated data on people in prison at the end of the first quarter of 2020."”
  • Compassionate release was never designed to release large numbers of people Prison Policy Initiative, May, 2020“Unfortunately, what they, and the American public, are learning is that compassionate release is not a transparent and linear process, but an unpredictably ordered series of obstacles.”
  • report thumbnail Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2020 Prison Policy Initiative, March, 2020“The American criminal justice system holds almost 2.3 million people”
  • Data Collected Under the First Step Act, 2019 Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2020(At year-end 2018, a total of 80,599 people in federal prisons-- or 45% of the BOP population--were the parent, step-parent, or guardian of a minor child.)
  • The National Registry of Exonerations Annual Report The National Registry of Exonerations, March, 2020“Last year saw a record number of years lost to prison by defendants exonerated for crimes they did not commit--1,908 years in total for 143 exonerations, an average of 13.3 years lost per exoneree.”
  • Mortality in State and Federal Prisons, 2001-2016 Bureau of Justice Statistics, February, 2020“The number of deaths in state prisons rose 1.3% from 2015 to 2016 (from 3,682 to 3,729), while the number of deaths in federal prisons fell 15% (from 455 to 388).”
  • From Decarceration to E-Carceration Chaz Arnett, February, 2020“A move from decarceration to e-carceration, or from mass incarceration to mass surveillance, will likely fail to resolve, and may exacerbate, one of the greatest harms of mass incarceration: the maintenance of social stratification.”
  • Restorative Prosecution? Rethinking Responses to Violence Olivia Dana and Sherene Crawford, January, 2020“As progressive prosecutors attempt to take on criminal justice reform, restorative justice offers a path forward, as well as a means of handling violent cases, and complements the reforms they are already carrying out for lower-level, nonviolent cases.”
  • One Year After the First Step Act: Mixed Outcomes Sentencing Project, December, 2019“Expansion of good-time credits implemented in July led to the release of approximately 3,000 in federal prisons; one-third, however, were transferred to the custody of other jurisdictions because of existing detainers.”
  • Does contact with the justice system deter or promote future delinquency? Results from a longitudinal study of British adolescent twins Ryan T. Motz et al., December, 2019“We found that contact with the justice system--through spending a night in jail/prison, being issued an ASBO, or having an official crime record--promotes misbehavior, which supports the labeling hypothesis.”
  • Court-Ordered Community Service: A National Perspective Center for Court Innovation, November, 2019“Numerous findings also suggest current practices are undercutting the potential of community service to act as an alternative to fines and fees.”
  • Since you asked: Is it me, or is the government releasing less data about the criminal justice system? Prison Policy Initiative, November, 2019(Reports by the Bureau of Justice Statistics are slowing down - and its framing of criminal justice issues is becoming more punitive.)
  • Unlocking the Bar: Expanding Access to the Legal Profession for People with Criminal Records in California Stanford Center on the Legal Profession & Stanford Criminal Justice Center, July, 2019“Successive barriers impede access to California's legal profession for qualified candidates with criminal records.”
  • Thinking About Emerging Adults and Violent Crime Emerging Adult Justice Project, May, 2019“Viewed through this lens, punishment oriented approaches to violent acts are inadequate. Instead, punitive criminal justice policy often perpetuates violence by adding to the socio-economic disadvantage in which violence can flourish.”
  • Reconsidering the "Violent Offender" Square One Project, May, 2019“A meaningful decrease in the United States' historically high rates of incarceration will require that reforms extend to people imprisoned for offenses considered violent.”
  • Next Steps in Federal Corrections Reform Implementing and Building on the First Step Act Urban Institute, May, 2019(Successful implementation will require the commitment and buy-in of the DOJ and BOP, education and training, adequate funding, faithful development and execution of the risk and needs assessment tool, and outside oversight to monitor progress.)
