As COVID-19 continues to spread rapidly, state prisons and local jails have failed to mitigate the risk of infection behind bars

COVID infections are rising across the country. So why are we allowing jail populations to rise?

by Emily Widra, December 2, 2020

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the strategy to slowing its spread behind bars was clear: Reduce the number of people in jails and prisons. In March, public health and medical officials were already warning that incarcerated people would be uniquely vulnerable to the spread of the disease and its most serious medical consequences, due to their close quarters and high rates of preexisting health conditions.

And yet, more than eight months after the World Health Organization declared the pandemic, prisons and jails have generally failed to reduce their populations enough to protect the health and lives of those who are incarcerated. While state prison populations have slowly declined from pre-pandemic levels, the pace of these modest reductions has slowed since the spring, even as national infection rates continue to rise. And county jails — which made promising reductions in the spring — have failed to sustain those reforms.

”graph Despite the rising national case rate of COVID-19, the number of people held in 514 county jails across the country has increased over the past four months. This graph contains aggregated data collected by NYU’s Public Safety Lab and updates a graph in our September 10th briefing. This graph includes all jails where the Lab was able to report data on March 10th and for at least 75% of the days in our research period. (The Public Safety Lab is continuing to add more jails to its data collection and data is not available for all facilities for all days.) To see county level data for all 514 jails included in this analysis, see Appendix A. This graph presents the data as 7-day rolling averages, which smooths out most of the variations caused by individual facilities not being reported on particular days. The temporary population drops/increases during the last weeks of May and August, as well as the first week of November, are the result of more facilities than usual not being included in the dataset for various reasons, rather than any known policy changes.

As a result of these failures to sufficiently decarcerate, the early warnings of health experts have come true: the COVID-19 case rate in state and federal prisons is more than four times as high as that of the general public, and the death rate is more than twice as high. The Texas prison system alone has had more COVID-19 cases than in four states and Washington, D.C. combined. And since people who work in prisons and jails regularly return to their communities, correctional facilities are dangerously poised to become incubators for the disease and contribute to rising infection rates in surrounding communities.

Initially, many local officials — including sheriffs, prosecutors, and judges — responded quickly to reduce jail populations. In a national sample of 514 county jails of varying sizes, most (88%) decreased their populations from March to July, resulting in an average population reduction across all 514 jails of 26%.1 These population reductions came as the result of various policy changes, including police issuing citations in lieu of arrests, prosecutors declining to charge people for “low-level offenses,” courts reducing cash bail amounts, and jail administrators releasing people detained pretrial or those serving short sentences for “nonviolent offenses.”

But now the data tells a different story. Since July, 77% of the jails in our sample had population increases, suggesting that the early reforms instituted to mitigate COVID-19 have largely been abandoned. For example, by mid-April, the Philadelphia city jail population reportedly dropped by more than 17% after city police suspended low-level arrests and judges released “certain nonviolent detainees” jailed for “low-level charges.” But on May 1st — as the pandemic raged on — the Philadelphia police force announced that they would resume arrests for property crimes, effectively reversing the earlier reduction efforts. Similarly, on July 10th, the sheriff of Jefferson County, Alabama, announced that the jail would limit admissions to only “violent felons that cannot make bond.”2 That effort was quickly abandoned when the jail resumed normal admission operations just one week later. The increasing jail populations across the country suggest that after the first wave of responses to COVID-19, many local officials have allowed jail admissions to return to business as usual.

On the other hand, state prison populations have continued to decline, but not quickly or significantly enough to slow the spread of COVID-19. Even in states where prison populations have dropped, there are still too many people behind bars to accommodate social distancing, effective isolation and quarantine, and increased health care requirements. For example, although California has reduced the state prison population by about 20% since January, the number of large COVID-19 outbreaks in California state prisons suggests that the population reduction needs to be much more drastic. In fact, as of November 18th, California’s state prisons were still holding more people than they were designed for, at 105% of their design capacity.

”graph Prison population data for 21 states where population data was readily available for January, May, July, August, September, October, and November, either directly from the state Departments of Correction or the Vera Institute of Justice. See our COVID-19 response tracker for more information on many of the most important policy changes that led to these small reductions in some states. For the population data for these 21 states, see Appendix B.
Sharp-eyed readers may wonder if Connecticut and Vermont are showing larger declines than most other states because those two states have “unified” prison and jail systems. However, data from both states show that the bulk of their population reduction is coming from within the “sentenced” portion of their populations. (For the Connecticut data, see the Correctional Facility Population Count Report, and for Vermont, see the daily population reports.)

Early in the pandemic, North Dakota quickly reduced its prison population by 19% between January and May 2020, a trend that continued until the beginning of October. But over the past month this trend reversed and the states’ prison population actually started to increase (by 3% from October 8 to November 19). Now, North Dakota is experiencing the state’s first major outbreaks of COVID-19 in prison. In one facility, the James River Correctional Center, more than half of the incarcerated population had active COVID-19 infections as of November 23rd.

According to a October 2020 report from the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, the modest declines in prison populations can be largely attributed to changes in arrests, jail bookings, and court closures — not releases. Despite evidence that large-scale releases do not inherently endanger public safety, states have elected to release people from prison on a mostly case-by-case basis, which the National Academies report describes as “procedurally slow and not well suited to crisis situations.”

Thankfully, some states have recognized the inefficiency of case-by-case releases and the necessity of larger-scale releases. For example, in New Jersey,3 Governor Phil Murphy signed bill S2519 in October, which allowed for the early release of people with less than a year left on their sentences. A few weeks after the bill was signed, more than 2,000 people were released from New Jersey state prisons on November 4th.4

Prisons and jails are notoriously dangerous places during a viral outbreak, and continue to be a major source of a large number of infections in the U.S. The COVID-19 death rate in prisons is three times higher than among the general U.S. population, even when adjusted for age and sex (as the prison population is disproportionately young and male). Since the early days of the pandemic, public health professionals, corrections officials, and criminal justice reform advocates have agreed that decarceration is necessary to protect incarcerated people and the community-at-large from COVID-19. Despite this knowledge, state, federal, and local authorities have failed to reduce jail and prison populations on a major scale, which continues to put incarcerated people’s lives at risk — and by extension, the lives of everyone in greater communities where incarcerated people eventually return, and where correctional staff live and work.





