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Charts & graphs
The cost of incarceration
Reports & briefings
Other resources

Pennsylvania has an incarceration rate of 659 per 100,000 people (including prisons, jails, immigration detention, and juvenile justice facilities), meaning that it locks up a higher percentage of its people than almost any democracy on earth. Read on to learn more about who is incarcerated in Pennsylvania and why.

73,000 people from Pennsylvania are behind bars

Pie chart showing that 96,000 Pennsylvania residents are locked up in federal prisons, state prisons, local jails and other types of facilities

Additionally, the number of people impacted by county and city jails in Pennsylvania is much larger than the graph above would suggest, because people cycle through local jails relatively quickly. Each year, at least 170,000 different people are booked into local jails in Pennsylvania.

Using 2020 census data, we looked at where people in Pennsylvania prisons come from. We found mass incarceration harms all corners of the state.

Rates of imprisonment have grown dramatically in the last 40 years

graph showing the number of people in state prison and local jails per 100,000 residents in Pennsylvania from 1978 to 2015 Also see these Pennsylvania graphs:

Graph showing the number of people in Pennsylvania jails who were convicted and the number who were unconvicted, for the years 1978, 1983, 1988, 1993, 1999, 2005, and 2013.

Today, Pennsylvania’s incarceration rates stand out internationally

graphic comparing the incarceration rates of the founding NATO members with the incarceration rates of the United States and the state of Pennsylvania. The incarceration rate of 664 per 100,000 for the United States and 659 for Pennsylvania is much higher than any of the founding NATO members In the U.S., incarceration extends beyond prisons and local jails to include other systems of confinement. The U.S. and state incarceration rates in this graph include people held by these other parts of the justice system, so they may be slightly higher than the commonly reported incarceration rates that only include prisons and jails. Details on the data are available in States of Incarceration: The Global Context. We also have a version of this graph focusing on the incarceration of women.

People of color are overrepresented in prisons and jails

2021 graph showing incarceration rates per 100,000 people of various racial and ethnic groups in Pennsylvania

racial and ethnic disparities between the prison/jail and general population in PA as of 2021

Pennsylvania's criminal justice system is more than just its prisons and jails

Pie chart showing that 380,000 Pennsylvania residents are in various types of correctional facilities or under criminal justice supervision on probation or parole

The high cost of being incarcerated in Pennsylvania

Prisons and jails in Pennsylvania are increasingly shifting the cost of incarceration to people behind bars and their families, hiding the true economic costs of mass incarceration:

Our other articles about Pennsylvania

Other resources

Data on COVID-19 in Pennsylvania jails and prisons

We gave Pennsylvania a "D-" grade in September 2021 for its response to the coronavirus in prisons, noting that:

  • Pennsylvania used multiple release mechanisms to reduce their populations, including accelerated release policies, medical or compassionate release, not incarcerating people for technical parole violations, and releasing people held for minor offenses.
  • Nevertheless, Pennsylvania had the sixth highest COVID-19 death rate in prisons of any US state.

For more detail, see our report States of Emergency. Or check out these other resources:

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