Recidivism and Reentry

What makes people more or less likely to succeed upon release?

  • (New) A Place to Call Home: A Vision for Safe, Supportive and Affordable Housing for People with Justice System Involvement Prisoner Reentry Institute, October, 2017(This document makes the case for providing digni ed housing that meets the needs of those with criminal justice histories, and providing it as quickly as possible upon reentry.)
  • Opening Doors: How to develop reentry programs using examples from public housing authorities Vera Institute of Justice, September, 2017“This guide is designed to support PHAs and other agencies that are beginning to develop new housing strategies and programming to meet the needs of formerly incarcerated people.”
  • The impacts of incarceration on crime Open Philanthropy Project, September, 2017“The best estimate of the impact of additional incarceration on crime in the United States today is zero. And, while that estimate is not certain, there is as much reason overall to believe that incarceration increases crime as decreases it.”
  • A State Survey of Serious Mental Illness, Major Crimes and Community Treatment Treatment Advocacy Center, September, 2017(This report ascertain each state's structure and programming to assist individuals with serious mental illness who have committed major crimes succeed after community reentry.)
  • California Probation in the Era of Reform Public Policy Institute of California, August, 2017(California's public safety realignment shifted the management of lower-level offenders from state prison and parole to county jail and probation. This report discusses how these changes affected local corrections systems.)
  • Less Is More: How Reducing Probation Populations Can Improve Outcomes Harvard Kennedy School, August, 2017(The decline in the number of people on probation supervision in the U.S. should not only be sustained but significantly increased, with a goal of reducing the number of people under probation supervision by 50 percent over 10 years.)
  • Mentoring as a Component of Reentry The National Reentry Resource Center, July, 2017(This publication provides recommendations for community-based organizations that wish to integrate adult mentoring into existing reentry programming.)
  • Back to Business: How Hiring Formerly Incarcerated Job Seekers Benefits Your Company The Trone Private Sector and Education Advisory Council to the American Civil Liberties Union, June, 2017“Research by economists confirms that hiring people with records is simply smart business. Researchers have found that “employees with a criminal background are in fact a better pool for employers.””
  • Peer relations: Review of learning from the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Prison Reform Fellowships " Part 4 Institute for Criminal Policy Research, Birkbeck, University of London, June, 2017(This briefing examines the importance of positive peer relations for promoting desistance and providing moral and practical support to people in prison and on release.)
  • Criminal Background Checks and Access to Jobs: A Case Study of Washington, DC Urban Institute, June, 2017“Examining local regulations and DC's labor market reveals that justice-involved people-- whether formally incarcerated or not-- face significant challenges finding work in the city.”
  • Sense of self and responsibility: a review of learning from the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Prison Reform Fellowships " Part 5 Institute for Criminal Policy Research, Birkbeck, University of London, June, 2017“This report profiles interventions which encourage imprisoned people to develop a positive sense of self and a sense of responsibility for their own lives and towards others.”
  • Using Time to Reduce Crime: Federal Prisoner Survey Results Show Ways to Reduce Recidivism Families Against Mandatory Minimums, May, 2017“An estimated 45 percent of federal prisoners have mental health and behavioral problems...Two-thirds of prisoners who responded to our survey said they had not received mental or behavioral health counseling while in federal prison.”
  • Leading with Conviction: The Transformative Role of Formerly Incarcerated Leaders in Reducing Mass Incarceration Columbia Law School, May, 2017“This report documents the roles of 48 formerly incarcerated leaders engaged in work related to reducing incarceration and rebuilding communities.”
  • Getting Tough on Spending: An Examination of Correctional Expenditure in Massachusetts MassINC and the Massachusetts Criminal Justice Reform Coalition, May, 2017“DOC [Department of Corrections] and county facilities combined, the state budget allocation per inmate rose 34 percent between FY 2011 and FY 2016. Over this period, education aid per student increased by only 11 percent.”
  • How much do incarcerated people earn in each state? Wendy Sawyer, Prison Policy Initiative, April, 2017“[P]risons appear to be paying incarcerated people less today than they were in 2001. The average of the minimum daily wages paid to incarcerated workers for non-industry prison jobs is now 87 cents, down from 93 cents reported in 2001.”
  • Supervision in the Community: Probation and Parole Michelle S. Phelps and Caitlin Curry, University of Minnesota, April, 2017“In the United States, the number of adults on probation and parole supervision increased from one million in 1980 to a peak of nearly 5.1 million in 2007, more than double the number of inmates in local, state, and federal jails and prisons.”
  • The Voting Rights of Ex-Felons and Election Outcomes in the United States Tilman Klumpp, Hugo Mialon, Michael Williams, March, 2017“The changes in felony disenfranchisement laws examined are evidence of a growing consensus that lifelong voting bans are not only ethically problematic, but also stand in the way of efforts to reduce recidivism.”
  • Accounting for Violence: How to Increase Safety and Break Our Failed Reliance on Mass Incarceration Vera Institute of Justice, February, 2017“[J]ust as it would be wrong to excuse people’s actions simply because they were previously victimized, it is also wrong to ignore someone’s victimization because the person previously broke a law or committed harm in the past.”
  • Shackled to Debt: Criminal Justice Financial Obligations and the Barriers to Re-entry They Create Harvard Kennedy School Program in Criminal Justice, January, 2017“[T]his form of sanction can, if left unchecked, have long-term effects that significantly harm the efforts of formerly incarcerated people to rehabilitate and reintegrate...”
