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Police and Policing Practices

Includes Stop and Frisk and other practices

  • Who Does Civil Asset Forfeiture Target Most?: A Review of the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department's Forfeiture Activities for Fiscal Year 2016 Nevada Policy Research Institute, August, 2017“Forfeitures disproportionately target neighborhoods with relatively high levels of minorities and low-income residents.”
  • It Matters If You're Black or White: Racial Disparities in the Handling of Complaints against North Charleston Police Officers NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc., July, 2017“Although 60 percent of the citizen complaints against NCPD officers were filed by Black residents, their complaints were much less likely to be sustained by NCPD than complaints filed by White residents.”
  • Language from police body camera footage shows racial disparities in officer respect Stanford University, June, 2017“Officers speak with consistently less respect toward black versus white community members, even after controlling for the race of the officer, the severity of the infraction, the location of the stop, and the outcome of the stop.”
  • Freedom To Thrive: Reimagining safety & security in our communities The Center for Popular Democracy, Law for Black Lives, and the Black Youth Project 100, June, 2017“This report examines racial disparities, policing landscapes, and budgets in twelve jurisdictions across the country, comparing the city and county spending priorities with those of community organizations and their members.”
  • Paying More for Being Poor: Bias and Disparity in California's Traffic Court System Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights of the San Francisco Bay Area, May, 2017“The available county-level data shows that African-American people in particular are four to sixteen times more likely to be booked on arrests related to failure to pay an infraction ticket.”
  • Increases in police use of force in the presence of body-worn cameras are driven by officer discretion: a protocol-based subgroup analysis of ten randomized experiments Journal of Experimental Criminology, May, 2017“The core of the analysis presented below is to understand what role police discretion plays in the emergent area of police BWCs.”
  • To Protect and Serve: Trends in State-Level Policing Reform, 2015-2016 Vera Institute of Justice, April, 2017“Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Utah and Washington have enacted laws that either limit the use of certain types of force, such as chokeholds, or mandate or strengthen police training on the legal boundaries of justifiable force.”
  • "Not in it for Justice": How California's Pretrial Detention and Bail System Unfairly Punishes Poor People Human Rights Watch, April, 2017“In six California counties examined in detail in this report, the total cost of jailing people whom the prosecutor never charged or who had charges dropped or dismissed was $37.5 million over two years.”
  • Bullies in Blue: Origins and Consequences of School Policing American Civil Liberties Union, April, 2017“[A]t at its origins, school policing enforced social control over Black and Latino youth who could no longer be kept out of neighborhoods and schools through explicitly discriminatory laws.”
  • How Do People in High-Crime, Low-Income Communities View the Police? Urban Institute, February, 2017“27.8% of respondents agreed/strongly agreed that police almost always behave according to the law. Approximately one-third agreed or strongly agreed that police stand up for values that are important to them and often arrest people for no good reason.”
  • Behind the Badge: How Police View Their Jobs, Key Issues, and Recent Fatal Encounters Between Blacks and Police Pew Research Center, January, 2017“27% of all white officers but 69% of their black colleagues say the protests that followed fatal encounters between police and black citizens have been motivated at least to some extent by a genuine desire to hold police accountable.”
  • Behind the Badge: How Police View Their Jobs, Key Issues, and Recent Fatal Encounters Between Blacks and Police Pew Research Center, January, 2017“27% of all white officers but 69% of their black colleagues say the protests that followed fatal encounters between police and black citizens have been motivated at least to some extent by a genuine desire to hold police accountable.”
  • Driving While Black: A Report on Racial Profiling in Metro Nashville Police Department Traffic Stops Gideon's Army, October, 2016“Between 2011-2015, MNPD (Metro Nashville Police Department) stopped an average of 1,122 per 1,000 black drivers: more black drivers than were living in Davidson County.”
  • Every 25 Seconds: The Human Toll of Criminalizing Drug Use in the United States Human Rights Watch and the ACLU, October, 2016“More than one of every nine arrests by state law enforcement is for drug possession, amounting to more than 1.25 million arrests each year.”
  • Police Violence and Citizen Crime Reporting in the Black Community Professor Matthew Desmond, Harvard University; Professor Andrew Papachristos, Yale University; Professor David Kirk, University of Oxford, September, 2016“This study shows that publicized cases of police violence against unarmed black men have a clear and significant impact on citizen crime reporting.”