  • Prisoners in 2017 Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2019“The imprisonment rate for sentenced prisoners under state or federal jurisdiction decreased 2.1% from 2016 to 2017 (from 450 to 440 sentenced prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents).”
  • People in Prison in 2018 Vera Institute of Justice, April, 2019“Prison incarceration rates fell in 35 states and grew in 15 others.”
  • Jail Inmates in 2017 Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2019“County and city jails held 745,200 inmates at midyear 2017.”
  • report thumbnail Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2019 Prison Policy Initiative, March, 2019“The American criminal justice system holds almost 2.3 million people.”
  • The Opportunity Atlas: Mapping the Childhood Roots of Social Mobility Opportunity Insights, October, 2018“Moving to a neighborhood that is just a mile or two away can change children's average earnings by several thousand dollars a year and have significant effects on a spectrum of other outcomes ranging from incarceration to teenage birth rates.”
  • Toward Misdemeanor Justice: Lessons from New York City Greg Berman & Julian Adler, June, 2018“This article seeks to articulate a new approach to misdemeanor justice that reconciles the maintenance of public safety with the urgent need to reduce unnecessary incarceration.”
  • You Get What You Measure: New Performance Indicators Needed to Gauge Progress of Criminal Justice Reform Harvard Kennedy School, May, 2018(This report argues that we need new performance measures that shed light on correctional population composition and recidivism by risk in order to gauge the effectiveness of reform efforts.)
  • Report to the United Nations on Racial Disparities in the U.S. Criminal Justice System The Sentencing Project, April, 2018“This report chronicles the racial disparity that permeates every stage of the United States criminal justice system, from arrest to trial to sentencing to post prison experiences.”
  • The State of Justice Reform 2017 Vera Institute of Justice, March, 2018(This report identifies the major trends & developments in the justice system during 2017, and looks ahead to how this new policy landscape will inform criminal justice reform work in 2018.)
  • Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2018 Prison Policy Initiative, March, 2018(Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie answers the essential questions of how many people are locked up, where, and why.)
  • 50-State Report on Public Safety The Council of State Governments, March, 2018(This report brings together data from all 50 states on crime, recidivism, corrections trends, and key findings from research on what works to guide the design of new public safety efforts.)
  • Louisiana's 2017 Criminal Justice Reforms: The most incarcerated state changes course The Pew Charitable Trusts, March, 2018(On June 15, 2017, Louisiana Governor John Bel Edwards (D) signed the most comprehensive justice reform package in state history, projected to reduce prison & community supervision populations, and save taxpayers $262 million dollars over a 10 year period.)
  • Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2016: A Criminal Justice Information Policy Report Bureau of Justice Statistics, February, 2018(This report shows that there are 110,235,200 criminal history files across the U.S., including Puerto Rico and Guam.)
  • The Mercy Lottery: A Review of the Obama Administration's Clemency Initiative NYU Law School, January, 2018(This report analyzes President Obama's clemency initiative and tells the stories of individual petitioners who were either denied clemency or whose petitions were never granted, despite being ideal candidates by the Initiative's own terms.)
  • Using Behavioral Science to Improve Criminal Justice Outcomes: Preventing Failures to Appear in Court ideas42 and the University of Chicago Crime Lab, January, 2018(This report illustrates how a behavioral science approach to criminal justice can result in a more fair and efficient system.)
  • Advancing Sensible Justice in Tennessee Beacon Center of Tennessee, January, 2018(More than 130,000 Tennesseans are behind bars or working through the criminal justice system. This report calls for a sharp change in the state's criminal justice system in order to reduce costs, increase public safety, and prevent recidivism.)
  • Winnable criminal justice reforms: A Prison Policy Initiative briefing on promising state reform issues for 2018 Prison Policy Initiative, December, 2017(This briefing outlines a number of criminal justice policy reforms lawmakers can implement to reduce mass incarceration in 2018.)