  • Reinstating Common Sense: How driver's license suspensions for drug offenses unrelated to driving are falling out of favor Prison Policy Initiative, December, 2016“Our criminal justice system should not set people up to fail. Yet that is exactly what mandatory driver’s license suspensions do: they introduce new legal, economic, and social barriers for people who are in the midst of reentry.”
  • Connecticut Employer Survey Practices and Attitudes: The Hiring of Formerly-Incarcerated Persons and Recommendations for Driving Better Outcomes Malta Justice Initiative Inc., December, 2016“4 in 10 respondents have no experience in hiring ex-offenders and a quarter say their company has a policy against it. Very few (3%) are actively hiring individuals with a criminal record.”
  • Punishing Poverty: The high cost of probation fees in Massachusetts Prison Policy Initiative, December, 2016“Despite evidence that many probationers come from the poorest areas of the state, and the court’s ability to waive probation fees, the state manages to collect $20 million per year in fees.”
  • Beyond Second Chances: Returning Citizens' Re-Entry Struggles and Successes In The District of Columbia Council for Court Excellence, December, 2016“The population of D.C. Code offenders is starkly homogeneous. Although slightly fewer than half of all D.C. residents are black, more than 96 percent of D.C. Code offenders incarcerated at BOP facilities are black.”
  • How Tough on Crime Became Tough on Kids: Prosecuting Teenage Drug Charges in Adult Courts The Sentencing Project, December, 2016“The ability of states to send teenagers into the adult system on nonviolent offenses, a relic of the war on drugs, threatens the futures of those teenagers who are arrested on drug charges, regardless of whether or not they are convicted.”
  • Helping Moms, Dads, & Kids To Come Home: Eliminating Barriers to Housing for People with Criminal Records Legal Action Center, December, 2016“America’s “revolving-door” approach to mass incarceration is inextricably linked to the problem of homelessness.”
  • Helping Moms, Dads, & Kids To Come Home: Eliminating Barriers to Housing for People with Criminal Records Legal Action Center, December, 2016“America’s “revolving-door” approach to mass incarceration is inextricably linked to the problem of homelessness.”
  • How Many Americans Are Unnecessarily Incarcerated? Brennan Center for Justice, December, 2016“Nearly 40 percent of the U.S. prison population — 576,000 people — are behind bars with no compelling public safety reason.”
  • Excessive Revocations in Wisconsin: The Health Impacts of Locking People Up without a New Conviction Human Impact Partners, December, 2016“Revocation — being incarcerated for breaking the rules of a supervision arrangement (like parole, probation, or extended supervision) — feeds the mass incarceration cycle in the United States.”
  • Violent Crime Arrests of Youth in California: Expected to Decline Through 2020 Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, October, 2016“Based on the declining rates of youth arrest over the last several decades, California can expected continued decline and historically low rates of violent felony arrest of youth through 2020.”
  • Responsible Prison Project: Reshaping The Texas Prison System for Greater Public Safety Aaron Flaherty, David Graham, Michael Smith, William D Jones, and Vondre Cash, October, 2016“It has often been said that those who are closest to a problem are closest to its solution. That is no less true for those who are in prison.”
  • Evaluating the Role of Race in Criminal Justice Adjudications in Delaware John M. MacDonald and Ellen A. Donnelly, University of Pennsylvania, September, 2016“African American-White disparities in incarceration sentences are largely explained by differences in most serious of arrest charge, type of arrest charge, detention between arrest and final disposition, and county location.”
  • Use of Electronic Offender-Tracking Devices Expands Sharply The Pew Charitable Trusts, September, 2016“In 2015, manufacturers reported that about 88,000 GPS units were being used for supervision of accused and convicted offenders, a thirtyfold increase from the roughly 2,900 reported a decade earlier.”
  • A New Era for Expungement Law Reform? Recent Developments at the State and Federal Levels Temple University, Beasley School of Law, August, 2016“This article evaluates the recent flurry of state-level legislation relating to expungement remedies for publicly available criminal record information, including both conviction and arrest records.”
  • Missouri Policy Shortens Probation and Parole Terms, Protects Public Safety The Pew Charitable Trusts, August, 2016“Three years of data show that the earned compliance credit policy significantly reduced the state’s supervised population without jeopardizing public safety.”
  • Ban the Box, Criminal Records, and Statistical Discrimination: A Field Experiment University of Michigan, June, 2016“Our results confirm that criminal records are a major barrier to employment, but they also support the concern that BTB policies encourage statistical discrimination on the basis of race.”
  • Recidivism of Offenders Placed on Federal Community Supervision in 2005: Patterns from 2005 to 2010 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2016“Overall, 35% of these offenders were arrested within 3 years and 43% were arrested within 5 years of placement on community supervision.”
  • Justice in Review: New Trends in State Sentencing and Corrections 2014-2015 Vera Institute of Justice, May, 2016“In 2014 and 2015, 46 states enacted at least 201 bills, executive orders and ballot initiatives to reform at least one aspect of their sentencing and corrections systems.”
  • By the Numbers: Parole Release and Revocation Across 50 States Robina Institute, April, 2016“The Data Profiles in this report are designed to provide a statistical snapshot of the relationships and movements between prison and parole supervision populations in each state.”
  • Recidivism Among Federal Offenders: A Comprehensive Overview United States Sentencing Commission, March, 2016“This report provides a broad overview of key findings from the United States Sentencing Commission’s study of recidivism of federal offenders.”
  • Multi-Site Family Study on Incarceration, Parenting, and Partnering Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, March, 2016“Fathers with younger children rated their parental warmth and their relationship quality with their children more highly than did fathers of older children, and they also engaged in more activities with their children.”