  • Evaluating the Role of Race in Criminal Justice Adjudications in Delaware John M. MacDonald and Ellen A. Donnelly, University of Pennsylvania, September, 2016“African American-White disparities in incarceration sentences are largely explained by differences in most serious of arrest charge, type of arrest charge, detention between arrest and final disposition, and county location.”
  • Investigation of the Baltimore City Police Department U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division, August, 2016“[T]he Department of Justice concludes that there is reasonable cause to believe that BPD engages in a pattern or practice of conduct that violates the Constitution or federal law.”
  • Demilitarizing America's Police: A Constitutional Analysis The Constitution Project, August, 2016“The use of military equipment and tactics by law enforcement has clear—and serious—constitutional implications.”
  • The Science of Justice: Race, Arrests, and Police Use of Force Center for Policing Equity, July, 2016“[T]he analyses of 12 law enforcement departments from geographically and demographically diverse locations revealed that racial disparities in police use of force persist even when controlling for racial distribution of local arrest rates.”
  • Stopped, Fined, Arrested: Racial Bias in Policing and Traffic Courts in California Back on the Road California, April, 2016“[T]here are dramatic racial and socioeconomic disparities in driver’s license suspensions and arrests related to unpaid traffic fines and fees.”
  • Police Integrity Lost: A Study of Law Enforcement Officers Arrested U.S. Department of Justice, April, 2016“This study is a quantitative content analysis of archived news articles and court records reporting on the arrest(s) of law enforcement officers in the United States from 2005-2011.”
  • Forfeiting the American Dream: How Civil Asset Forfeiture Exacerbates Hardship for Low-income Communities and Communities of Color Center for American Progress, April, 2016“The abuse of civil asset forfeiture falls hardest on those who are least able to weather the economic shock of losing a home, car, or financial resources—namely, low-income individuals and people of color.”
  • Unjust: How the Broken Criminal Justice System Fails LGBT People Center for American Progress; Movement Advancement Project, February, 2016“This report pulls together documentation by grassroots groups, national studies, and academic research to unearth and examine evidence of ongoing and pervasive discrimination against LGBTQ people throughout the criminal legal system, from entry to exit.”
  • Racial Disparities in Florida Safety Belt Law Enforcement ACLU, February, 2016“American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) analysis of the most recent seatbelt citation data confirms that the Florida Safety Belt Law has been applied more often to Black motorists than white motorists.”
  • (New)Police Perspectives Guidebook Series Vera Institute of Justice, February, 2016“To improve relations between police and the communities they serve, this three-part guide series—written for police, by police—highlights practical, field-informed approaches to building trust with multiracial and multi-ethnic communities.”
  • Police Body-Worn Camera Policies Brennan Center for Justice, January, 2016“To help foster and inform this discussion, we have pulled together body camera policies from many police departments that have made them publicly available, as well as model policies from several organizations.”
  • (New)Overlooked in the Undercounted: The Role of Mental Illness in Fatal Law Enforcement Encounters Treatment Advocacy Center, December, 2015“The risk of being killed while being approached or stopped by law enforcement in the community is 16 times higher for individuals with untreated serious mental illness than for other civilians.”
  • Selective Policing: Racially Disparate Enforcement of Low-Level Offenses in New Jersey ACLU of New Jersey, December, 2015“Racial disparities between Black and White arrests exist in every city studied.”
  • Tracking Enforcement Rates in New York City 2003-2014 Misdemeanor Justice Project at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, December, 2015“This third report from the Misdemeanor Justice Project documents the changing patterns in felony arrests, misdemeanor arrests, criminal summonses, and stop, question and frisk activities in New York City from 2003-2014.”
  • Policing for Profit: The Abuse of Civil Asset Forfeiture Institute for Justice, November, 2015“In 1986, the Department of Justice’s Assets Forfeiture Fund took in $93.7 million in revenue from federal forfeitures. By 2014, annual deposits had reached $4.5 billion--a 4,667 percent increase.”
  • Police Use of Nonfatal Force, 2002-11 Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2015“Of those who had contact, 1.6% experienced the threat or use of nonfatal force by the police during their most recent contact.”
  • A Multi-Level Bayesian Analysis of Racial Bias in Police Shootings at the County-Level in the United States, 2011-2014 University of California, Davis, November, 2015“The results provide evidence of a significant bias in the killing of unarmed black Americans relative to unarmed white Americans[.]”
