Community Impact

Impact of justice system on communities, includes housing, employment, schools

  • (New) A Place to Call Home: A Vision for Safe, Supportive and Affordable Housing for People with Justice System Involvement Prisoner Reentry Institute, October, 2017(This document makes the case for providing digni ed housing that meets the needs of those with criminal justice histories, and providing it as quickly as possible upon reentry.)
  • Opening Doors: How to develop reentry programs using examples from public housing authorities Vera Institute of Justice, September, 2017“This guide is designed to support PHAs and other agencies that are beginning to develop new housing strategies and programming to meet the needs of formerly incarcerated people.”
  • (New) The Crisis of Criminalization: A Call for a Comprehensive Philanthropic Response Barnard Center for Research on Women, September, 2017(This report is an urgent call for a comprehensive philanthropic response to the growing crisis of criminalization.)
  • (New) The Geography of Incarceration in a Gateway City: The Cost and Consequences of High Incarceration Rate Neighborhoods in Worcester MassINC, September, 2017(The analysis explores the cost and consequences of high incarceration rates in Worcester neighborhoods, offering vital information for policymakers crafting comprehensive criminal justice reform legislation.)
  • (New) Targeted Fines and Fees Against Communities of Color U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, September, 2017(Unchecked discretion or stringent requirements to impose fines or fees can lead to discrimination and inequitable access to justice when not exercised in accordance with ... the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses of the U.S. Constitution.)
  • Keeping Kids and Parents Together: A Healthier Approach to Sentencing in Massachusetts Human Impact Partners, September, 2017“Increasing judges’ discretion to authorize alternatives to incarceration that include treatment instead of prison or jail where appropriate can keep families intact.”
  • Who Does Civil Asset Forfeiture Target Most?: A Review of the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department's Forfeiture Activities for Fiscal Year 2016 Nevada Policy Research Institute, August, 2017“Forfeitures disproportionately target neighborhoods with relatively high levels of minorities and low-income residents.”
  • Less Is More: How Reducing Probation Populations Can Improve Outcomes Harvard Kennedy School, August, 2017(The decline in the number of people on probation supervision in the U.S. should not only be sustained but significantly increased, with a goal of reducing the number of people under probation supervision by 50 percent over 10 years.)
  • The Cost of Crimmigration: Exploring the Intersection Between Criminal Justice and Immigration Justice Policy Institute, June, 2017“While costing counties and cities more, immigration enforcement also undermines public safety as residents fear interacting with local law enforcement, and policing resources are deployed away from more effective crime prevention and enforcement”
  • America's Toxic Prisons: The Environmental Injustices of Mass Incarceration Earth Island Journal and Truthout, June, 2017“The toxic impact of prisons extends far beyond any individual prison, or any specific region in the United States. Mass incarceration in the US impacts the health of prisoners, prison-adjacent communities, and local ecosystems from coast to coast.”
  • Reducing Youth Arrests Keeps Kids Healthy and Successful: A Health Analysis of Youth Arrest in Michigan Human Impact Partners, June, 2017“We evaluate the health and equity impacts of youth arrest (for kids under the age of 17) in Michigan, with a focus on the city of Detroit, and Wayne and Washtenaw Counties.”
  • Sense of self and responsibility: a review of learning from the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Prison Reform Fellowships " Part 5 Institute for Criminal Policy Research, Birkbeck, University of London, June, 2017“This report profiles interventions which encourage imprisoned people to develop a positive sense of self and a sense of responsibility for their own lives and towards others.”
  • Out of Sight: The Growth of Jails in Rural America Vera Institute of Justice, June, 2017“America’s 3,283 local jails are the “front door” to mass incarceration, but for too long have grown outside of public view. Our latest analysis reveals an unexpected finding: there has been a dramatic shift in the geography of incarceration.”
  • Peer relations: Review of learning from the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Prison Reform Fellowships " Part 4 Institute for Criminal Policy Research, Birkbeck, University of London, June, 2017(This briefing examines the importance of positive peer relations for promoting desistance and providing moral and practical support to people in prison and on release.)
  • Language from police body camera footage shows racial disparities in officer respect Stanford University, June, 2017“Officers speak with consistently less respect toward black versus white community members, even after controlling for the race of the officer, the severity of the infraction, the location of the stop, and the outcome of the stop.”
  • Criminal Background Checks and Access to Jobs: A Case Study of Washington, DC Urban Institute, June, 2017“Examining local regulations and DC’s labor market reveals that justice-involved people—whether formerly incarcerated or not—face significant challenges finding work in in the city.”
  • Freedom To Thrive: Reimagining safety & security in our communities The Center for Popular Democracy, Law for Black Lives, and the Black Youth Project 100, June, 2017“This report examines racial disparities, policing landscapes, and budgets in twelve jurisdictions across the country, comparing the city and county spending priorities with those of community organizations and their members.”