Footnotes

  1. The NYU Public Safety Lab Jail Data Initiative has collected jail populations for over 1,000 facilities from January to November. This sample includes jails of varying size, as well as geographic diversity. For each of our analyses of jail and prison populations during the pandemic (including our earlier analyses in May, August, and September), we included all jails from this database that had population data available for at least 75% of the days in the period being studied, and had data going back to March 10. As time has passed, additional jails have been added to the Jail Data Initiative database, allowing us to increase the number of jails in our sample. For this November analysis, we included 514 jails. (We included all 514 jails that had at least 188 days worth of data, representing at least 75% of the days between March 10th and November 15th; had data available on March 10th; and continued to have data available after August 1st).  ↩

  2. The news story from Jefferson County does not make clear whether officials are using “violent” to refer to the crime a person is charged with, crimes of which they have already convicted, a label imposed on them by a risk assessment tool, or something else.  ↩

  3. New Jersey is not included in the above graph of state prison population changes because the New Jersey Department of Correction has not published monthly population data for 2020. However, in an October 2020 press release, Governor Phil Murphy claimed the population in state correctional facilities had “decreased by nearly 3,000 people (16%)” since March.  ↩

  4. Soon after these releases, 88 people who were released under bill S2519 were quickly arrested by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) officials. A spokesperson from ICE claimed that these 88 individuals were “violent offenders or have convictions for serious crimes such as homicide, aggravated assault, drug trafficking and child sexual exploitation.” However, these claims are brought into question when considering that the releases that took place under bill S2519 specifically excluded “people serving time for murder or sexual assault” and those serving time for sexual offenses. Although we did not include ICE facilities in our analysis, there is evidence that ICE detention facilities have a COVID-19 case rate that is up to 13 times higher than that of the general U.S. population.  ↩


Appendix A: County jail populations during COVID-19

This table shows the jail populations for 514 county jails where data was available where data was available for March 10th (the day the pandemic was declared) and for 75% of the days between March 10th and November 15th. (This table is a subset of the population data available for over 1,000 local jails from the NYU Public Safety Lab Jail Data Initiative.)