  • First Do No Harm: Advancing Public Health in Policing Practices Vera Institute of Justice, November, 2015(This report details the cultural divide among system actors that amplify and sustain these problems and offers recommendations on how law enforcement policymakers and practitioners can enhance both public safety and community health.)
  • Police Body Worn Cameras: A Policy Scorecard The Leadership Conference, Upturn, August, 2015“This scorecard evaluates the body-worn camera policies currently in place in major police departments across the country.”
  • Local Police Departments, 2013: Equipment and Technology Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2015“The percentage of local police departments that authorized their officers to use conducted energy weapons such as Tasers increased from 60% in 2007 to 81% in 2013.”
  • Deadly Force: Police Use of Lethal Force In The United States Amnesty International, June, 2015(No one knows how many people are killed by police in the US, but estimates range from 400 to 1000 people each year. Yet not one state in the US complies with international human rights standards on the use of lethal force by police.)
  • Guilty Property: How Law Enforcement Takes $1 Million in Cash from Innocent Philadelphians Every Year -- and Gets Away with It ACLU of Pennsylvania, June, 2015“Every year, Pennsylvania law enforcement agencies take roughly $14 million in cash, cars, and homes from property owners and never give it back.”
  • Local Police Departments, 2013: Personnel, Policies, And Practices Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2015“About 27% of local police officers were members of a racial or ethnic minority, compared to 15% in 1987. „„”
  • San Francisco's Disproportionate Arrest of African American Women Persists Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, April, 2015“African American women, 5.8 percent of San Francisco's total female population, constituted 45.5 percent of all female arrests in 2013.”
  • NC Traffic Stops The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, April, 2015(Since 2000, the North Carolina Highway Patrol has been collecting data whenever a police officer stops a motorist, and since 2002, all sizable police departments in the state have done so.)
  • Above the Law: An Investigation of Civil Asset Forfeiture in California Drug Policy Alliance, April, 2015(Asset forfeiture abuses in California reveal the troubling extent to which law enforcement agencies have violated state and federal law.)
  • Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department Department of Justice Civil Rights Division, March, 2015“This investigation has revealed a pattern or practice of unlawful conduct within the Ferguson Police Department that violates the First, Fourth, and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution, and federal statutory law.”
  • Stop and Frisk in Chicago ACLU of Illinois, March, 2015“Black Chicagoans were subjected to 72% of all stops, yet constitute just 32% of the city’s population.”
  • Arrest-Related Deaths Program: Data Quality Profile Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2015“Data from the ARD represent a national accounting of persons who have died during the process of arrest, including homicides by law enforcement personnel and deaths attributed to suicide, intoxication, accidental injury, and natural causes.”
  • 2014 Annual Report Denver Office of the Independent Monitor, March, 2015“In particular, the police uses of force within District 6 during the pilot project were frequently not recorded by body worn cameras.”
  • Interim Report of The President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing, March, 2015“The President should support and provide funding for the creation of a National Crime and Justice Task Force to review and evaluate all components of the criminal justice system.”
  • Campus Law Enforcement, 2011-12 Bureau of Justice Statistics, January, 2015“About 75% of the campuses were using armed officers, compared to 68% during the 2004-05 school year.”
  • Citizens Police Data Project Invisible Institute, 2015“28,567 allegations of misconduct were filed against Chicago Police Department officers between March 2011 and September 2015.”
  • Militarization and police violence: The case of the 1033 program Casey Delehanty, Gardner-Webb University, 2015“We find a positive and statistically significant relationship between 1033 transfers and fatalities from officer-involved shootings across all models.”
  • Hot Spots Policing George Mason University Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy, 2015“Hot spots policing covers a range of police responses that all share in common a focus of resources on the locations where crime is highly concentrated.”
  • Over A Million Dollars A Day: The Daily Waste of the NYPD's Misdemeanor Arrest Practices Police Reform Organizing Project, December, 2014“Figures for the first nine months of 2014 show that the NYPD makes: ­an average of 648 misdemeanor arrests per day at the daily cost to the city of $1,134,000.”
  • CPD Traffic Stops and Resulting Searches in 2013 ACLU of Illinois, December, 2014“City-wide. The rate of black drivers in the stops (46%) is far higher than the rate of black residents in the city population (32%).”
  • Law enforcement duties and sudden cardiac death among police officers in the United States: case distribution study British Medical Journal, November, 2014“Stressful law enforcement duties are associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death that is markedly higher than the risk during routine/non-emergency duties.”