  • Bail Reform in California UCLA Luskin School of Public Affairs, May, 2017(This report examines California's system of commercial surety bail, recommending that it be replaced with risk assessment tools and non-bail release to improve predictive accuracy, race neutrality, and other outcomes such as fiscal impact.)
  • Selling Off Our Freedom: How insurance corporations have taken over our bail system Color of Change and the American Civil Liberties Union, May, 2017“Fewer than 10 insurance companies are behind a significant majority of bonds issued by as many as 25,000 bail bond agents.”
  • The Devil in the Details: Bail Bond Contracts in California UCLA School of Law, May, 2017“After analyzing the fine print in more than 100 contract documents online corresponding to 10 sureties, we identified 20 problems with bail bond contracts that violate common notions of fairness and justice.”
  • Paying More for Being Poor: Bias and Disparity in California's Traffic Court System Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights of the San Francisco Bay Area, May, 2017“The available county-level data shows that African-American people in particular are four to sixteen times more likely to be booked on arrests related to failure to pay an infraction ticket.”
  • Hidden Consequences: The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Dependent Children National Institute of Justice, May, 2017“This article summarizes the range of risk factors facing children of incarcerated parents. It also cautions against universal policy solutions that seek to address these risk factors but do not take into account the child’s unique needs.”
  • Racism & Felony Disenfranchisement: An Intertwined History Brennan Center for Justice, May, 2017“One in every 13 voting-age African Americans cannot vote, a disenfranchisement rate more than four times greater than that of all other Americans.”
  • The Price of Prisons: Examining State Spending Trends, 2010-2015 Vera Institute of Justice, May, 2017“Since 2010, 23 states have reduced the size of their prison populations. Vera’s research found that 13 of these states have saved considerably in taxpayer money — $1.6 billion — at the same time.”
  • Leading with Conviction: The Transformative Role of Formerly Incarcerated Leaders in Reducing Mass Incarceration Columbia Law School, May, 2017“This report documents the roles of 48 formerly incarcerated leaders engaged in work related to reducing incarceration and rebuilding communities.”
  • Getting Tough on Spending: An Examination of Correctional Expenditure in Massachusetts MassINC and the Massachusetts Criminal Justice Reform Coalition, May, 2017“DOC [Department of Corrections] and county facilities combined, the state budget allocation per inmate rose 34 percent between FY 2011 and FY 2016. Over this period, education aid per student increased by only 11 percent.”
  • The steep cost of medical co-pays in prison puts health at risk Wendy Sawyer, Prison Policy Initiative, April, 2017“In Michigan, it would take over a week to earn enough for a single $5 co-pay, making it the free world equivalent of over $300. In 13 states co-pays are equivalent to charging minimum wage workers more than $200.”
  • Bullies in Blue: Origins and Consequences of School Policing American Civil Liberties Union, April, 2017“[A]t at its origins, school policing enforced social control over Black and Latino youth who could no longer be kept out of neighborhoods and schools through explicitly discriminatory laws.”
  • Supervision in the Community: Probation and Parole Michelle S. Phelps and Caitlin Curry, University of Minnesota, April, 2017“In the United States, the number of adults on probation and parole supervision increased from one million in 1980 to a peak of nearly 5.1 million in 2007, more than double the number of inmates in local, state, and federal jails and prisons.”
  • The Voting Rights of Ex-Felons and Election Outcomes in the United States Tilman Klumpp, Hugo Mialon, Michael Williams, March, 2017“The changes in felony disenfranchisement laws examined are evidence of a growing consensus that lifelong voting bans are not only ethically problematic, but also stand in the way of efforts to reduce recidivism.”
  • Ohio's Statehouse-to-Prison Pipeline: 131st General Assembly (2015-2016) ACLU of Ohio, March, 2017“These laws often use incarceration to address public health issues like addiction, mental health, and poverty, which only serves to exacerbate those problems.”(The ACLU of Ohio reviewed all 1,004 bills introduced during the 2015-2016 legislative session and found nearly one in 10 included language to lock more people up longer.)
  • How Do People in High-Crime, Low-Income Communities View the Police? Urban Institute, February, 2017“27.8% of respondents agreed/strongly agreed that police almost always behave according to the law. Approximately one-third agreed or strongly agreed that police stand up for values that are important to them and often arrest people for no good reason.”
  • Accounting for Violence: How to Increase Safety and Break Our Failed Reliance on Mass Incarceration Vera Institute of Justice, February, 2017“[J]ust as it would be wrong to excuse people’s actions simply because they were previously victimized, it is also wrong to ignore someone’s victimization because the person previously broke a law or committed harm in the past.”
  • Report to the New York City Housing Authority: Applying and Lifting Permanent Exclusions for Criminal Conduct Vera Institute of Justice, February, 2017“The New York Housing Authority has a commitment to maintain the safety of its residents, but must also recognize the important role of families and housing for people involved with the criminal justice system when considering permanent exclusions.”