County State March population July population Most recent population Percent change from March to July Percent change from July to the most recent date Net percent change since March March date July date Most recent date
Autauga Ala. 171 158 193 -8% 20% 13% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Blount Ala. 125 117 159 -6% 36% 27% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Chambers Ala. 134 70 2 -48% -97% -99% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Cherokee Ala. 110 73 76 -34% 4% -31% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Clay Ala. 38 31 31 -18% 0% -18% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Cleburne Ala. 84 59 70 -30% 19% -17% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Coffee Ala. 127 77 83 -39% 8% -35% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Coosa Ala. 27 30 25 11% -17% -7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Dale Ala. 74 65 91 -12% 40% 23% 3/10 7/1 11/15
DeKalb Ala. 167 141 168 -16% 19% 1% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Franklin Ala. 121 84 88 -31% 5% -27% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Houston Ala. 393 322 386 -18% 20% -2% 3/10 7/2 11/15
Jackson Ala. 177 180 233 2% 29% 32% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Limestone Ala. 251 198 208 -21% 5% -17% 3/10 7/1 9/3
Marion Ala. 131 133 146 2% 10% 11% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Morgan Ala. 615 549 608 -11% 11% -1% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Pickens Ala. 106 116 131 9% 13% 24% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Pike Ala. 62 37 57 -40% 54% -8% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Randolph Ala. 64 51 69 -20% 35% 8% 3/10 7/1 11/15
St. Clair Ala. 219 230 198 5% -14% -10% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Talladega Ala. 301 219 314 -27% 43% 4% 3/10 7/2 11/15
Washington Ala. 58 39 57 -33% 46% -2% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Baxter Ark. 120 83 112 -31% 35% -7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Benton Ark. 673 374 582 -44% 56% -14% 3/10 7/2 11/15
Boone Ark. 103 73 95 -29% 30% -8% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Columbia Ark. 78 27 36 -65% 33% -54% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Crawford Ark. 215 152 266 -29% 75% 24% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Cross Ark. 69 58 49 -16% -16% -29% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Drew Ark. 63 34 44 -46% 29% -30% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Faulkner Ark. 466 222 323 -52% 45% -31% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Franklin Ark. 36 21 94 -42% 348% 161% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Hempstead Ark. 68 48 81 -29% 69% 19% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Howard Ark. 41 14 29 -66% 107% -29% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Jefferson Ark. 293 173 187 -41% 8% -36% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Johnson Ark. 63 27 67 -57% 148% 6% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Madison Ark. 9 1 1 -89% 0% -89% 3/10 7/4 11/15
Marion Ark. 42 23 69 -45% 200% 64% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Monroe Ark. 16 13 9 -19% -31% -44% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Nevada Ark. 55 37 60 -33% 62% 9% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Poinsett Ark. 80 43 90 -46% 109% 13% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Pope Ark. 193 133 172 -31% 29% -11% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Saline Ark. 233 125 200 -46% 60% -14% 3/10 7/1 11/15
St. Francis Ark. 71 36 25 -49% -31% -65% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Stone Ark. 36 34 37 -6% 9% 3% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Union Ark. 199 141 163 -29% 16% -18% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Van Buren Ark. 78 29 42 -63% 45% -46% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Washington Ark. 678 399 504 -41% 26% -26% 3/10 7/1 11/15
White Ark. 277 81 208 -71% 157% -25% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Yavapai Ariz. 537 439 485 -18% 10% -10% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Yuma Ariz. 427 357 443 -16% 24% 4% 3/10 7/1 11/15
El Dorado Calif. 383 325 324 -15% 0% -15% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Siskiyou Calif. 91 76 87 -16% 14% -4% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Stanislaus Calif. 1343 1048 1121 -22% 7% -17% 3/10 7/7 11/15
Tulare Calif. 1562 1200 1342 -23% 12% -14% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Yuba Calif. 383 207 212 -46% 2% -45% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Arapahoe Colo. 1123 681 789 -39% 16% -30% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Bent Colo. 55 26 51 -53% 96% -7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Boulder Colo. 647 396 453 -39% 14% -30% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Douglas Colo. 339 204 272 -40% 33% -20% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Jefferson Colo. 1258 640 804 -49% 26% -36% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Pueblo Colo. 643 389 446 -40% 15% -31% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Alachua Fla. 729 664 736 -9% 11% 1% 3/10 7/1 11/14
Broward Fla. 1706 1576 1658 -8% 5% -3% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Clay Fla. 418 437 448 5% 3% 7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
DeSoto Fla. 147 162 164 10% 1% 12% 3/10 7/3 11/15
Flagler Fla. 203 184 182 -9% -1% -10% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lake Fla. 18 7 17 -61% 143% -6% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Monroe Fla. 510 388 429 -24% 11% -16% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Nassau Fla. 236 177 224 -25% 27% -5% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Okeechobee Fla. 256 248 282 -3% 14% 10% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Sarasota Fla. 866 775 899 -11% 16% 4% 3/10 7/1 11/15
St. Lucie Fla. 1303 1219 1305 -6% 7% 0% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Walton Fla. 435 411 444 -6% 8% 2% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Bartow Ga. 671 519 610 -23% 18% -9% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Berrien Ga. 96 73 94 -24% 29% -2% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Brantley Ga. 122 124 95 2% -23% -22% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Bulloch Ga. 343 251 309 -27% 23% -10% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Burke Ga. 106 94 112 -11% 19% 6% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Camden Ga. 112 120 130 7% 8% 16% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Carroll Ga. 441 286 358 -35% 25% -19% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Catoosa Ga. 228 131 233 -43% 78% 2% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Columbia Ga. 276 175 204 -37% 17% -26% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Coweta Ga. 412 266 346 -35% 30% -16% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Decatur Ga. 116 113 152 -3% 35% 31% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Dodge Ga. 123 121 126 -2% 4% 2% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Dougherty Ga. 579 409 548 -29% 34% -5% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Douglas Ga. 681 339 564 -50% 66% -17% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Effingham Ga. 236 149 176 -37% 18% -25% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Elbert Ga. 95 54 66 -43% 22% -31% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Fayette Ga. 205 129 185 -37% 43% -10% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Floyd Ga. 639 464 547 -27% 18% -14% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Gordon Ga. 290 239 260 -18% 9% -10% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Habersham Ga. 162 110 133 -32% 21% -18% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Haralson Ga. 184 111 164 -40% 48% -11% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Jackson Ga. 143 110 160 -23% 45% 12% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lamar Ga. 58 39 57 -33% 46% -2% 3/10 7/2 11/15
Laurens Ga. 337 271 294 -20% 8% -13% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Liberty Ga. 209 171 210 -18% 23% 0% 3/10 7/1 11/15
McDuffie Ga. 92 92 78 0% -15% -15% 3/10 7/1 10/22
Monroe Ga. 128 97 140 -24% 44% 9% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Oconee Ga. 27 17 26 -37% 53% -4% 3/10 7/1 10/13