  • Jobs After Jail: Ending the prison to poverty pipeline Alliance for a Just Society, February, 2016“For the 70 million adults with a serious misdemeanor or felony arrest or conviction record and the hundreds of thousands more each year released from prison, their record can be a life sentence of poverty and low wages.”
  • Special Committee on Re-entry New York State Bar Association, January, 2016“The cost of re-incarceration and the cost to victims of recidivism are far greater than the cost of providing the programs described in this report.”
  • Transforming Prisons, Restoring Lives: Final Recommendations of the Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections, January, 2016“Sentencing reform and other policy changes will reduce our reliance on prison and cut costs as we reconsider which people truly need to be behind bars and for how long.”
  • Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis PLoS ONE, October, 2015“Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges.”
  • Separation by Bars and Miles: Visitation in state prisons Prison Policy Initiative, October, 2015“Less than a third of people in state prisons receive a visit from a loved one in a typical month.”
  • Multistate Criminal History Patterns of Prisoners Released in 30 States Bureau of Justice Statistics, September, 2015“After the 5-year follow-up period, the recidivism rate based on in-state and out-of-state criminal history information (77%) was higher than the recidivism rate based on in-state criminal history information only (72%).”
  • Federal Drug Sentencing Laws Bring High Cost, Low Return: Penalty increases enacted in 1980s and 1990s have not reduced drug use or recidivism Pew Charitable Trusts Public Safety Performance Project, August, 2015“From 1980 to 2011 (the latest year for which comparable statistics are available), the average prison sentence imposed on drug offenders increased 36 percent.”
  • Recidivism of Adult Sexual Offenders Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking, July, 2015“The researchers found a sexual recidivism rate of 5.3 percent for the entire sample of sex offenders, based on an arrest during the 3-year followup period.”
  • Impact Evaluation of the Adolescent Behavioral Learning Experience (ABLE) Program at Rikers Island Vera Institute of Justice, July, 2015“Vera determined that the program did not lead to a reduction in recidivism for program participants.”
  • Prisons of Poverty: Uncovering the pre-incarceration incomes of the imprisoned Prison Policy Initiative, July, 2015“We found that, in 2014 dollars, incarcerated people had a median annual income of $19,185 prior to their incarceration, which is 41% less than non-incarcerated people of similar ages.”
  • San Francisco Justice Reinvestment Initiative: Racial and ethnic disparities analysis for the reentry council The W. Haywood Burns Institute for Juvenile Justice Fairness & Equity, June, 2015“Black adults are 7.1 times as likely as White adults to be arrested, 11 times as likely to be booked into County Jail, and 10.3 times as likely to be convicted of a crime in San Francisco.”
  • Parole Perspectives in Maryland: A Survey of People Who Returned to Prison from Parole and Community Justice Policy Institute, May, 2015“A new analysis from the Justice Policy Institute (JPI) shows the connection between efforts to reduce prison populations, connect people to work, and address the challenges of Baltimore’s distressed communities”
  • Evaluation of Offenders Released in Fiscal Year 2011 That Completed Rehabilitation Tier Programs Texas Department of Criminal Justice, April, 2015“Five of the nine programs tracked showed a lower recidivism rate than the comparison group after the two year follow-up and seven showed a lower recidivism rate after three years.”
  • Boxed Out: Criminal History Screening and College Application Attrition Center for Community Alternatives, March, 2015“This means almost two out of every three applicants who check “yes” to the felony conviction question do not complete the application process and are never considered for admission.”
  • Do Private Prisons Distort Justice? Evidence on Time Served and Recidivism University of Wisconsin - Madison, March, 2015“My final result is that there is no reduction in recidivism for prisoners in private prison despite the additional time they serve, suggesting that either the marginal returns to incarceration are low, or private prisons increase recidivism risk.”
  • Degrees of Freedom: Expanding College Opportunities for Currently and Formerly Incarcerated Californians Renewing Communities Initiative, February, 2015“Our colleges and criminal justice agencies must break out of their silos and share a commitment to high-quality education for all students whether they are learning in prison, jail, or the community.”
  • Risk Tells Us Who, But Not What or How: Empirical Assessment of the Complexity of Criminogenic Need to Inform Correctional Programming Criminology & Public Policy, February, 2015“The emphasis that is placed on managing offenders based on static risk or a global risk-need score that is primarily driven by static risk detracts attention from the specific criminogenic needs that should be identified.”
  • Advancing a Federal Fair Chance Hiring Agenda: Background Check Reforms in Over 100 Cities, Counties, & States Pave the Way for Presidential Action National Employment Law Project, January, 2015“More than 100 jurisdictions, including 13 states, the District of Columbia, and 96 cities and counties, have adopted "ban the box" and other fair chance hiring reforms, often in tandem with criminal justice reform priorities.”
  • When All Else Fails, Fining the Family: First Person Accounts of Criminal Justice Debt Center for Community Alternatives, January, 2015“Debt is paid not only by those convicted of crimes, but also by their families (or friends) who are the last stop before re-incarceration.”
  • Safer Return Urban Institute, 2015“Despite implementation challenges, Safer Return was able to improve reentry outcomes for participants relative to comparisons who did not participate, though not as much as had been hoped for.”
  • Relief in Sight? States Rethink the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction, 2009 - 2014 Vera Institute of Justice, December, 2014“In recognition of the damaging effects these collateral consequences can have, 41 states have enacted legislation since 2009 that allows certain individuals to move beyond their convictions.”
  • Sex Offender Law and the Geography of Victimization Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, December, 2014“We find that, all else equal, reported sex offense victimization risk is generally (although not uniformly) lower in neighborhoods where more RSOs live.”