  • Sentencing Outcomes in U.S. District Courts: Can Offenders' Educational Attainment Guard Against Prevalent Criminal Stereotypes? Travis W. Franklin, Sam Houston State University, February, 2017“[C]ourt actors may be less concerned (or not at all concerned) with factors typically linked to perceptions of dangerousness (e.g., race, ethnicity, age, sex, detention status) when dealing with offenders of higher educational status.”
  • Behind the Badge: How Police View Their Jobs, Key Issues, and Recent Fatal Encounters Between Blacks and Police Pew Research Center, January, 2017“27% of all white officers but 69% of their black colleagues say the protests that followed fatal encounters between police and black citizens have been motivated at least to some extent by a genuine desire to hold police accountable.”
  • Following the Money of Mass Incarceration Prison Policy Initiative, January, 2017“In this first-of-its-kind report, we find that the system of mass incarceration costs the government and families of justice-involved people at least $182 billion every year.”
  • Pretrial Justice: How Much Does It Cost Pretrial Justice Institute, January, 2017“The evidence shows that current pretrial practices--especially those that use money bail and over-use jail beds for lower risk people--are needlessly expensive and doesn’t produce positive results.”
  • Reinstating Common Sense: How driver's license suspensions for drug offenses unrelated to driving are falling out of favor Prison Policy Initiative, December, 2016“Our criminal justice system should not set people up to fail. Yet that is exactly what mandatory driver’s license suspensions do: they introduce new legal, economic, and social barriers for people who are in the midst of reentry.”
  • Punishing Poverty: The high cost of probation fees in Massachusetts Prison Policy Initiative, December, 2016“Despite evidence that many probationers come from the poorest areas of the state, and the court’s ability to waive probation fees, the state manages to collect $20 million per year in fees.”
  • Connecticut Employer Survey Practices and Attitudes: The Hiring of Formerly-Incarcerated Persons and Recommendations for Driving Better Outcomes Malta Justice Initiative Inc., December, 2016“4 in 10 respondents have no experience in hiring ex-offenders and a quarter say their company has a policy against it. Very few (3%) are actively hiring individuals with a criminal record.”
  • Mass incarceration and children's outcomes: Criminal Justice Policy is Education Policy Economic Policy Institute, December, 2016“It is more common for children of incarcerated parents to drop out of school than it is for children of nonincarcerated parents, controlling for race, IQ, home quality, poverty status, and mother’s education.”
  • Beyond Bars: Keeping Young People Safe at Home and Out of Youth Prisons The National Collaboration for Youth, December, 2016“The youth prison is the signature feature of nearly every state juvenile justice system even though it is harmful, ineffective and expensive.”
  • Helping Moms, Dads, & Kids To Come Home: Eliminating Barriers to Housing for People with Criminal Records Legal Action Center, December, 2016“America’s “revolving-door” approach to mass incarceration is inextricably linked to the problem of homelessness.”
  • Building Trust and Legitimacy Within Community Corrections Harvard Kennedy School Program in Criminal Justice, December, 2016“A shift from incarceration to community corrections could present numerous opportunities for reform of the criminal justice system as well as significant challenges.”
  • Repurposing: New Beginnings for Closed Prisons The Sentencing Project, December, 2016“Since 2011, at least 22 states have closed or announced closures for 92 state prisons and juvenile facilities, resulting in the elimination of over 48,000 state prison beds and an estimated cost savings of over $333 million.”
  • Beyond Second Chances: Returning Citizens' Re-Entry Struggles and Successes In The District of Columbia Council for Court Excellence, December, 2016“The population of D.C. Code offenders is starkly homogeneous. Although slightly fewer than half of all D.C. residents are black, more than 96 percent of D.C. Code offenders incarcerated at BOP facilities are black.”
  • Common Ground: How all of Oregon Contributes to Criminal Justice Reform Vera Institute of Justice, November, 2016“This brief describes how the state of Oregon worked together with its local community and government partners to address its growing prison population.”
  • The Geography of Incarceration: Boston Indicators Project, MassINC, and the Massachusetts Criminal Justice Reform Coalition, November, 2016“Many people of color live in Boston neighborhoods with such highly concentrated rates of incarceration that nearly every street—in some cases every other building— contains a resident who has been incarcerated.”
  • Coming Home: An Evaluation of the New York City Housing Authority's Family Reentry Pilot Program Vera Institute of Justice, November, 2016“The study revealed that participants reuniting with their families both received support and supported others as they took on familial roles, especially as caregivers for elderly parents.”
  • Remote Access: Using Video Technology to Treat Substance Users on Probation and Parole in South Dakota Vera Institute of Justice, October, 2016“The state worked with local providers to pilot a teleconferencing program aimed at connecting people to community-based services without the cost and barrier of transportation or other access issues.”