Pickens Ga. 77 80 74 4% -8% -4% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Polk Ga. 179 155 159 -13% 3% -11% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Rabun Ga. 108 58 86 -46% 48% -20% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Richmond Ga. 1021 884 1000 -13% 13% -2% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Spalding Ga. 386 260 350 -33% 35% -9% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Sumter Ga. 157 127 157 -19% 24% 0% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Tattnall Ga. 87 36 79 -59% 119% -9% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Turner Ga. 67 65 62 -3% -5% -7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Union Ga. 49 32 55 -35% 72% 12% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Upson Ga. 103 58 114 -44% 97% 11% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Ware Ga. 419 341 388 -19% 14% -7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Washington Ga. 78 74 97 -5% 31% 24% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Whitfield Ga. 484 350 403 -28% 15% -17% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Worth Ga. 69 83 75 20% -10% 9% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Buena Vista Iowa 22 7 14 -68% 100% -36% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Cerro Gordo Iowa 68 36 55 -47% 53% -19% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Clinton Iowa 59 35 63 -41% 80% 7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Dallas Iowa 27 30 44 11% 47% 63% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Dickinson Iowa 13 5 4 -62% -20% -69% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Hardin Iowa 84 75 56 -11% -25% -33% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Ida Iowa 7 1 2 -86% 100% -71% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lyon Iowa 14 10 11 -29% 10% -21% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Plymouth Iowa 41 28 34 -32% 21% -17% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Polk Iowa 885 520 747 -41% 44% -16% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Scott Iowa 454 239 304 -47% 27% -33% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Story Iowa 70 26 60 -63% 131% -14% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Worth Iowa 8 2 3 -75% 50% -63% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Blaine Idaho 64 46 22 -28% -52% -66% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Bonner Idaho 151 128 134 -15% 5% -11% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Bonneville Idaho 392 266 250 -32% -6% -36% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Canyon Idaho 445 378 351 -15% -7% -21% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Nez Perce Idaho 128 84 82 -34% -2% -36% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Power Idaho 14 9 10 -36% 11% -29% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Washington Idaho 40 35 31 -13% -11% -23% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Douglas Ill. 24 32 17 33% -47% -29% 3/10 7/1 8/19
Kendall Ill. 156 137 151 -12% 10% -3% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Macon Ill. 300 256 283 -15% 11% -6% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Moultrie Ill. 24 28 34 17% 21% 42% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Randolph Ill. 25 22 31 -12% 41% 24% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Will Ill. 687 601 641 -13% 7% -7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Woodford Ill. 52 54 70 4% 30% 35% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Clinton Ind. 151 119 158 -21% 33% 5% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Dearborn Ind. 233 239 284 3% 19% 22% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Hamilton Ind. 294 208 299 -29% 44% 2% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Hendricks Ind. 265 195 239 -26% 23% -10% 3/10 7/1 9/28
Jackson Ind. 249 168 202 -33% 20% -19% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Perry Ind. 66 46 72 -30% 57% 9% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Starke Ind. 119 92 96 -23% 4% -19% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Tippecanoe Ind. 508 397 472 -22% 19% -7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Brown Kan. 12 11 28 -8% 155% 133% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Chase Kan. 132 87 83 -34% -5% -37% 3/10 8/24* 11/15
Cherokee Kan. 81 42 82 -48% 95% 1% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Coffey Kan. 28 20 26 -29% 30% -7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Crawford Kan. 74 51 74 -31% 45% 0% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Dickinson Kan. 20 15 11 -25% -27% -45% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Doniphan Kan. 9 6 5 -33% -17% -44% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Finney Kan. 95 77 57 -19% -26% -40% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Geary Kan. 100 75 94 -25% 25% -6% 3/10 7/1 11/13
Jackson Kan. 82 53 69 -35% 30% -16% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Jefferson Kan. 28 29 18 4% -38% -36% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Pratt Kan. 22 12 13 -45% 8% -41% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Rooks Kan. 18 9 7 -50% -22% -61% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Shawnee Kan. 540 400 450 -26% 13% -17% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Sherman Kan. 18 24 26 33% 8% 44% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Sumner Kan. 142 41 101 -71% 146% -29% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Thomas Kan. 14 10 12 -29% 20% -14% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Trego Kan. 11 6 9 -45% 50% -18% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Wabaunsee Kan. 9 6 8 -33% 33% -11% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Woodson Kan. 9 8 12 -11% 50% 33% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Allen Ky. 80 40 41 -50% 3% -49% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Bell Ky. 117 93 132 -21% 42% 13% 3/10 7/1 9/28
Boone Ky. 453 372 492 -18% 32% 9% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Breckinridge Ky. 211 132 181 -37% 37% -14% 3/10 7/1 9/28
Campbell Ky. 588 474 477 -19% 1% -19% 3/10 7/1 9/28
Carter Ky. 210 129 180 -39% 40% -14% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Christian Ky. 768 522 613 -32% 17% -20% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Clark Ky. 303 141 154 -53% 9% -49% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Daviess Ky. 717 496 606 -31% 22% -15% 3/10 7/1 9/28
Franklin Ky. 287 199 189 -31% -5% -34% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Graves Ky. 182 143 150 -21% 5% -18% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Harlan Ky. 220 168 180 -24% 7% -18% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Hart Ky. 190 135 155 -29% 15% -18% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Jackson Ky. 128 81 78 -37% -4% -39% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Jessamine Ky. 142 84 80 -41% -5% -44% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Larue Ky. 143 87 129 -39% 48% -10% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Letcher Ky. 108 87 95 -19% 9% -12% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lewis Ky. 69 49 47 -29% -4% -32% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Mason Ky. 184 103 128 -44% 24% -30% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Nelson Ky. 116 97 49 -16% -49% -58% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Pike Ky. 443 320 342 -28% 7% -23% 3/10 7/1 9/28
Pulaski Ky. 351 227 285 -35% 26% -19% 3/10 7/1 9/28
Rockcastle Ky. 102 59 63 -42% 7% -38% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Rowan Ky. 321 231 266 -28% 15% -17% 3/10 7/1 10/13
Russell Ky. 116 99 91 -15% -8% -22% 3/10 7/1 9/28
Taylor Ky. 239 145 172 -39% 19% -28% 3/10 7/1 9/28
Todd Ky. 135 84 88 -38% 5% -35% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Union Ky. 72 45 18 -38% -60% -75% 3/10 7/1 8/14
Wayne Ky. 193 125 124 -35% -1% -36% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Allen La. 102 64 58 -37% -9% -43% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Assumption La. 101 89 102 -12% 15% 1% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Avoyelles La. 424 328 320 -23% -2% -25% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Beauregard La. 161 137 174 -15% 27% 8% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Bienville La. 41 27 26 -34% -4% -37% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Bogalusa City La. 18 10 13 -44% 30% -28% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Caldwell La. 610 504 588 -17% 17% -4% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Cameron La. 27 19 12 -30% -37% -56% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Catahoula La. 72 49 52 -32% 6% -28% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Claiborne La. 575 463 437 -19% -6% -24% 3/10 7/1 11/15