  • Criminal, Victim, or Worker?: The Effects of New York's Human Trafficking Intervention Courts on Adults Charged with Prostitution-Related Offenses Red Umbrella Project, October, 2014(Decreasing the incarceration of people charged with prostitution is a good step forward, but as long as people who are in the sex trades are "rescued" through arrest, they will continue to be re-victimized by the police and the courts.)
  • Black, Brown and Targeted: A report on Boston Police Department Street Encounters from 2007-2010 ACLU of Massachusetts, October, 2014(Most alarmingly, the analysis found that Blacks were subjected to 63% of these encounters, even though they made up just 24% of Boston's population. The analysis also showed that crime does not explain this racial disparity.)
  • On the Streets of America: Human Rights Abuses in Ferguson Amnesty International, October, 2014(This briefing outlines some of the human rights concerns witnessed by Amnesty International and recommendations that need to be implemented with regards to the use of lethal force by law enforcement and the policing of protests.)
  • Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras Office of Justice Programs, September, 2014“The evaluations in Mesa and Rialto documented substantial drops in citizen complaints following deployment of the technology. The UK studies documented a similar effect.”
  • Investigation of the Newark Police Department United States Department of Justice Civil Rights Division, July, 2014“Approximately 75% of reports of pedestrian stops by NPD officers failed to articulate sufficient legal basis for the stop, despite the NPD policy requiring such justification.”
  • War Comes Home The Excessive Militarization of American Policing American Civil Liberties Union, June, 2014“Using... federal funds, state and local law enforcement agencies have amassed military arsenals purportedly to wage the failed War on Drugs, the battlegrounds of which have disproportionately been in communities of color.”
  • Stop-and-Frisk: A First Look Six Months of Data on Stop-and-Frisk Practices in Newark American Civil Liberties Union of New Jersey, February, 2014“Although black Newarkers represent 52 percent of the city's population, they make up 75 percent of all stops.”
  • Evaluation of the Shreveport Predictive Policing Experiment RAND Corporation, 2014“The program did not generate a statistically significant reduction in property crime.”
  • Officer Involved Shooting Information Philadelphia Police Department, 2014“An officer involved shooting is the discharge of a firearm, whether accidental or intentional, by a police officer, whether on or off duty.”
  • Standing with LGBT Prisoners: An Advocate's Guide to Ending Abuse and Combating Imprisonment National Center for Transgender Equality, 2014“According to the National Transgender Discrimination Survey, 16% of transgender adults have been in a prison or jail for any reason.”
  • Justifiable Homicides by Law Enforcement Officers: What is the Role of Mental Illness? Treatment Advocacy Center, National Sheriff's Association, September, 2013“The transfer of responsibility for persons with mental illness from mental health professionals to law enforcement officers has brought with it major problems for the latter.”
  • Coming of Age with Stop and Frisk: Experiences, Perceptions, and Public Safety Implications Vera Institute of Justice, September, 2013“Young people who have been stopped more often are less willing to report crimes, even when they are the victims. Each additional stop in the span of a year is associated with an 8% drop in the person's likelihood of reporting a violent crime.”
  • Requests for Police Assistance, 2011 Bureau of Justice Statistics, September, 2013“An estimated 1 in 8 U.S. residents age 16 or older, or 31.4 million persons, requested assistance from police at least once, most commonly to report a crime, suspicious activity, or neighborhood disturbance.”
  • Police Behavior during Traffic and Street Stops, 2011 Bureau of Justice Statistics, September, 2013“Of those involved in traffic and street stops, a smaller percentage of blacks than whites believed the police behaved properly during the stop.”
  • Racial Disparities in Arrests in the District of Columbia, 2009-2011 Washington Lawyers' Committee, July, 2013“While there are about as many African Americans aged 18 or older (47.6%) as there are adult whites (42%) living in this city, eight out of 10 adults arrested for a crime in Washington are African American.”
  • Mapping Muslims: NYPD Spying and its Impact on American Muslims The Muslim American Civil Liberties Coalition (MACLC), The Creating Law Enforcement Accountability & Responsibility (CLEAR), The Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (AALDEF)., March, 2013“Interviewees noted deep apprehension of the NYPD's intentions and practices towards them, including day-to-day interactions with beat-police officers such as filing stolen phone complaints, asking an officer for directions, or reporting hate crimes.”