  • A Wealth of Inequalities: Mass Incarceration, Employment, and Racial Disparities in U.S. Household Wealth, 1996 to 2011 Bryan L. Sykes, University of Washington and Michelle Maroto, University of Alberta, October, 2016“[A] non-Hispanic white household with an institutionalized member would actually hold more in assets than an otherwise similar black or Hispanic household without an institutionalized member.”
  • We are not disposable: The Toxic Impacts of Prisons and Jails Californians United for a Responsible Budget, October, 2016“Pollution and environmental degradation created by prisons and jails exacerbate public health risks for not only incarcerated people but also for the local communities where detention facilities are sited.”
  • Bridging the Divide: Improving Parole Outcomes for Native Americans in South Dakota Vera Institute of Justice, October, 2016“This brief describes the issues that tribal communities face and how they are working together with the state government to provide effective services for Native American people on parole.”
  • Police Violence and Citizen Crime Reporting in the Black Community Professor Matthew Desmond, Harvard University; Professor Andrew Papachristos, Yale University; Professor David Kirk, University of Oxford, September, 2016“This study shows that publicized cases of police violence against unarmed black men have a clear and significant impact on citizen crime reporting.”
  • Investigation of the Baltimore City Police Department U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division, August, 2016“[T]he Department of Justice concludes that there is reasonable cause to believe that BPD engages in a pattern or practice of conduct that violates the Constitution or federal law.”
  • Unjust: How the broken criminal justice system fails LGBT people of color Center for American Progress, Movement Advancement Project.., August, 2016“This report focuses on LGBT people of color and their interactions with the criminal justice system.”
  • Missouri Policy Shortens Probation and Parole Terms, Protects Public Safety The Pew Charitable Trusts, August, 2016“Three years of data show that the earned compliance credit policy significantly reduced the state’s supervised population without jeopardizing public safety.”
  • New Orleans: Who's in Jail and Why? Vera Institute of Justice, August, 2016“This report aims to advance an important public conversation about how we are using our jail and how it impacts safety in our city.”
  • Profit-Driven Prosecution and the Competitive Bidding Process J. Reuben Clark Law School, Brigham Young University, August, 2016“This Article sheds light on the problems caused by introducing an overtly economic calculation (how cheaply and how profitably the prosecutorial function may be fulfilled) into the criminal adjudicative process.”
  • The Long Road Home: Decreasing Barriers to Public Housing for People with Criminal Records Human Impact Partners, May, 2016(This report assesses the health and equity impacts of public housing admissions screening policies that exclude people with a criminal history from public housing, using the Oakland Housing Authority (OHA) in Oakland, California as a case study.)
  • Unlicensed & Untapped: Removing Barriers to State Occupational Licenses for People with Records National Employment Law Project, April, 2016“[H]aving a conviction record, particularly for people of color, is a major barrier to participation in the labor market.”
  • Economic Perspectives on Incarceration and the Criminal Justice System White House Council of Economic Advisers, April, 2016“[E]conomics can provide a valuable lens for evaluating the costs and benefits of criminal justice policy.”
  • Stopped, Fined, Arrested: Racial Bias in Policing and Traffic Courts in California Back on the Road California, April, 2016“[T]here are dramatic racial and socioeconomic disparities in driver’s license suspensions and arrests related to unpaid traffic fines and fees.”
  • Forfeiting the American Dream: How Civil Asset Forfeiture Exacerbates Hardship for Low-income Communities and Communities of Color Center for American Progress, April, 2016“The abuse of civil asset forfeiture falls hardest on those who are least able to weather the economic shock of losing a home, car, or financial resources—namely, low-income individuals and people of color.”
  • A Shared Sentence: the devastating toll of parental incarceration on kids, families and communities The Annie E. Casey Foundation, April, 2016“Nationally, the number of kids who have had a parent in jail or prison at some point in their childhood hovers around 5.1 million - a conservative estimate.”
  • 54,000 Children: The Geography of America's Dysfunctional & Racially Disparate Youth Incarceration Complex Youth First Initiative, March, 2016“Youth prisons are the most expensive option in the juvenile justice system and consistently produce the worst outcomes.”
  • Criminal (In)justice: A Cost Analysis of Wrongful Convictions, Errors, and Failed Prosecutions in California's Criminal Justice System The Chief Justice Earl Warren Institute on Law and Social Policy, Berkeley School of Law, March, 2016“Criminal (In)justice examines 692 adult felony criminal cases where California missed the mark in public safety by failing to prosecute the right person or by pursuing a flawed or unsustainable conviction.”
  • Is Proposition 47 to Blame for California's 2015 Increase in Urban Crime? Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, March, 2016“There are no obvious effects associated with Proposition 47 that would be expected if the reform had a significant and consistent impact on crime.”