EaSt. Feliciana La. 244 216 239 -11% 11% -2% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Evangeline La. 74 57 66 -23% 16% -11% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Franklin La. 815 688 804 -16% 17% -1% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Hammond City La. 14 11 7 -21% -36% -50% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Iberia La. 403 325 360 -19% 11% -11% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Iberville La. 106 111 105 5% -5% -1% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Jackson La. 131 115 138 -12% 20% 5% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Jefferson Davis La. 159 72 123 -55% 71% -23% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lafayette La. 990 528 549 -47% 4% -45% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lafourche La. 458 313 322 -32% 3% -30% 3/10 7/1 11/15
LaSalle La. 73 58 82 -21% 41% 12% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lincoln La. 246 233 232 -5% 0% -6% 3/10 7/1 9/13
Madison La. 35 38 66 9% 74% 89% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Morehouse La. 464 505 475 9% -6% 2% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Oakdale La. 1 1 1 0% 0% 0% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Ouachita La. 1134 991 1089 -13% 10% -4% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Pointe Coupee La. 98 72 67 -27% -7% -32% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Red River La. 64 54 48 -16% -11% -25% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Richland La. 751 583 676 -22% 16% -10% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Sabine La. 203 163 157 -20% -4% -23% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Shreveport La. 63 12 28 -81% 133% -56% 3/10 7/1 11/15
St. Charles La. 458 416 433 -9% 4% -5% 3/10 7/1 11/15
St. James La. 68 40 49 -41% 23% -28% 3/10 7/1 11/15
St. John La. 146 125 95 -14% -24% -35% 3/10 7/1 11/15
St. Mary La. 223 169 170 -24% 1% -24% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Sulphur La. 11 16 12 45% -25% 9% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Tangipahoa La. 572 449 523 -22% 16% -9% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Tensas La. 18 18 23 0% 28% 28% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Terrebonne La. 645 490 573 -24% 17% -11% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Vermilion La. 146 129 153 -12% 19% 5% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Vernon La. 131 100 135 -24% 35% 3% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Ville Platte La. 16 7 13 -56% 86% -19% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Washington La. 163 139 190 -15% 37% 17% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Webster La. 627 546 635 -13% 16% 1% 3/10 7/1 11/15
WeSt. Baton Rouge La. 320 249 249 -22% 0% -22% 3/10 7/1 11/15
WeSt. Feliciana La. 25 14 129 -44% 821% 416% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Winnfield La. 24 22 29 -8% 32% 21% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Worcester Mass. 766 487 556 -36% 14% -27% 3/10 7/1 11/14
Allegany Md. 189 138 151 -27% 9% -20% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Garrett Md. 9 7 10 -22% 43% 11% 3/10 7/1 8/18
Prince Georges Md. 884 726 944 -18% 30% 7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Cumberland Maine 349 283 329 -19% 16% -6% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Delta Mich. 125 105 111 -16% 6% -11% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Midland Mich. 101 53 68 -48% 28% -33% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Wayne Mich. 2086 2129 2802 2% 32% 34% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Beltrami Minn. 113 86 88 -24% 2% -22% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Blue Earth Minn. 114 65 76 -43% 17% -33% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Brown Minn. 18 16 18 -11% 13% 0% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Carlton Minn. 33 15 27 -55% 80% -18% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Chisago Minn. 61 23 39 -62% 70% -36% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Clay Minn. 117 61 89 -48% 46% -24% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Clearwater Minn. 17 11 8 -35% -27% -53% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Crow Wing Minn. 155 98 95 -37% -3% -39% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Fillmore Minn. 7 9 8 29% -11% 14% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Hubbard Minn. 63 30 50 -52% 67% -21% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Isanti Minn. 57 28 43 -51% 54% -25% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Kanabec Minn. 45 18 14 -60% -22% -69% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Kandiyohi Minn. 91 66 62 -27% -6% -32% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lac Qui Parle Minn. 4 4 3 0% -25% -25% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Le Sueur Minn. 23 9 11 -61% 22% -52% 3/10 7/1 11/15
McLeod Minn. 36 18 25 -50% 39% -31% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Mille Lacs Minn. 79 44 40 -44% -9% -49% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Morrison Minn. 31 18 22 -42% 22% -29% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Mower Minn. 79 46 51 -42% 11% -35% 3/10 7/1 11/13
Nicollet Minn. 26 12 12 -54% 0% -54% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Pennington Minn. 34 29 39 -15% 34% 15% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Pipestone Minn. 14 8 8 -43% 0% -43% 3/10 8/18* 11/15
Redwood Minn. 12 14 7 17% -50% -42% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Renville Minn. 39 14 21 -64% 50% -46% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Roseau Minn. 21 11 8 -48% -27% -62% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Scott Minn. 140 58 89 -59% 53% -36% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Sherburne Minn. 307 261 250 -15% -4% -19% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Sibley Minn. 9 1 8 -89% 700% -11% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Swift Minn. 4 3 3 -25% 0% -25% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Todd Minn. 21 7 27 -67% 286% 29% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Wilkin Minn. 9 3 6 -67% 100% -33% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Winona Minn. 30 17 28 -43% 65% -7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Wright Minn. 182 98 98 -46% 0% -46% 3/10 7/1 11/2
Yellow Medicine Minn. 15 8 16 -47% 100% 7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Barry Mo. 45 46 57 2% 24% 27% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Bates Mo. 31 22 8 -29% -64% -74% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Benton Mo. 35 18 36 -49% 100% 3% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Bollinger Mo. 19 13 17 -32% 31% -11% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Boone Mo. 252 198 237 -21% 20% -6% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Buchanan Mo. 217 149 207 -31% 39% -5% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Cape Girardeau Mo. 148 160 219 8% 37% 48% 3/10 8/18* 11/15
Christian Mo. 101 66 81 -35% 23% -20% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Clay Mo. 300 213 221 -29% 4% -26% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Jackson Mo. 839 688 800 -18% 16% -5% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Jasper Mo. 200 168 165 -16% -2% -18% 3/10 7/3 11/15
Johnson Mo. 202 75 129 -63% 72% -36% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Joplin Mo. 56 36 31 -36% -14% -45% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lawrence Mo. 77 71 73 -8% 3% -5% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lewis Mo. 8 7 12 -13% 71% 50% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Marion Mo. 79 57 70 -28% 23% -11% 3/10 7/1 11/15
McDonald Mo. 34 41 29 21% -29% -15% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Morgan Mo. 79 59 115 -25% 95% 46% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Nodaway Mo. 12 11 10 -8% -9% -17% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Saline Mo. 57 43 52 -25% 21% -9% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Stone Mo. 65 69 63 6% -9% -3% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Adams Miss. 76 82 73 8% -11% -4% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Clay Miss. 68 51 60 -25% 18% -12% 3/10 7/1 10/26