  • Disrupting the Cycle: Reimagining the Prosecutor's Role in Reentry NYU Center on the Administration of Criminal Law, November, 2017(Prosecutors have traditionally focused on their "front-end" role, but by defining their role as ending at case disposition, prosecutors miss an important opportunity to have a greater impact on public safety.)
  • Florida Criminal Justice Reform: Understanding the Challenges and Opportunities The Project on Accountable Justice, November, 2017(This report is an effort to help Florida's citizens and policy makers understand the nature of some of the problems found in the criminal justice system, notably resulting in dangerous prisons. It also suggests opportunities for reform.)
  • report thumbnail Women's Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2017 Prison Policy Initiative, October, 2017“This report provides a first-of-its-kind detailed view of the 219,000 women incarcerated in the United States, and how they fit into the even larger picture of correctional control.”
  • Reforming Criminal Justice: Bridging the Gap Between Scholarship and Reform Academy for Justice, October, 2017(This report covers dozens of topics within the areas of criminalization, policing, pretrial and trial processes, punishment, incarceration, and release.)
  • The Prison Paradox: More Incarceration Will Not Make Us Safer Vera Institute of Justice, July, 2017“The impact of incarceration on crime is limited and has been diminishing for several years. Increased incarceration has no effect on violent crime and may actually lead to higher crime rates when incarceration is concentrated in certain communities.”
  • A Matter of Time: The Causes and Consequences of Rising Time Served in America's Prisons Urban Institute, July, 2017(• A growing share of the U.S. prison population has been incarcerated for 10 or more years " and in at least 11 states the number of people in prison for a decade or longer has more than doubled since 2000.)
  • The Status of Black Women in the United States Institute for Women's Policy Research, June, 2017“The intention behind this report is to make visible the experiences of Black women in our economy and our democracy.”
  • Designed to Fail: The President's Deference to the Department of Justice in Advancing Criminal Justice Reform Rachel E. Barkow and Mark Osler, June, 2017“This Article offers institutional changes that would help future presidents make the system less punitive and reduce prison populations.”
  • Trends in U.S. Corrections Sentencing Project, June, 2017(This fact sheet, updated June|2017, provides a compilation of key developments in the criminal justice system over the past several decades.)
  • The Use and Impact of Correctional Programming for Inmates on Pre- and Post-Release Outcomes National Institute of Justice, June, 2017“This paper reviews the available evidence on the impact of institutional programming on pre- and post-release outcomes for prisoners.”
  • Trends in U.S. Corrections Sentencing Project, June, 2017(This fact sheet, updated June|2017, provides a compilation of key developments in the criminal justice system over the past several decades.)
  • A Federal Agenda to Reduce Mass Incarceration Brennan Center for Justice, May, 2017“Federal funding drives state policy, and helped create our current crisis of mass incarceration. And the federal government sets the national tone, which is critical to increasing public support and national momentum for change.”
  • The Case for Paid Apprenticeships Behind Bars Center for American Progress, April, 2017“This brief argues that greater access to paid prison apprenticeship programs could effectively improve inmates’ post-release outcomes, particularly for a group of individuals who already face significant barriers to labor market entry.”
  • Right to Counsel Services in the 50 States: An Indigent Defense Reference Guide for Policymakers Sixth Amendment Center, March, 2017“The variations amongst how states deal with the Sixth Amendment does not stop at funding and oversight. The number of structural approaches to providing lawyers to the poor is great.”
  • Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2017 Prison Policy Initiative, March, 2017(Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie answers the essential questions of how many people are locked up, where, and why.)
  • Guideposts for the Era of Smart Decarceration Center for Social Development, February, 2017(This report offers strategies for practitioners, advocates, reformers, and researchers with an interest in transforming the criminal justice system.)
  • report thumbnail Following the Money of Mass Incarceration Prison Policy Initiative, January, 2017“In this first-of-its-kind report, we find that the system of mass incarceration costs the government and families of justice-involved people at least $182 billion every year.”