  • Children, Parents, and Incarceration: Descriptive Overview of Data from Alameda and San Francisco County Jails Alameda County Children of Incarcerated Parents Partnership; San Francisco Children of Incarcerated Parents Partnership, March, 2016“The survey was structured to gather information to inform program and policy decisions in consideration of the children’s well-being when their parents become incarcerated in local jails.”
  • Multi-Site Family Study on Incarceration, Parenting, and Partnering Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, March, 2016“Fathers with younger children rated their parental warmth and their relationship quality with their children more highly than did fathers of older children, and they also engaged in more activities with their children.”
  • Roadblock to Economic Independence: How Driver's License Suspension Policies in Indiana Impede Self-Sufficiency, Burden State Government... Health and Human Rights Clinic, Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law, February, 2016“Beside the cost to individuals, driver’s license suspensions significantly impact employers, government resources, and public safety.”
  • Charging the Poor: Criminal Justice Debt & Modern-Day Debtors' Prisons Texas A&M University - School of Law, December, 2015“[M]y Article proposes eliminating egregious sanctions, providing courts flexibility to base fines on earning levels, and establishing procedures to enforce restrictions against incarcerating those who are truly unable to pay their criminal justice debt.”
  • Public Housing for People with Criminal Histories Vera Institute of Justice, September, 2015“Cities such as New York City, Oakland, and Chicago have implemented reforms in tenant-selection criteria that ensure a person’s application for housing is not negatively impacted by his or her criminal record.”
  • Evaluation of the Los Angeles Gang Reduction and Youth Development Program: Year 4 Evaluation Report Urban Institute, September, 2015“The analyses presented in this report address GRYD’s efforts to impact gang violence at the individual, family, and community levels, paralleling the GRYD program components targeting each of these levels.”
  • Who Pays? The True Cost of Incarceration on Families Ella Baker Center for Human Rights; Forward Together; Research Action Design, September, 2015“Forty-eight percent of families in our survey overall were unable to afford the costs associated with a conviction, while among poor families (making less than $15,000 per year), 58% were unable to afford these costs.”
  • Adult Sex Offender Management Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking, July, 2015“This brief has focused on the effectiveness of a number of prominent sex offender management strategies, including specialized supervision, COSA, polygraph, GPS, civil commitment, SORN, and residence restrictions.”
  • Turning on the TAP: How Returning Access to Tuition Assistance for Incarcerated People Improves the Health of New Yorkers Human Impact Partners, May, 2015“Expanding access to college education for people in New York prisons would benefit the overall health and well-being of the communities that formerly incarcerated people return to, as well as the individuals who receive the education, and their families.”
  • Pretrial Release in California Public Policy Institute of California, May, 2015“This report uses newly available data to provide information about pretrial release in California and to give policymakers a better understanding of the defendants who tend to be released and the form of release they secure.”
  • Not Just a Ferguson Problem: How Traffic Courts Drive Inequality in California Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights of the San Francisco Bay Area, March, 2015“As a result, over four million Californians do not have valid driver’s licenses because they cannot afford to pay traffic fines and fees.”
  • On Life Support: Public Health in the Age of Mass Incarceration Vera Institute of Justice, November, 2014(Research in epidemiology indicates that had the U.S. incarceration rate remained at its 1973 level, then the infant mortality rate would have been 7.8% lower than it was in 2003, and disparity between black and white infant deaths nearly 15% lower.)
  • Bridging the Divide: A new paradigm for addressing safety, crime, and victimization Equal Justice USA, November, 2014“There is a growing movement to confront the false choice between meeting the needs of crime victims and reforming failed criminal justice and corrections policies.”
  • Public Safety - Municipal Courts Better Together, October, 2014“This means that the municipal courts in the St. Louis region accounted for 46% of all fines and fees collected statewide, despite being home to only 22% of Missourians.”
  • Criminal, Victim, or Worker?: The Effects of New York's Human Trafficking Intervention Courts on Adults Charged with Prostitution-Related Offenses Red Umbrella Project, October, 2014(Decreasing the incarceration of people charged with prostitution is a good step forward, but as long as people who are in the sex trades are "rescued" through arrest, they will continue to be re-victimized by the police and the courts.)
  • Socio-emotional Impact of Violent Crime Bureau of Justice Statistics, September, 2014“Overall, 68% of victims of serious violence experienced socio-emotional problems as a result of their victimization.”
  • Close-Range Gunfire around DC Schools Urban Institute, September, 2014“Fifty-four percent of DC schools covered by gunfire-detection technology had at least one burst of gunfire occur within 1,000 feet of the school.”
  • Rehabilitating Corrections in California: The Health Impacts of Proposition 47 Human Impact Partners, September, 2014“The key to achieving the full benefits of sentencing reform is funding and implementation of the treatment, prevention, and recovery services called for in the initiative.”