Hancock Miss. 203 196 205 -3% 5% 1% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Jackson Miss. 338 357 370 6% 4% 9% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Jasper Miss. 30 23 23 -23% 0% -23% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Kemper Miss. 380 371 369 -2% -1% -3% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lamar Miss. 106 84 93 -21% 11% -12% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Lee Miss. 194 198 228 2% 15% 18% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Sunflower Miss. 49 44 41 -10% -7% -16% 3/10 7/1 11/12
Tunica Miss. 27 24 21 -11% -13% -22% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Broadwater Mont. 47 35 39 -26% 11% -17% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Chouteau Mont. 11 18 10 64% -44% -9% 3/10 7/25 9/8
Glacier Mont. 8 10 6 25% -40% -25% 3/10 7/1 10/22
Lewis and Clark Mont. 102 104 99 2% -5% -3% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Ravalli Mont. 41 38 40 -7% 5% -2% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Rosebud Mont. 11 10 12 -9% 20% 9% 3/10 7/7 11/15
Valley Mont. 40 26 24 -35% -8% -40% 3/10 7/2 11/15
Alamance N.C. 361 220 263 -39% 20% -27% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Anson N.C. 49 50 53 2% 6% 8% 3/10 7/1 11/6
Brunswick N.C. 244 163 228 -33% 40% -7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Buncombe N.C. 504 347 400 -31% 15% -21% 3/10 7/1 10/14
Burke N.C. 133 126 149 -5% 18% 12% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Cabarrus N.C. 323 192 193 -41% 1% -40% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Carteret N.C. 165 100 149 -39% 49% -10% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Catawba N.C. 302 224 273 -26% 22% -10% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Chatham N.C. 1749 1205 1350 -31% 12% -23% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Clay N.C. 314 209 215 -33% 3% -32% 3/10 7/1 9/28
Cleveland N.C. 324 184 248 -43% 35% -23% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Davidson N.C. 340 210 246 -38% 17% -28% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Guilford N.C. 1051 772 741 -27% -4% -29% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lee N.C. 119 96 127 -19% 32% 7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lincoln N.C. 148 63 123 -57% 95% -17% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Moore N.C. 138 100 130 -28% 30% -6% 3/10 7/1 11/15
New Hanover N.C. 444 353 465 -20% 32% 5% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Pender N.C. 88 66 84 -25% 27% -5% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Randolph N.C. 255 193 215 -24% 11% -16% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Richmond N.C. 114 75 104 -34% 39% -9% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Rowan N.C. 341 223 277 -35% 24% -19% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Sampson N.C. 253 167 211 -34% 26% -17% 3/10 7/2 11/15
Stanly N.C. 156 98 129 -37% 32% -17% 3/10 7/1 11/12
Transylvania N.C. 77 45 40 -42% -11% -48% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Wake N.C. 1246 1054 1173 -15% 11% -6% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Washington N.C. 459 305 290 -34% -5% -37% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Stutsman N.D. 47 35 41 -26% 17% -13% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Williams N.D. 90 102 96 13% -6% 7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Hall Neb. 275 198 257 -28% 30% -7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lancaster Neb. 625 451 587 -28% 30% -6% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lincoln Neb. 117 116 118 -1% 2% 1% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Bergen N.J. 618 283 312 -54% 10% -50% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Burlington N.J. 375 257 367 -31% 43% -2% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Cumberland N.J. 337 246 308 -27% 25% -9% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Hunterdon N.J. 46 28 31 -39% 11% -33% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Ocean N.J. 326 242 316 -26% 31% -3% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Salem N.J. 302 267 326 -12% 22% 8% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Sussex N.J. 75 41 57 -45% 39% -24% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Bernalillo N.M. 1680 1315 1267 -22% -4% -25% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Curry N.M. 183 160 168 -13% 5% -8% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Hobbs N.M. 11 7 13 -36% 86% 18% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lea N.M. 234 138 155 -41% 12% -34% 3/10 7/1 11/15
San Juan N.M. 508 312 468 -39% 50% -8% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Monroe N.Y. 766 587 708 -23% 21% -8% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Adams Ohio 42 35 45 -17% 29% 7% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Clinton Ohio 80 52 56 -35% 8% -30% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Delaware Ohio 233 160 162 -31% 1% -30% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Erie Ohio 129 73 86 -43% 18% -33% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Franklin Ohio 2002 1503 1758 -25% 17% -12% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Guernsey Ohio 105 83 87 -21% 5% -17% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Hamilton Ohio 1499 1114 1409 -26% 26% -6% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Knox Ohio 96 75 75 -22% 0% -22% 3/10 7/1 9/2
Morrow Ohio 104 53 60 -49% 13% -42% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Ottawa Ohio 92 59 58 -36% -2% -37% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Pickaway Ohio 119 110 90 -8% -18% -24% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Wood Ohio 169 96 143 -43% 49% -15% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Choctaw Okla. 29 22 30 -24% 36% 3% 3/10 7/1 8/20
Comanche Okla. 357 278 274 -22% -1% -23% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Creek Okla. 225 149 204 -34% 37% -9% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Garvin Okla. 67 59 75 -12% 27% 12% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Mayes Okla. 77 93 109 21% 17% 42% 3/10 7/1 11/15
McClain Okla. 96 59 78 -39% 32% -19% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Okmulgee Okla. 174 192 180 10% -6% 3% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Pawnee Okla. 53 28 22 -47% -21% -58% 3/10 7/1 8/20
Pottawatomie Okla. 203 184 202 -9% 10% 0% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Wagoner Okla. 89 97 108 9% 11% 21% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Baker Ore. 32 14 16 -56% 14% -50% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Clackamas Ore. 427 198 220 -54% 11% -48% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Clatsop Ore. 56 38 50 -32% 32% -11% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Coos Ore. 81 38 38 -53% 0% -53% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Douglas Ore. 200 123 107 -39% -13% -47% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Harney Ore. 8 2 6 -75% 200% -25% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Jackson Ore. 321 251 270 -22% 8% -16% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Jefferson Ore. 60 46 76 -23% 65% 27% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Josephine Ore. 185 145 80 -22% -45% -57% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Klamath Ore. 136 73 100 -46% 37% -26% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lincoln Ore. 161 73 99 -55% 36% -39% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Marion Ore. 420 274 282 -35% 3% -33% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Marion Work Center Ore. 90 33 49 -63% 48% -46% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Multnomah Ore. 1118 638 764 -43% 20% -32% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Polk Ore. 109 60 82 -45% 37% -25% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Tillamook Ore. 64 39 30 -39% -23% -53% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Wasco Ore. 132 60 77 -55% 28% -42% 3/10 7/1 11/9
Washington Ore. 874 516 566 -41% 10% -35% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Yamhill Ore. 166 54 96 -67% 78% -42% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Cumberland Pa. 409 221 243 -46% 10% -41% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Dauphin Pa. 1110 864 993 -22% 15% -11% 3/10 7/1 10/23