  • One Strike and You're Out: How We Can Eliminate Barriers to Economic Security and Mobility for People with Criminal Records Center for American Progress, December, 2014“Estimates put the cost of employment losses among people with criminal records at as much as $65 billion per year in terms of gross domestic product.”
  • Poverty and Opportunity Profile: Americans with Criminal Records Sentencing Project; Half in Ten, December, 2014“As a result, between 70 million and 100 million--or as many as one in three Americans--have some type of criminal record.”
  • The Justice Reinvestment Initiative Experiences from the Local Sites Urban Institute, November, 2014“Seven sites adopted strategies that expanded jail diversion (e.g., deferred prosecution programs) and jail programming (e.g., inmate transition programs) as well as increased access to employment and education services.”
  • Treatment Industrial Complex: How For-Profit Prison Corporations are Undermining Efforts to Treat and Rehabilitate Prisoners for Corporate Gain American Friends Service Committee; Grassroots Leadership; Southern Center for Human Rights, November, 2014“Most for-profit prison corporations have dismal records in terms of safety, cost, and quality of the prisons that they manage.”
  • The Returning Prisoner and the Future of Work Northwestern Law Bluhm Legal Clinic's Program for Prisoner Reentry Strategies, November, 2014(But perhaps correctional employment-related reentry programs fail to demonstrate effectiveness because they lack duration, intensity, or the focus on specific skills that businesses insist are necessary to prepare workers for skilled jobs.)
  • Improving Recidivism as a Performance Measure Urban Institute, October, 2014“Recidivism is not a single measure of success or failure, and states should move away from using one uniform definition. Making recidivism a meaningful performance measure demands that states employ a wide range of reoffending metrics.”
  • Evaluation of the Allegheny County Jail Collaborative Reentry Programs Findings and Recommendations Urban Institute, October, 2014(Impact analyses suggest that both Reentry1 and Reentry2 reduce rearrest among participants and prolong time to rearrest, particularly after the first 90 days, indicating that initial and continued program efforts to stabilize clients are effective.)
  • The Debt Penalty: Exposing the financial barriers to offender reintegration John Jay College of Criminal Justice, August, 2014“Paradoxically, criminal justice systems sometimes spend more on debt collection and punishing offenders who are behind on their payments than they are likely to recoup from enforcing the financial obligations of ex-offenders.”
  • The Effect of Collateral Consequence Laws on State Rates of Returns to Prison University of Maryland, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, July, 2014“Surprisingly, these analyses give some indication that collateral consequences may be related to lower rates of returns to prison for technical violations, however future research is needed to confirm this relationship.”
  • Fewer Prisoners, Less Crime: A Tale of Three States The Sentencing Project, July, 2014“Studies consistently find that expediting prisoners’ release from prison has no or minimal impact on recidivism rates.”
  • Punishment Without End John Jay College of Criminal Justice Research & Evaluation Center, July, 2014“By year five, the probability of arrest for 16 year olds arrested for burglary was equal to that of 16 year olds not arrested for burglary.”
  • Public Ideology, Minority Threat, and Felony Collateral Sanctions: A State-Level Analysis University of Delaware, Department of Sociology & Criminal Justice, July, 2014“States with large minority and conservative populations are more likely to have more stigmatizing collateral sanction that can affect recidivism.”
  • Reducing Recidivism States Deliver Results The Council of State Governments Justice Center and the National Reentry Resource Center, June, 2014“This report focuses on statewide recidivism data for adults released in 2007 and 2010 with a three-year follow-up period, offering a current snapshot of criminal justice outcomes in these states.”
  • Mandatory Reentry Supervision Evaluating the Kentucky Experience Pew's Public Safety Performance Project, June, 2014“Inmates released to supervision under the policy had 30 percent fewer returns to prison for a new crime and 11 percent fewer violations of their supervision rules than the pre-policy group.”
  • Max Out The Rise in Prison Inmates Released Without Supervision Pew Charitable Trusts, June, 2014“a large and increasing number of offenders are maxing out—serving their entire sentences behind bars—and returning to their communities without supervision or support.”
  • 2010 Inmate Releases: Three Year Post Release Follow-up State of New York Department of Corrections and Community Supervision, June, 2014“43% of the offenders released by the Parole Board during 2010 were returned for rule violations within three years and 8% returned for new felonies.”
  • Is Public Safety Realignment Reducing Recidivism in California? Public Policy Institute of California, June, 2014“Realignment's success depends largely on efforts addressing recidivism among former prison inmates and other convicted offenders diverted from prison as a result of the reform.”
  • Predicting Crime through Incarceration: The Impact of Rates of Prison Cycling On Rates of Crime in Communities National Institute of Justice, May, 2014(The study found strong support for the impact of prison cycling on neighborhood crime rates, i.e., when resident removal rates due to incarceration were high, crime rates decreased; when reentry rates were high in a neighborhood, the crime rate increased.)
  • Recidivism Among Offenders Receiving Retroactive Sentence Reductions The 2007 Crack Cocaine Amendment United States Sentencing Commission, May, 2014“This publication reports on recidivism of crack cocaine offenders who were released immediately before and after implementation of the 2007 Crack Cocaine Amendment, and followed in the community for five years.”
  • Female Realignment Report: An Examination of Female Offenders Released from State Prison in the First Year of Public Safety Realignment California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, May, 2014“…data shows that there is very little difference between female offenders and their outcomes following release after completing their State prison term pre- and post-Realignment”
  • Collatoral Damage A Roadmap to Restore Rights and Status After Arrest or Conviction National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, May, 2014“NACDL recommends a broad national initiative to construct a legal infrastructure that will provide individuals with a criminal record with a clear path to equal opportunity.”
  • Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 30 States in 2005: Patterns from 2005 to 2010 Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2014“Overall, 67.8% of the 404,638 state prisoners released in 2005 in 30 states were arrested within 3 years of release, and 76.6% were arrested within 5 years of release.”
  • Examining Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Probation Revocation Summary Findings and Implications from a Multisite Study Urban Institute, April, 2014“Black probationers were revoked at higher rates than white and Hispanic probationers in all study sites.”
  • The Florida Department of Juvenile Justice Disposition Matrix: A Validation Study Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, February, 2014“The recidivism rate of low risk to re-offend youth placed outside of the Disposition Matrix suggestions is 114% higher than the rate for low risk youth placed within the suggestions.”
  • Criminal Stigma, Race, Gender, and Employment: An Expanded Assessment of the Consequences of Imprisonment for Employment Arizona State University School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, February, 2014“A key feature of a successful (crime free) return to society is employment... But prior research shows that the majority of prisoners - particularly blacks and Hispanics - face significant employment hurdles.”
  • A Program Evaluation of In-Prison Components The Colorado Department of Corrections Sex Offender Treatment and Monitoring Program Central Coast Clinical and Forensic Psychology Services, Inc., January, 2014“Many sexual offenders who could successfully be managed in the community, had they effectively participated in treatment, may instead spend additional years in prison. This will represent a great cost to the Colorado taxpayer...”
  • Realignment Report An Examination of Offenders Released from State Prison in the First Year of Public Safety Realignment California Department of Corrections And Rehabilitation, December, 2013“...the one-year return to prison rate was substantially less post-Realignment, since most offenders in this cohort were ineligible to return to prison on a parole violation.”
  • The Impact of Parole in New Jersey Pew Charitable Trusts, November, 2013“About 25 percent of parolees released in 2008 committed new crimes and returned to prison within three years, compared with 41 percent of offenders who maxed out their sentences, were released without supervision, and subsequently committed new crimes.”
  • Three Quarter Houses: The View from Inside John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Prisoner Reentry Institute, October, 2013“Illegal evictions derail recovery and reintegration and can lead to relapse, street homelessness, unemployment, and violations of parole mandates that can result in re-incarceration.”
  • A Second Chance Charting a New Course for Re-Entry and Criminal Justice Reform Leadership Conference Education Fund, October, 2013“...the United States currently incarcerates ...more than 2.2 million individuals. And that's just people who are physically in jail or prison. If we count people on parole and people on probation, that number jumps to almost 7 million.”
  • The Choice is Yours: Early Implementation of a Diversion Program for Felony Offenders Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center, October, 2013“As of June 30, 2013, of consented participants in the The Choice is Yours (TCY) who progressed beyond orientation and into the full enrollment phase, 4.6 percent (N=3 of 65) have been rearrested”
  • Progress Report: Three Strikes Reform (Proposition 36) Stanford Law School Three Strikes Project and NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund, September, 2013“Fewer than 2% of the prisoners released under Prop 36 have been charged with new crimes, according to state and county records. The average recidivism rate over a similar period of time for non-Prop 36 inmates leaving California prisons is 16%.”
  • Re-Entry Policy Study Commission report Indianapolis-Marion County City-County Council Indianapolis-Marion County City-County Council Re-Entry Policy Study Commission, August, 2013“Employment was the number one predictor of recidivism. The recidivism rate among the unemployed offenders was 42.4%; recidivism among the employed offenders was 26.2%.”
  • Wanted: Accurate FBI Background Checks for Employment National Employment Law Project, July, 2013“About 1.8 million workers a year are subject to FBI background checks that include faulty or incomplete information. 600,000 of those workers may be prejudiced in their job search when reports do not include up-to-date/accurate information.”
  • Recidivism in Delaware: An Analysis of Prisoners Released in 2008 and 2009 Delaware Criminal Justice Council, July, 2013“Recidivism rates are generally higher for Blacks than for Whites, and higher for males than for females. Additionally, recidivism rates were lower for those who had longer prison sentences (i.e., lengths of stay).”
  • Risk of Recidivism Facing Offenders upon their Return to Community Michigan Justice Statistics Center, June, 2013“The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth, dynamic examination of the recidivism experiences of a small sample of 39 male parolees to Lansing, Michigan.”
  • The National Institute of Justice's Evaluation of Second Chance Act Adult Reentry Courts: Program Characteristics and Preliminary Themes from Year 1 National Institute of Justice, March, 2013“Characteristics common across most NESCAARC sites include the emphasis on post-release service delivery, relevant services, case management, court hearings for the purpose of monitoring progress, drug testing, and a team approach to decision-making.”
  • Recidivism Report 2013 Pennsylvania Department of Corrections, February, 2013“...the 1-year reincarceration rates of releases from 2005 to 2011 for those who were paroled to the street were consistently lower than for those paroled to a Community Corrections Center.”
  • Making the Transition: Rethinking Jail Reentry in Los Angeles County Vera Institute of Justice, February, 2013“The most common hurdles that people held in the jail expected to encounter upon release were related to employment, housing, and substance use. Only six people (out of the 80 people interviewed) reported receiving reentry services while in the jail.”
  • Lifer Parole Recidivism Report California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, January, 2013“Lifer parolees receive fewer new convictions within three years of being released to parole (4.8 vs. 51.5%, respectively). They also have a markedly lower return to prison recidivism rate than non‐lifer parolees (13.3 vs. 65.1%, respectively).”
  • Putting How to Reform Texas' Expensive, Ineffective State Jail System Texas Public Policy Foundation, November, 2012“State jails were designed to be a low-cost alternative to prison, with dual goals of reducing prison populations and reducing recidivism rates in low-risk defendants. Unfortunately, state jails are universally failing in their objective.”