  • Violent Victimization In New And Established Hispanic Areas, 2007-2010 Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2014“From 2007 to 2010, new Hispanic areas had a lower overall rate of violent victimization compared to small Hispanic areas that had relatively little growth in Hispanic populations.”
  • Latino Voices The Impacts of Crime and Criminal Justice Policies on Latinos Californians for Safety and Justice, June, 2014“...the data that does exist — specifically research on Latino victimization rates and their treatment in the justice system — paints a troubling picture of "cumulative disadvantage" for the safety of Latino individuals, families and communities.”
  • Ten Economic Facts about Crime and Incarceration in the United States The Hamilton Project, May, 2014(The high incarceration rate can have profound effects on society; research has shown that incarceration may impede employment and marriage prospects, increase poverty and behavioral problems among children, and amplify the spread of communicable diseases.)
  • Predicting Crime through Incarceration: The Impact of Rates of Prison Cycling On Rates of Crime in Communities National Institute of Justice, May, 2014(The study found strong support for the impact of prison cycling on neighborhood crime rates, i.e., when resident removal rates due to incarceration were high, crime rates decreased; when reentry rates were high in a neighborhood, the crime rate increased.)
  • Breaking Down Mass Incarceration in the 2010 Census State-by-State Incarceration Rates by Race/Ethnicity Prison Policy Initiative, May, 2014“It is imperative that we are able to measure the extent to which the criminal justice system disparately impacts our communities.”
  • Criminal Justice Consensus Cost-Benefit Working Group Vermont Center for Justice Research, April, 2014“The State of Vermont needs to reinvigorate its commitment to supporting evidence-based programming in criminal and juvenile justice.”
  • Billion Dollar Divide: Virginia's Sentencing, Corrections and Criminal Justice Challenge Justice Policy Institute, April, 2014“...to understand how Virginia got to where it is today, the Justice Policy Institute has summarized the trends under three major themes: more people serving longer sentences, more people coming into the system and fewer people leaving the system.”
  • Stakeholders' Views on the Movement to Reduce Youth Incarceration National Council on Crime and Delinquency, April, 2014“From June 2012 through June 2013, NCCD asked juvenile justice stakeholders to describe how youth incarceration was reduced in their jurisdictions.”
  • Estimating the Size and Structure of the Underground Commercial Sex Economy Urban Institute, March, 2014“The goals of this study were to: (1) derive a more rigorous estimate of the underground commercial sex economy (UCSE) in eight major US cities and (2) provide an understanding of the structure of this underground economy. To date, no reliable data exist..”
  • Impact of opioid substitution therapy on mortality postrelease from prison: retrospective data linkage study National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, February, 2014“In New South Wales, Australia, opioid substitution therapy in prison and post-release appears to reduce mortality risk in the immediate post-release period.”
  • Redefining Relationships: Explaining the Countervailing Consequences of Paternal Incarceration for Parenting Turney, Kristen, January, 2014“In this paper, we consider the countervailing consequences of paternal incarceration for a host of family relationships, including fathers' parenting, mothers' parenting, and the relationship between parents.”
  • Neither here nor there: Incarceration and family instability Kristin Turney, University of California, Irvine, January, 2014“[F]indings suggest that, regardless of level of relationship commitment, maintaining relationships while one partner is behind bars is difficult.”
  • Voices from the Field: How California Stakeholders View Public Safety Realignment Stanford Criminal Justice Center, January, 2014“What is the result of California's great prison experiment? Even after conducting 125 interviews with agencies across California, it remains a challenge to adequately summarize the changes that Realignment (AB 109) has wrought across the state.”
  • Justice in Washing State Survey, 2012 Revised and Updated 2014 The Washington State Minority Health Commission, The Washington State Center for Court Research, 2014“When we asked about their personal encounters with police officers and the courts, we found substantial differences between Whites and African Americans in terms of the frequency of negative encounters.”
  • A Lifetime of Punishment: The Impact of the Felony Drug Ban on Welfare Benefits The Sentencing Project, November, 2013“... there is little reason to believe that barring individuals with felony drug convictions from receiving welfare benefits deters drug use or crime.”
  • Wanted: Accurate FBI Background Checks for Employment National Employment Law Project, July, 2013“About 1.8 million workers a year are subject to FBI background checks that include faulty or incomplete information. 600,000 of those workers may be prejudiced in their job search when reports do not include up-to-date/accurate information.”
  • Children with Incarcerated Parents - Considering Children's Outcomes in the Context of Family Experiences University of Minnesota, June, 2013“Given the potential long-term consequences of parental incarceration for child and adult health, targeted, evidence-informed prevention and intervention efforts are sorely needed.”
  • Impact of Realignment on County Jail Populations Public Policy Institute of California, June, 2013“Between June 2011 and June 2012, the state prison population declined by 26,600 inmates. Concurrently, California's county average daily jail population grew by about 8,600 inmates...”