Lancaster Pa. 786 669 682 -15% 2% -13% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Anderson City S.C. 95 80 82 -16% 3% -14% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Berkeley S.C. 438 292 356 -33% 22% -19% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Cherokee S.C. 357 259 333 -27% 29% -7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Darlington S.C. 161 129 169 -20% 31% 5% 3/10 7/4 11/15
Kershaw S.C. 80 86 101 8% 17% 26% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Laurens S.C. 226 161 243 -29% 51% 8% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lexington S.C. 498 316 413 -37% 31% -17% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Marion S.C. 66 58 63 -12% 9% -5% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Pickens S.C. 302 224 188 -26% -16% -38% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Sumter S.C. 309 266 272 -14% 2% -12% 3/10 7/1 11/15
York Prison S.C. 61 7 27 -89% 286% -56% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Clay S.D. 12 12 10 0% -17% -17% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Blount Tenn. 534 458 488 -14% 7% -9% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Giles Tenn. 163 128 113 -21% -12% -31% 3/10 7/1 10/12
Macon Tenn. 300 256 283 -15% 11% -6% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Polk Tenn. 181 154 172 -15% 12% -5% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Roane Tenn. 206 206 155 0% -25% -25% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Sevier Tenn. 390 390 404 0% 4% 4% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Shelby Tenn. 1807 1412 1311 -22% -7% -27% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Wayne Tenn. 151 100 138 -34% 38% -9% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Archer Texas 26 27 30 4% 11% 15% 3/10 7/1 11/14
Bell Texas 859 762 956 -11% 25% 11% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Brown Texas 161 148 171 -8% 16% 6% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Calhoun Texas 76 84 62 11% -26% -18% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Cochran Texas 12 13 10 8% -23% -17% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Coleman Texas 33 31 24 -6% -23% -27% 3/10 7/1 11/15
DeWitt Texas 81 84 74 4% -12% -9% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Edwards Texas 10 7 8 -30% 14% -20% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Ellis Texas 375 303 348 -19% 15% -7% 3/10 7/1 11/14
Erath Texas 79 68 72 -14% 6% -9% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Galveston Texas 991 839 944 -15% 13% -5% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Hopkins Texas 159 187 193 18% 3% 21% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Jim Wells Texas 61 59 41 -3% -31% -33% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lavaca Texas 25 19 17 -24% -11% -32% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Liberty Texas 240 271 227 13% -16% -5% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lubbock Texas 1242 1274 1238 3% -3% 0% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Milam Texas 137 138 138 1% 0% 1% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Parmer Texas 28 22 19 -21% -14% -32% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Polk Texas 184 158 198 -14% 25% 8% 3/10 7/2 11/15
Randall Texas 413 382 401 -8% 5% -3% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Robertson Texas 43 32 50 -26% 56% 16% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Rockwall Texas 220 219 240 0% 10% 9% 3/10 7/2 11/15
Shelby Texas 37 39 40 5% 3% 8% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Terry Texas 83 89 95 7% 7% 14% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Titus Texas 133 92 97 -31% 5% -27% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Tom Green Texas 392 413 440 5% 7% 12% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Wharton Texas 145 100 122 -31% 22% -16% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Cache Utah 183 108 127 -41% 18% -31% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Salt Lake Utah 2138 1166 1411 -45% 21% -34% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Sanpete Utah 13 14 15 8% 7% 15% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Tooele Utah 214 169 168 -21% -1% -21% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Blue Ridge Bedford Va. 100 78 108 -22% 38% 8% 3/10 7/1 9/28
Blue Ridge Halifax Va. 179 172 174 -4% 1% -3% 3/10 7/1 9/28
Blue Ridge Lynchburg Va. 466 383 501 -18% 31% 8% 3/10 7/1 9/28
Danville Va. 363 312 322 -14% 3% -11% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Middle Peninsula Va. 169 162 167 -4% 3% -1% 3/10 7/25 11/15
Middle River Va. 900 733 927 -19% 26% 3% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Norfolk Va. 935 667 871 -29% 31% -7% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Pamunkey Va. 376 296 395 -21% 33% 5% 3/10 7/1 9/28
Riverside Va. 1360 1144 1272 -16% 11% -6% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Roanoke Va. 173 145 167 -16% 15% -3% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Virginia Beach Va. 1509 1142 1260 -24% 10% -17% 3/10 7/6 11/15
Virginia Peninsula Va. 370 310 352 -16% 14% -5% 3/10 7/1 9/28
Western Virginia Va. 944 733 825 -22% 13% -13% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Chelan Wash. 190 143 169 -25% 18% -11% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Clallam Forks Wash. 17 10 10 -41% 0% -41% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Clark Wash. 655 402 427 -39% 6% -35% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Columbia Wash. 6 8 8 33% 0% 33% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Grays Harbor Wash. 177 122 117 -31% -4% -34% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Grays Harbor Aberdeen Wash. 20 16 9 -20% -44% -55% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Grays Harbor Hoquiam Wash. 31 19 21 -39% 11% -32% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Island Wash. 68 45 58 -34% 29% -15% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Jefferson Wash. 28 20 19 -29% -5% -32% 3/10 7/1 11/15
King Issaquah Wash. 56 23 41 -59% 78% -27% 3/10 7/1 11/15
King Kirkland Wash. 18 8 10 -56% 25% -44% 3/10 7/1 10/15
Kitsap Wash. 379 204 282 -46% 38% -26% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lewis Wash. 191 144 182 -25% 26% -5% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Okanogan Wash. 159 86 94 -46% 9% -41% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Skagit Wash. 275 137 178 -50% 30% -35% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Skamania Wash. 24 23 28 -4% 22% 17% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Snohomish Wash. 743 369 503 -50% 36% -32% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Snohomish Lynnwood Wash. 49 10 21 -80% 110% -57% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Snohomish Marysville Wash. 35 8 13 -77% 63% -63% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Thurston Olympia Wash. 22 7 15 -68% 114% -32% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Walla Walla Wash. 83 62 75 -25% 21% -10% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Whatcom Wash. 292 200 240 -32% 20% -18% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Whitman Wash. 31 17 27 -45% 59% -13% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Yakima Wash. 871 426 516 -51% 21% -41% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Brown Wis. 699 573 609 -18% 6% -13% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Douglas Wis. 156 107 168 -31% 57% 8% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Eau Claire Wis. 273 186 175 -32% -6% -36% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Kenosha Wis. 564 427 519 -24% 22% -8% 3/10 7/1 11/15
La Crosse Wis. 151 84 82 -44% -2% -46% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Lincoln Wis. 104 69 60 -34% -13% -42% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Manitowoc Wis. 204 171 158 -16% -8% -23% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Milwaukee Wis. 1920 1493 1457 -22% -2% -24% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Ozaukee Wis. 195 161 162 -17% 1% -17% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Racine Wis. 753 562 636 -25% 13% -16% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Sawyer Wis. 114 86 75 -25% -13% -34% 3/10 7/1 11/15
Sheboygan Wis. 347 329 305 -5% -7% -12% 3/10 7/1 11/15