  • The Price to Call Home State-Sanctioned Monopolization in the Prison Phone Industry Prison Policy Initiative, September, 2012“The prison telephone market is structured to be exploitative because it grants monopolies to producers, and because the consumers- the incarcerated persons and their families- have no comparable alternative ways of communicating.”
  • States Report Reductions in Recidivism Council of State Governments Justice Center, September, 2012“This brief highlights significant statewide recidivism reductions achieved in Kansas, Michigan, Mississippi, Ohio, Oregon, Texas, and Vermont.”
  • The Family And Recidivism Vera Institute of Justice, September, 2012“Among the inmates surveyed, 84 percent reported that their families were supportive during their incarceration.”
  • Supportive Housing for Returning Prisoners Outcomes and Impacts of the Returning Home-Ohio Pilot Project Urban Institute, August, 2012“The Returning Home-Ohio program resulted in clear reductions along several key recidivism measures while also increasing state‐billable service use; the latter outcome is arguably a benefit of program participation.”
  • Which Components of Transitional Jobs Programs Work Best? Analysis of Programs for Former Prisoners in the Transitional Jobs Reentry Demonstration Urban Institute, May, 2012“TJ program participants who spent 30 workdays or more in a transitional job during the first six months of the follow-up period were 14 percent more likely than other TJ program participants to obtain an unsubsidized job in the subsequent six months.”
  • Housing as a Platform for Formerly Incarcerated Persons Urban Institute, April, 2012“While housing for formerly incarcerated persons is a source of necessary shelter and residential stability, it can also serve as the literal and figurative foundation for successful reentry and reintegration for released adults.”
  • The Post-Release Employment and Recidivism Among Different Types of Offenders With A Different Level of Education: A 5-Year Follow-Up Study in Indiana Indiana Department of Corrections and Ball State University, April, 2012“Offenders who had a lower level of education not only had a higher recidivism rate, but also such uneducated/under-educated offenders were likely to be re-incarcerated earlier than those offenders who had a higher level of education.”
  • The Impact of CA's Probation Performance Incentive Funding Program Pew Center on the States, February, 2012“In the first year of implementation, the state probation failure rate declined from 7.9 percent during the baseline years of 2006-2008 to 6.1 percent in 2010, a 23 percent reduction in revocations.”
  • The Effects of Prison Visitation on Offender Recidivism Minnesota Department of Corrections, November, 2011“Using multiple measures of visitation and recidivism, the study found that visitation significantly decreased the risk of recidivism. The results also showed that visits from siblings, in-laws, fathers, and clergy were the most beneficial...”
  • 2011 Adult Institutions Outcome Evaluation Report State of California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, November, 2011(Participation in in-prison substance abuse programs, combined with post-release community-based aftercare results in recidivism rates (29.3 %) that are much lower than those that did not participate in any substance abuse treatment program (65.3 %).)
  • Close To Home: Building on Family Support for People Leaving Jail Vera Institute of Justice, October, 2011“Among incarcerated people, 84 percent reported that their family members continued to be supportive.”
  • Motivation for Treatment Among Women Offenders in Prison-Based Treatment and Longitudinal Outcomes Among Those Who Participate in Community Aftercare National Institutes of Health, September, 2011“Participants who completed the aftercare program, or who had longer treatment duration, and those who had participated in an in-prison program prior to parole had reduced risk of recidivism.”
  • Risks of Drug-Related Death, Suicide, and Homicide During the Immediate Post-Release Period Among People Released From New York City Jails, 2001-2005 New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, August, 2011“...formerly incarcerated people in NYC were 8 times more likely to die of drug-related causes and 5 times more likely to die from homicide during the first 2 weeks after release than were nonincarcerated NYC residents in the same 2-week period.”
  • Due South Looking to the South for Criminal Justice Innovations Justice Policy Institute, May, 2011“Recognizing the significant costs associated with [...] high incarceration rates, a number of [Southern] states have recently implemented innovative strategies for reducing their prison populations and ensuring better outcomes [...].”
  • The Early Release of Prisoners And its Impact on Police Agencies and Communities in California Police Executive Research Forum, May, 2011“...there is research indicating that enforcement alone is ineffective in lowering recidivism rates, and in any case, prisons are far too expensive to be used as a default sanction for many criminal offenders.”
  • Reentry and the Ties that Bind: An Examination of Social Ties, Employment, and Recidivism Justice Quarterly, April, 2011“In fact, the results suggest that good quality social ties may be particularly important for men with histories of frequent unemployment.”
  • State of Recidivism The Revolving Door of America's Prisons Pew Center on the States, April, 2011“The most recent of those reports, which tracked offenders released from state prison in 1994, concluded that a little more than half of released offenders (51.8 percent) were back in prison within three years...”
  • Piloting a Tool for Reentry A Promising Approach to Engaging Family Members Vera Institute of Justice, March, 2011(To facilitate productive conversations about incarcerated individuals' positive social supports, the Vera Institute of Justice's Family Justice Program helps agencies implement the Relational Inquiry Tool (RIT) for use by corrections reentry staff.)
  • Sex Offender Registries: Fear without Function? University of Chicago, February, 2011“The results from all three data sets do not support the hypothesis that sex offender registries are effective tools for increasing public safety.”
  • Probation And Parole In The United States, 2009 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2010“During 2009, the number of offenders on probation or parole-community supervision population declined (down 0.9%) for the first time since the BJS began its Annual Probation Survey and Annual Parole Survey in 1980.”