  • Please Deposit All of Your Money: Kickbacks, Rates, and Hidden Fees in the Jail Phone Industry Prison Policy Initiative, May, 2013“This report is the first to address in depth the many fees prison phone customers must pay. Fees have an enormous impact on prison phone bills, making up 38% of the $1 billion annual price of calling home.”
  • Communities, Evictions & Criminal Convictions Public Housing and Disparate Impact: A Model Policy Formerly Incarcerated & Convicted People's Movement, April, 2013“The focus of this report is to isolate and clarify one element of housing discrimination: excluding people with criminal records, and their whole families, from public housing.”
  • Operation Ghetto Storm Malcolm X Grassroots Movement, April, 2013“There is no centralized database that keeps track of extrajudicial killings by police... With no numbers, there can be no studies, no analysis of trends and no accountability.”
  • Fostering Change: How investing in D.C.'s child welfare system can keep kids out of the prison pipeline Justice Policy Institute, April, 2013“In 2010, parental incarceration surpassed parental substance abuse as the third highest reason for District children entering care, and in 2010, one in every six kids entering foster care had anincarcerated parent.”
  • Beyond Realignment: Counties' Large Disparities in Imprisonment Underlie Ongoing Prison Crisis Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, March, 2013“High-imprisonment, state-dependent jurisdictions consume excessive prison space, contribute to overcrowding and lawsuits, and create higher state taxpayer liabilities than do low-imprisonment, self-reliant counties that manage more offenders locally.”
  • The Dose-Response of Time Served in Prison on Mortality: New York State, 1989-2003 Evelyn J. Patterson, University of Vanderbilt, March, 2013“After controlling for a variety of demographic and offense-related factors...each year in prison increased the odds of death by 15.6% in this 1989 to 1993 parole cohort...an increased odds of death of 78% for somebody who spent 5 years in prison.”
  • Blueprint for a Public Health and Safety Approach to Drug Policy New York Academy of Medicine and the Drug Policy Alliance, March, 2013“This report finds two clear themes: 1) structural issues (like income disparities, education, & opportunity) profoundly shape experiences of drug policies; 2) when problematic drug use does occur, our response should involve help instead of sanctions.”
  • Treatment Instead of Prison HIA (Case Story) Human Impact Partners, November, 2012“Expanding alternatives to incarceration would reduce the prison population, reduce crime, lower recidivism, and strengthen families by keeping up to 1,600 parents a year out of prison each year.”
  • "Picking up the Pieces": The Rights and Needs of Children and Families Affected by Imprisonment Irish Penal Reform Trust, November, 2012“Child impact statements would be one practical approach which would permit the voice of the child to be heard, as outlined under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), when considering putting a parent/parents into custody.”
  • Video Visits for Children Whose Parents Are Incarcerated In Whose Best Interest? Sentencing Project, October, 2012“Children may benefit from video visitation if it increases opportunities for them to communicate with their parents. But video visitation is not a substitute for in-person contact visits, particularly for infants and young children.”
  • Supportive Housing for Returning Prisoners Outcomes and Impacts of the Returning Home-Ohio Pilot Project Urban Institute, August, 2012“The Returning Home-Ohio program resulted in clear reductions along several key recidivism measures while also increasing state‐billable service use; the latter outcome is arguably a benefit of program participation.”
  • The Continuing Challenge of CORI Reform Implementing the Groundbreaking 2010 Massachusetts Law The Boston Foundation and The Crime and Justice Institute at CRJ, May, 2012“This report provides information about reactions to whether the implemented elements of the CORI reform law have had the intended impact, and what the public should expect going forward.”
  • Housing as a Platform for Formerly Incarcerated Persons Urban Institute, April, 2012“While housing for formerly incarcerated persons is a source of necessary shelter and residential stability, it can also serve as the literal and figurative foundation for successful reentry and reintegration for released adults.”
  • Public Housing transformation and Crime Making the Case for Responsible Relocation Urban Institute, April, 2012“Overall, our findings show that a substantial majority of neighborhoods [...] were able to absorb public housing relocation voucher households without any adverse effect on neighborhood conditions.”
  • Community Reentry After Prison Drug Treatment Learning from Sheridan Therapeutic Community Program participants Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, January, 2012“Younger participants engaged in criminal activity and relapsed sooner than older participants. Younger participants also reported being less engaged in the Sheridan program than older participants.”
  • Moving Beyond Sides The Power and Potential of a New Public Safety Policy Paradigm Partnership for Safety and Justice, December, 2011“The goal of the paper is to explore the untapped potential of a more holistic analysis and strategy that connects traditional criminal justice reform organizations with victim-oriented advocacy groups to work for progressive public safety policy.”
  • Rethinking the State-Local Relationship Public Policy Institute of California, August, 2011“The legislature has passed and Governor Jerry Brown has signed legislation (AB 109) to send roughly 30,000 prisoners to county jail rather than state prison.”