*Some jails did not have population data in the NYU database for July. We used the first August population available for those jails.


Appendix B: State prison populations during COVID-19

Prison populations for 21 states where monthly data was readily available for the period from January to November 2020.

State January May July August September October November Most recent Population Data Source
Prison population Date Prison population Date Prison population Date Prison population Date Prison population Date Prison population Date Prison population Date Prison population Date
Arizona 42,441 1/1 41,386 5/1 40,102 7/1 39,125 8/21 38,865 9/27 38,741 10/7 38,562 11/1 38,385 11/19 Vera’s People in Prison, 2019; ADCRR COVID-19 Dashboard
California 125,365 1/15 119,183 5/6 115,201 7/1 104,544 8/19 100,747 9/30 101,003 10/7 101,658 11/4 100,153 11/18 CDCR 2020 Weekly Total Population Reports
Connecticut 12,284 1/1 10,973 5/1 9,945 7/1 9,558 8/24 9,391 9/30 9,344 10/8 9,350 11/1 9,299 11/19 Department of Correction’s Total Population Counts Report
Georgia 53,924 1/3 51,294 5/1 49,959 7/3 48,274 8/21 46,814 9/25 47,368 10/2 46,649 10/30 45,893 11/13 GDC Friday Report
Indiana 26,562 1/1 26,418 5/1 25,385 7/1 24,203 10/1 Indiana DOC Offender Population Report
Iowa 9,282 1/1 8,899 5/1 7,555 7/8 7,441 8/24 7,410 9/17 7,402 10/8 7,415 10/31 7,433 11/19 Vera’s People in Prison, 2019; Department of Corrections’s Daily Statistics
Kansas 10,011 1/2 9,740 5/1 9,191 7/1 8,813 8/21 8,682 9/30 8,678 10/7 8,608 11/2 8,596 11/18 Department of Corrections Daily Adult Population Report
Kentucky 23,141 1/1 21,111 5/1 20,313 7/1 19,695 8/21 19,080 9/30 18,863 10/7 18,917 11/2 18,937 11/13 Vera’s People in Prison, 2019; Department of Corrections Daily Count Sheet
Maine 2,205 1/1 2,123 5/1 1,798 7/1 1,793 8/24 1,763 10/5 1,722 11/16 Vera’s People in Prison, 2019; Department of Corrections’ Population Report
Minnesota 9,381 1/1 8,466 5/4 8,330 7/1 7,599 8/24 7,519 9/28 7,512 10/1 7,543 11/2 7,449 11/16 Department of Corrections’ Adult Prison Population Summary; Department of Correction COVID-19 Updates
Mississippi 19,469 1/1 18,553 5/1 17,448 7/1 17,293 8/18 17,288 9/30 17,274 10/1 17,224 11/1 17,122 11/19 Vera’s People in Prison, 2019; Department of Correction Daily Inmate Population
Montana 2,759 1/1 2,692 5/1 2,542 7/1 2,537 8/24 2,526 9/24 2,491 10/7 2,473 11/1 2,445 11/18 Department of Corrections Daily Population Report
Nevada 12,911 1/4 12,474 5/18 12,266 7/7 11,996 8/23 11,813 9/27 11,756 10/6 11,731 10/31 Department of Correction Weekly Fact Sheets
North Carolina 34,510 1/1 32,795 5/1 31,929 6/30 31,704 8/24 30,970 9/30 30,962 10/8 30,742 10/29 30,353 11/19 Vera’s People in Prison, 2019; Department of Public Safety Statistics: Offender Population
North Dakota 1,794 1/1 1,461 5/1 1,380 7/1 1,363 8/24 1,348 10/8 1,394 11/19 Vera’s People in Prison, 2019; Department of Corrections & Rehabilitation Operational Capacity Daily Count
Oklahoma 24,749 1/6 23,663 5/4 22,425 6/29 22,033 8/24 21,835 9/21 21,747 10/5 21,689 11/2 21,714 11/16 Department of Corrections Weekly Count
Pennsylvania 45,875 1/1 43,394 4/30 41,572 6/30 40,616 8/24 40,028 9/30 39,818 10/8 39,430 11/1 39,299 11/19 Vera’s People in Prison, 2019; Department of Corrections COVID-19 Dashboard
South Carolina 18,608 1/1 18,160 5/1 16,836 7/12 16,215 8/24 15,971 9/30 15,992 10/8 15,804 10/31 15,957 11/19 Vera’s People in Prison, 2019; Inmate and Bed Counts of SCDC Institutions
Utah 6,731 1/1 6,064 5/1 5,859 6/4 5,700 8/24 Vera’s People in Prison, 2019; Department of Corrections Population Dashboard (no longer available)
Vermont 1,608 1/1 1,369 5/1 1,414 7/1 1,410 8/21 1,413 9/30 1,388 10/8 1,373 11/2 1,369 11/18 Vera’s People in Prison, 2019; Department of Corrections Past Daily Population Data
Wisconsin 23,672 1/3 22,342 5/1 21,388 7/3 21,337 8/21 21,098 9/25 21,052 10/2 20,867 10/30 20,693 11/13 Department of Corrections Weekly Population Reports

Emily Widra is a Research Analyst at the Prison Policy Initiative. (Other articles | Full bio | Contact)



Stay Informed


Get the latest updates:



Tweet this page Donate