  • The Use of Criminal History Records in College Admissions Reconsidered Center for Community Alternatives, November, 2010“A majority (66%) of the responding colleges collect criminal justice information, although not all of them consider it in their admissions process. Private schools and four-year schools are more likely to collect and use such information.”
  • The Intersectionality of Race, Gender, and Reentry Challenges for African-American Women American Constitution Society for Law and Policy, November, 2010“African-American women offenders face collateral attacks on their motherhood, on their ability to secure housing and employment, and on their ability to reintegrate. Reentry programs must have a race and gender focus that confronts intersectionality.”
  • State Recidivism Studies Sentencing Project, June, 2010“This database provides references for 99 recidivism studies conducted between 1995-2009 in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.”
  • Juvenile Transfer Laws: An Effective Deterrent to Delinquency? Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, June, 2010“This Bulletin provides an overview of research on the deterrent effects of transferring youth from juvenile to criminal courts[.]”
  • Drawing Blood from Stones: Legal Debt and Social Inequality in the Contemporary United States Alexes Harris, Heather Evans, and Katherine Beckett, University of Washington, May, 2010“[F]indings suggest that monetary sanctions create long-term legal debt and significantly extend punishment’s effects over time.”
  • Sexual Offender Laws and Prevention of Sexual Violence or Recidivism American Journal of Public Health, 2010(Evidence on the effectiveness of sex offender laws suggests that they may not prevent recidivism or sexual violence and result in more harm than good.)
  • Michigan Breaks the Political Logjam A New Model for Reducing Prison Populations ACLU, November, 2009“[Michigan's] new policies are designed to provide offenders with individualized programing in prison, and re-entry services upon release, that are most likely to assure success on parole, based on evidence of what works to reduce crime and save money.”
  • Investigating Prisoner Reentry: The Impact of Conviction Status on the Employment Prospects of Young Men National Institute of Justice, October, 2009“Across teams, a criminal record reduced the likelihood of a callback or job offer by nearly 50 percent (28% vs 15%).”
  • Prisoner Reentry Experiences of Adult Males Characteristics, Service Receipt, and Outcome of Participants in the SVORI Multi-Site Evaluation Pamela K. Lattimore, Danielle M. Steffey, Christy A. Visher, September, 2009“SVORI program participation greatly increased the likelihood of receiving a wide range of services, but levels of participation were less than reported needs.”
  • Denying parole at first eligibility How much public safety does it actually buy? Citizens Alliance on Prisons and Public Spending, August, 2009“Substantially increasing the rate of parole on the earliest release date would reduce the prisoner population without threatening public safety.”
  • 'Redemption' in an Era of Widespread Criminal Background Checks National Institute of Justice, June, 2009“Thus, our analysis showed that the younger an offender was when he committed robbery, the longer he had to stay clean to reach the same arrest rate as people his same age in the general population.”
  • Sex Offender Registration and Notification Limited Effects in New Jersey National Institute of Justice, April, 2009“Convicted offenders and their offense types in this study were similar before and after Megan’s Law was passed.”
  • Characteristics of State Parole Supervising Agencies, 2006 Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2009“Up to 16% of at-risk parolees in some agencies were re-incarcerated for a failed drug test.”
  • The APPD Randomized Controlled Trial in Low Risk Supervision: The Effect of Low Risk Supervision on Rearrest First Judicial Court of Pennsylvania, October, 2008“There was no difference in either the rate of any arrest or an arrest for a serious offense between low risk offenders supervised in large caseloads and low risk offenders supervised in standard caseloads.”
  • Inmate Social Ties and the Transition to Society: Does Visitation Reduce Recidivism? Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, June, 2008“Visitation of many types, including both family and friends, was associated with reduced and delayed onset of recidivism, with spousal visitation producing a more pronounced reduction in recidivism.”
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2006 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2007“The number of adult men and women in the United States who were being supervised on probation or parole at the end of 2006 reached 5,035,225. In 2006 the combined probation and parole populations grew by 1.8% or 87,852 persons.”
  • Repaying Debts Justice Center, October, 2007“Financial pressures and paycheck garnishment resulting from unpaid debt can increase participation in the underground economy and discourage legitimate employment.”
  • Evidence-Based Practice to Reduce Recidivism: Implications for State Judiciaries National Institute of Corrections, August, 2007“There is today an enormous body of sophisticated research proving that unlike incarceration, which actually increases offender recidivism, properly designed and operated recidivism-reduction programs can significantly reduce offender recidivism.”
  • Parole, Desistance from Crime, and Community Integration (2007) National Research Council of the National Academies, July, 2007“[T]he first days and weeks out of prison are the riskiest for both releasees and the general public.”
  • One Year Out: Experiences of Prisoners Returning to Cleveland Urban Institute, April, 2007“[D]escribes the lives of nearly 300 former prisoners at least [1 year] after release, including their ability to find stable housing and reunite with family, and identifies factors associated with getting a job, and avoiding substance use and [recidivism]”
  • The Housing Landscape for Returning Prisoners in the District Urban Institute, March, 2007“This report examines the housing landscape of prisoner reentry in the District of Columbia through an analysis of neighborhoods that had high rates of returning prisoners and a survey of housing-related providers.”
  • Impact and Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Maryland Reentry Partnership Initiative Urban Institute, February, 2007“This study evaluates the impact of the Maryland Reentry Partnership Initiative (REP) on crime in Baltimore between 2001 and 2005.”
  • Informing and Engaging Communities Through Reentry Mapping Urban Institute, January, 2007“This brief is designed to equip organizations with strategies for effectively disseminating local reentry-related mapping and analysis findings and engaging community members on the topic of reentry.”