  • Expanding the Reach of Victim Services: Maximizing the Potential of VOCA Funding for Underserved Survivors Vera Institute of Justice, August, 2016“Too often, victims of crime who are from underserved backgrounds are left out of victim services. With this new infusion of funds, the field can grow to better provide for marginalized people.”
  • Making Hard Time Harder: Programmatic Accommodations for Inmates with Disabilities Under the Americans with Disabilities Act AVID Prison Project, July, 2016“This report...aims to highlight the difficulties that inmates with disabilities face as they seek to access programs and services in state prison systems.”
  • In Your State Gideon at 50, April, 2016“This interactive map provides the public and policy-makers with a birds-eye view of some of the most critical aspects of the provision of public defense.”
  • Heat in U.S. Prisons and Jails Corrections and the Challenge of Climate Change Daniel W. E. Holt, August, 2015“Correctional departments should consider not only the direct impacts of rising temperatures but also indirect impacts such as greater risks of wildfires and drought, increased burdens on the electric grid, and growing pressures on food and water supplies.”
  • Interim Report of The President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing, March, 2015“The President should support and provide funding for the creation of a National Crime and Justice Task Force to review and evaluate all components of the criminal justice system.”
  • report thumbnail Winnable criminal justice reforms: A Prison Policy Initiative briefing on promising state reform issues for 2020 Prison Policy Initiative, 2015“https://static.prisonpolicy.org/reports/winnable2020.pdf”
  • Barriers to Recreation at Rikers Island's Central Punitive Segregation Unit New York City Board of Corrections, July, 2014“...while the CPSU population hovers around 400 people, fewer than 40 prisoners are experiencing the mandated hour outside their solitary confinement cells on an average day.”
  • The High Costs of Low Risk: The Crisis of America's Aging Prison Population The Osborne Association, July, 2014“...at present, twenty-eight states hold more than 1,000 older prisoners, up from just two states in 1990.”
  • The Case for Independent Oversight of Texas' Prison System: Pursuing Accountability, Efficiency, and Transparency Texas Criminal Justice Coalition, March, 2013“For Texas communities and the State, there are clear public safety and cost-savings benefits to developing a system of independent, external oversight for Texas prisons, but those living and working in the prisons on a daily basis will benefit most.”
  • Performance Incentive Funding Aligning Fiscal and Operational Responsibility to Produce More Safety at Less Cost Vera Institute of Justice, November, 2012“Community corrections agencies should adopt evidence-based practices that are proven to reduce recidivism and achieve successful offender outcomes. States should return some of the state savings to local agencies when those practices reduce recidivism.”
  • Tribal Crime Data Collection Activities Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2012“Suspects investigated for violent offenses in Indian country totaled 23% of all federal investigations for violent offenses in FY 2010.”
  • Tribal Crime Data Collection Activities Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2011“For the first time, the Bureau of Indian Affairs' (BIA) submissions to the Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR) were disaggregated by tribe and reported in Crime in the U.S., 2009.”
  • It's about time Aging Prisoners, Increasing Costs, and Geriatric Release Vera Institute of Justice, April, 2010“Given that many state policymakers have expressed an intention to permit the release of elderly inmates who are not a threat to public safety, it is remarkable that geriatric release policies have had little impact.”
  • Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2008 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2009“Forty-eight States, the District of Columbia, and Guam reported the total number of persons in their criminal history files as 92,329,600, of which 85,836,300 were automated.”
  • Criminal Justice Primer 2009 Sentencing Project, February, 2009“An overview of nine policy priorities in criminal and juvenile justice reform that address issues of reentry, sentencing, racial disparity and crime prevention.”
  • Smart on Crime Recommendations for the Next Administration and Congress 2009 Criminal Justice Transition Coalition, November, 2008“The 2009 Criminal Justice Transition Coalition's collaborative report identifying critical needs for federal policy reform for President-elect Barack Obama's agenda.”
  • Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2006 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2008
  • How Crime in the United States Is Measured Congressional Research Service, January, 2008(An overview of crime data collection programs)
  • Improving Criminal History Records in Indian Country, 2004-2006 Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2007“Describes the achievements of the Tribal Criminal History Records Improvement Program (T-CHRIP) which provides grants to federally recognized tribes to improve data sharing across tribal, state and national criminal records systems.”
  • Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, 2004 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2006
  • Improving Criminal History Records for Background Checks, 2005 Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2006“Describes the achievements of the National Criminal History Improvement Program (NCHIP), its authorizing legislation, and program history.”
  • Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2003 Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2006
  • Interstate Transfer of Prison Inmates in the United States National Institute of Corrections, February, 2006“2,089 state-sentenced inmates were transferred between state prison systems, 345 transferred to the Federal Bureau of Prisons, and 2,466 transferred to privately operated prisons located outside the sending state as of July 1 2005.”
  • Census of Tribal Justice Agencies in Indian Country, 2002 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2005“Almost 75% (140) of the tribes relied on the States for some justice services (for example, correctional and counseling services).”
  • Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, 2003 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2005
  • Improving Access to and Integrity of Criminal History Records Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2005
  • Reporting by Prosecutors' Offices to Repositories of Criminal History Records Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2005
  • Characteristics of New Commitments 2003 New York Department of Correctional Services, June, 2004
  • Strengthening Public Safety, Increasing Accountability, and Instituting Fiscal Responsibility in the Department of Correction Governor's Commission on Corrections Reform, June, 2004(Massachusetts, the Harshbarger Commission)
  • Prison Policy Initiative Atlas Prison Policy Initiative, February, 2004(Maps of disenfranchisement, death penalty, incarceration, prison construction and more in the U.S. and internationally)
  • Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, 2001 Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2003
  • Compendium of State Security and Privacy Legislation: Overview 2002 Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2003
  • Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2001 Bureau of Justice Statistics, September, 2003
  • report thumbnail The Prison Index: Taking the Pulse of the Crime Control Industry Prison Policy Initiative and Western Prison Project, March, 2003
  • Administrative Investigation The facts and circumstances surrounding the events, which Inmate John Geoghan's death on August 23, 2003 Massachusetts Administrative Investigation Panel, 2003“...the known ability of inmates to prevent staff from opening the cell doors in SBCC... also played a role.”
  • Guide to the BJS website Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2002
  • Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, 2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2002(statistics on all the stages of the federal criminal justice system from arrest to parole)
  • Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2002 At A Glance Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2002
  • Crime and Justice Atlas 2001 Update U.S. Department of Justice, 2001
  • Compendium of State Privacy and Security Legislation: 1999 Overview Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2000
  • Crime and Justice Atlas 2000 U.S. Department of Justice, June, 2000“As our criminal justice system undergoes many changes and interventions, it is important that we continually reexamine the practices, policies, and philosophies that guide us.”
  • Continuing Criminal History Records Improvement Evaluation: Final 1994-98 Report Bureau of Justice Statistics, February, 2000
  • Profile of Inmates Under Custody on January 1, 2000 New York Department of Correctional Services, January, 2000“Only 32,689 (45.8%) of under custody inmates had at least a high school diploma or equivalent out of 71,356 inmates.”
  • Conducting Community Surveys: A Practical Guide for Law Enforcement Agencies Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 1999
  • Supermax Prisons: Overview and General Considerations National Institute of Corrections, January, 1999
  • Characteristics of New Commitments 1999 New York Department of Correctional Services, 1999
  • Implementing the National Incident-Based Reporting System: A Project Status Report Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 1997
  • Historical Corrections Statistics in the United States, 1850-1984 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 1986“This work presents summary tables and commentary for published national government reports on corrections statistics for the period of U.S. history from 1850 (the date of the first national reports on the topic) to 1984.”

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