  • Misplaced Priorities Over Incarcerate, Under Educate NAACP, April, 2011“During the last two decades, as the criminal justice system came to assume a larger proportion of state discretionary dollars, state spending on prisons grew at six times the rate of state spending on higher education.”
  • Communities Inmates Released to in 2009 Massachusetts Department of Correction, October, 2010“Massachusetts Department of Correction Releases to the Street 2009: Top Ten Release Address (Cities/Towns)”
  • Collateral Costs Incarceration's Effect on Economic Mobility Pew Charitable Trust, Economic Mobility Project, September, 2010“Serving time reduces hourly wages for men by approximately 11 percent, annual employment by 9 weeks and annual earnings by 40 percent.”
  • Political Consequences of the Carceral State Vesla M. Weaver, Amy E. Lerman, September, 2010“Encounters with criminal justice institutions can negatively affect perceptions of government, rates of political participation and engagement in civic life.”
  • Incarceration and Social Inequality Bruce Western & Becky Pettit, August, 2010“The social inequality produced by mass incarceration is sizable and enduring for three reasons: it is invisible, it is cumulative, and it is intergenerational.”
  • Drawing Blood from Stones: Legal Debt and Social Inequality in the Contemporary United States Alexes Harris, Heather Evans, and Katherine Beckett, University of Washington, May, 2010“[F]indings suggest that monetary sanctions create long-term legal debt and significantly extend punishment’s effects over time.”
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2009 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2009“This annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It... provides the most current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools and school environments and responses to violence and crime.”
  • The Consequences of Dropping Out of High School Joblessness and Jailing for High School Dropouts and the High Cost for Taxpayers Center for Labor Market Studies, Northeastern University, October, 2009“Nearly 1 of every 10 young male high school dropouts was institutionalized on a given day in 2006-2007 versus fewer than 1 of 33 high school graduates.”
  • Fact Sheet on FY2010 Department of Justice Budget Justice Policy Institute, May, 2009(The Factsheet on 2010 Department of Justice Budget finds that the 2010 DOJ budget directs more money to law enforcement than prevention with the likely long-term outcome being increased arrests, incarceration, and money spent on corrections.)
  • Bearing Witness Baltimore City's Residents Give Voice to What's Needed to Fix the Criminal Justice System Justice Policy Institute, April, 2009(Bearing Witness captures the perspectives of the people of Baltimore City impacted by the criminal justice system and their suggestions for alternatives to addressing social problems.)
  • The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty Crime and Delinquency, February, 2009“From an empirical standpoint, the results from the current analysis are quite clear; mass incarceration has played a major role in increasing poverty rates.”
  • A Report on the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions in Maryland University of Maryland School of Law, 2009“Despite the lasting and sometimes permanent effects that collateral consequences impose upon ex-offenders and their families, no formal mechanism exists for defendants in Maryland, or any other state, to be informed of these consequences.”
  • Phantom Constituents in Tennessee's Boards of County Commissioners Prison Policy Initiative; Peter Wagner and JooHye DellaRocco, February, 2008“[This report] identifies 10 Tennessee counties in which the use of flawed Census data to draw county commissioner districts has created substantial inequities in political power within the counties.”
  • DTAP (Drug Treatment Alternative-to-Prison) Sixteenth Annual Report Kings County (Brooklyn) District Attorney, April, 2007“In its sixteenth year of operation, DTAP continued to maintain high treatment retention and low recidivism rates and to produce enormous cost savings.”
  • Informing and Engaging Communities Through Reentry Mapping Urban Institute, January, 2007“This brief is designed to equip organizations with strategies for effectively disseminating local reentry-related mapping and analysis findings and engaging community members on the topic of reentry.”
  • Reducing the Incarceration of Women: Community-Based Alternatives National Council on Crime and Delinquency, December, 2006“Typically nonviolent low-level offenders, women have been hit particularly hard by California's sentencing and correctional policies and practices.”
  • The Collateral Effects of Incarceration on Fathers, Families, and Communities Council on Crime and Justice, April, 2006“Incarcerating large numbers of men from one community is seen as a threat to both individual and community economic stability.”
  • Community Residents' Perceptions of Prisoner Reentry in Selected Cleveland Urban Institute, March, 2006“This report presents findings from community focus group discussions in three Cleveland neighborhoods that are home to a large number of returning prisoners.”
  • Chicago Prisoners' Experiences Returning Home Urban Institute, December, 2004“We present key findings on a range of reentry challenges and describe the factors related to postrelease success or failure[.]”
  • Reforming California's Youth and Adult Correctional System Corrections Independent Review Panel, July, 2004
  • Prisoner Reentry and Community Policing: Strategies for Enhancing Public Safety Urban Institute, May, 2004
  • Trading Classrooms for Cellblocks: Destructive Policies Eroding DC Communities Justice Policy Institute, March, 1997

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