  • Policing and the Economic Downturn Striving for Efficiency Is the New Norm Police Executive Research Forum, February, 2013“In 2010, 58% of responding agencies said that police services in their community had already declined or would decline with the implementation of recent or planned budget cuts. In 2012 that figure dropped to 44%.”
  • The Crisis Continues Inside Police Internal Affairs American Civil Liberties Union of New Jersey, February, 2013“164 of the local police departments we spoke to unlawfully denied complaints by telephone. Only 207 of the 371 New Jersey police departments that our volunteers spoke to indicated that they would allow complaints to be filed by telephone.”
  • Predictive Policing: The Role of Crime Forecasting in Law Enforcement Operations RAND Corporation, 2013“Predictive policing is the application of analytical techniques--particularly quantitative techniques--to identify likely targets for police intervention and prevent crime or solve past crimes by making statistical predictions.”
  • The Health Effects of Conducted Energy Weapons The Expert Panel on the Medical and Physiological Impacts of Conducted Energy Weapons Council of Canadian Academies, 2013“Since 1998, at least 33 deaths have followed the deployment of a CEW in Canada.”
  • Policing Immigration New York University School of Law; University of Chicago Law School, 2013“The data undermine the government's claim that Secure Communities is principally about making communities more secure from crime.”
  • Engaging Police in Immigrant Communities Promising Practices from the Field Vera Institute of Justice, October, 2012“This report describes a variety of approaches to building and maintaining effective police-immigrant relations developed by a diverse group of law enforcement agencies.”
  • Arrest in the United States, 1990-2010 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2012“The number of murder arrests in the U.S. fell by half between 1990 and 2010. The adult and juvenile arrest rates dropped substantially in the 1990s, while both continued to fall about 20% between 2000 and 2010, reaching their lowest levels since at least”
  • Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2012“From 2004 to 2008, the number of officers employed by Customs and Border Protection increased by more than 9,000 (or 33%), the largest increase at any federal agency.”
  • Rethinking the Blues How We Police in the U.S. and at What Cost Justice Policy Institute, May, 2012“Crime is at the lowest levels it has been in over 30 years, but funding for police increased 445 percent between 1982 and 2007, with federal funding increasing the most at 729 percent.”
  • Contacts between Police and the Public, 2008 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2011“Black drivers were about three times as likely as white drivers and about two times as likely as Hispanic drivers to be searched during a traffic stop.”
  • Census Of State And Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2008 Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2011“From 2004 to 2008, state and local law enforcement agencies added about 9,500 more full-time sworn personnel than during the previous 4-year period.”
  • Tribal Law Enforcement, 2008 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2011“Eleven of the 25 largest tribal law enforcement agencies served jurisdictions covering more than 1,000 square miles.”
  • The Early Release of Prisoners And its Impact on Police Agencies and Communities in California Police Executive Research Forum, May, 2011“...there is research indicating that enforcement alone is ineffective in lowering recidivism rates, and in any case, prisons are far too expensive to be used as a default sanction for many criminal offenders.”
  • Local Police Departments, 2007 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2010“In 2007, 75% of local police officers were employed by departments that authorized the use of conducted energy devices such as Tasers, compared to 47% in 2003”
  • Aviation Units in Large Law Enforcement Agencies, 2007 Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2009“In 2007, 92% of aviation units engaged in vehicle pursuits. Almost 90% of units performed counternarcotics missions, and about 80% conducted counterterrorism missions. Nearly 70% of units engaged in firefighting activities”
  • State and Local Law Enforcement Training Academies, 2006 Bureau of Justice Statistics, February, 2009“Of an estimated 57,000 recruits who entered basic training programs during 2005, 86% or 49,000, successfully completed their program and graduated from the academy.”
  • Campus Law Enforcement, 2004-05 Bureau of Justice Statistics, February, 2008“Three-quarters of campus law enforcement agencies used sworn officers with full arrest powers.”
  • Arrest-Related Deaths in the United States, 2003-2005 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2007“Three-quarters of the law enforcement homicides reported to DCRP involved arrests for a violent crime. Public-order offenders accounted for 8% of homicides, followed by property (4%) and drug offenders (2%).”
  • Contacts between Police and the Public, 2005 Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2007“In 2005 police searched 9.5 percent of stopped blacks and 8.8 percent of stopped Hispanics, compared to 3.6 percent of white motorists.”
  • Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2004 Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2006“Women accounted for 16% of Federal officers in 2004. A third of Federal officers were members of a racial or ethnic minority in 2004. This included 17.7% who were Hispanic and Latino, and 11.4% who were black or African American.”
  • Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2004 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2006“Although local police employment was up slightly nationwide from 2000 to 2004, 20 of the nation's 50 largest local police departments saw a decline in sworn personnel during this period, including 6 of the 7 largest.”
  • Citizen Complaints about Police Use of Force Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2006“Large State and local law enforcement agencies... received more than 26,000 citizen complaints about officer use of force during 2002. This total figure resulted in [an] overall rate[] 6.6 complaints per 100 full-time sworn officers.”
  • Characteristics of Drivers Stopped by Police, 2002 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2006“Among traffic stops of young male drivers in 2002, 11% were physically searched or had their vehicle searched by police. Among these young male drivers who were stopped, blacks (22%) and Hispanics (17%) were searched at higher rates than whites (8%).”
  • Sheriffs' Offices, 2003 Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2006
  • Local Police Departments, 2003 Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2006
  • Traffic Stop Audit Project An Institutional Ethnography of Traffic Stop Policy and Practice in the Minneapolis Police Department Council on Crime and Justice, April, 2006“The distinction between traffic law enforcement stops (e.g. speeding) and investigative stops is often blurred. Law enforcement stops are often made for investigative purposes rather than expressed criminal intent.”
  • Report to the Legislature of the State of Illinois: The Illinois Pilot Program on Sequential Double-Blind Identification Procedures Illinois State Police, March, 2006“The data collected shows that the sequential double-blind method led to a lower rate of suspect identifications as well as a higher rate of known false errors.”
  • Stress Among Probation and Parole Officers and What Can Be Done About It National Institute of Justice, June, 2005
  • Contacts between Police and the Public: Findings from the 2002 National Survey Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2005
  • Low Level Offenses in Minneapolis: An Analysis of Arrests and their Outcomes Council on Crime and Justice, October, 2004(The diperate treatment of Black and White people is greater at the hand of the police than in the courts.)
  • Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics, 2000: Data for Individual State and Local Agencies with 100 or More Officers Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2004
  • Seeing Black: Race, Crime, and Visual Processing Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2004“Black faces looked more criminal to police officers; the more Black, the more criminal.”
  • Minnesota Statewide Racial Profiling Study Council on Crime and Justice, September, 2003“Results show that law enforcement officers stopped and searched Black, Latino, and American Indian drivers at greater rates than White drivers, yet found contraband on Blacks, Latinos, and American Indians at lower rates than in searches of White drivers.”
  • Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2002 Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2003
  • Local Police Departments 2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, January, 2003
  • Tribal Law Enforcement, 2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, January, 2003
  • Sheriffs' Offices 2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, January, 2003
  • Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2002
  • Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2002(Police per capita up 7% over the decade)
  • Characteristics of Drivers Stopped by Police, 1999 Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2002“Approximately 422,000 persons age 16 or older said the police used or threatened to use force against them at least once during 1999.”
  • Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 2000 Federal Bureau of Investigation, November, 2001
  • Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2001
  • Sheriffs' Offices 1999 Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2001
  • Local Police Departments, 1999 Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2001
  • Policing and Homicide, 1976-98: Justifiable Homicide of Felons by Police and Murder of Police by Felons Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2001
  • Contacts between Police and the Public: Findings from the 1999 National Survey Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2001(In 1999 an estimated 43.8 million persons age 16 or older had least one face-to-face contact with a police officer.)
  • Community Policing in Local Police Departments, 1997 and 1999 Bureau of Justice Statistics, February, 2001(changes in the prevalence of community oriented policing policies)
  • Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 1998 Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2000“Number of Federal law enforcement officers grew 11 percent in two years”
  • Use of Force By Police: Overview of National and Local Data Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 1999
  • Local Police Departments, 1997 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 1999(personnel increases in local police departments)
  • Sheriffs' Departments, 1997 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 1999“personnel increases in local sheriff's departments”
  • Driving While Black: Racial Profiling On Our Nation's Highways American Civil Liberties Union, June, 1999“All the evidence to date suggests that using traffic laws for non-traffic purposes has been a disaster for people of color and has deeply eroded public confidence in law enforcement.”
  • Shielded from Justice: Police Brutality and Accountability in the United States Human Rights Watch, July, 1998
  • Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 1996 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 1998
  • Police Use of Force Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 1997
  • Campus Law Enforcement Agencies, 1995 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 1996(600 agencies at 4-year schools with 2,500+ students)

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