  • Parole, Desistance from Crime, and Community Integration National Research Council, January, 2007“Cognitive-behavioral treatment programs reduce recidivism; Peak rates of committing a new crime/violating the terms of parole occur soon after release; Deaths among releasees are very high in the first weeks after release.”
  • Barriers to Employment: Prison Time Employment and Training Institute, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2007“The stigma of being an ex-inmate alone and the limitations it places on those released and expected to become gainfully employed are compounded by further legal sanctions placed on those who have spent time in correctional facilities.”
  • Governor's Ex-Offender Final Report Governor's Ex-Offender Task Force (Florida), November, 2006“Within three years of release, over a quarter of those people will go back to prison for a new crime. This rate of recidivism is unacceptably high and unacceptably expensive.”
  • Access Denied in Oregon Partnership for Safety and Justice, November, 2006“The astronomical growth of incarceration in the U.S. over the past 25 years has created a wide range of social challenges, not least of which is how to respond to formerly incarcerated people upon their re-entry into the community.”
  • Mapping Prisoner Reentry: An Action Research Guidebook Urban Institute, November, 2006“This guidebook provides information on how interested parties can understand and address prisoner reentry at the local level through mapping and data analysis.”
  • Cleveland Prisoners' Experiences Returning Home Urban Institute, September, 2006“This research brief is intended to serve as a foundation for policy discussions about how released prisoners can successfully reintegrate into their communities, whether in Cleveland or in similar cities around the country.”
  • Prisoner Reentry: Addressing the Challenges in Weed and Seed Communities Urban Institute, September, 2006“This report [illustrates] the various ways that Weed and Seed sites are focusing on prisoner reentry and working with partner organizations to reduce recidivism and create safer, healthier communities.”
  • Instituting Lasting Reforms for Prisoner Reentry in Philadelphia Urban Institute, June, 2006“Those with multiple periods of incarceration were more likely to be black, single and have more dependents.”
  • Instituting Lasting Reforms for Prisoner Reentry in Philadelphia Urban Institute, June, 2006“The report consolidates existing data on incarceration and release trends, and presents a new analysis of data on Philadelphia prisoners released between 1996 and 2003.”
  • Understanding California Corrections California Policy Research Center, May, 2006(An overview of the current trends in the California corrections system, with recommendations.)
  • Re-Entry and Reintegration: The Road to Public Safety New York State Bar Association, Special Committee on Collateral Consequences of Criminal Proceedings, May, 2006“Countless families are affected: over ten million children have parents who were imprisoned at some point in the children's lives. In addition, disparate racial and economic impacts are well-documented.”
  • Prisoner Reentry and Community Policing Urban Institute, April, 2006“[D]espite the fact that correctional spending has increased from approximately $9 billion to $60 billion during the past 20 years, prisoners are less prepared for reentry than in the past...”
  • Community Residents' Perceptions of Prisoner Reentry in Selected Cleveland Urban Institute, March, 2006“This report presents findings from community focus group discussions in three Cleveland neighborhoods that are home to a large number of returning prisoners.”
  • Does Parole Supervision Work? Research Findings and Policy Opportunities Urban Institute, March, 2006(This article begins with an argument for why we should study supervision and concludes with some thoughts about policy opportunities for the field, arguing that the current focus on prisoner reentry provides a timely opportunity to "reinvent" parole.)
  • Understanding the Challenges of Prisoner Reentry: Research Findings from the Urban Institute's Prisoner Reentry Portfolio New Jersey Institute for Social Justice, January, 2006
  • Ohio Prisoners' Reflections on Returning Home Urban Institute, January, 2006“The Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction released 28,177 individuals from prisons across the state in 2004, nearly six times the number of prisoners released in 1980.”
  • Texas Prisoners' Reflections Returning Home Urban Institute, October, 2005“In 2002, the Texas Department of Criminal Justice released 58,949 people from prisons and state jails across the state, nearly six times the number of prisoners released in 1980.”
  • From Prison to Work: The Employment Dimensions of Prisoner Reentry Urban Institute, October, 2005
  • Chicago Communities and Prisoner Reentry Urban Institute, September, 2005
  • Discrimination in Low Wage Labor Markets: Findings from an Experimental Audit Study in New York City Devah Pager and Bruce Western, June, 2005
  • Prisoner Reentry in Massachusetts Urban Institute, March, 2005
  • Adult Drug Courts: Evidence Indicates Recidivism Reductions and Mixed Results for Other Outcomes United States Government Accountability Office, February, 2005
  • Chicago Prisoners' Experiences Returning Home Urban Institute, December, 2004“We present key findings on a range of reentry challenges and describe the factors related to postrelease success or failure[.]”
  • Prisoner Reentry in Idaho Urban Institute, December, 2004
  • Prisoner Reentry in Georgia Urban Institute, November, 2004
  • Prisoner Reentry in Virginia Urban Institute, October, 2004
  • Profile of Nonviolent Offenders Exiting State Prisons Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2004
  • Prisoner Reentry in Michigan Urban Institute, October, 2004
  • The Front Line Building Programs That Recognize Families' Role in Reentry Vera Institute of Justice, September, 2004
  • After Prison: Roadblocks to Reentry A Report on State Legal Barriers Facing People with Criminal Records Legal Action Center, May, 2004
  • Prisoner Reentry and Community Policing: Strategies for Enhancing Public Safety Urban Institute, May, 2004
  • Baltimore Prisoner's Experiences Returning Home Urban Institute, March, 2004
  • A Portrait of Prisoner Reentry in Texas Urban Institute, March, 2004
  • Pennsylvania's Motivational Boot Camp 2003 Report to the Legislature Pennsylvania Sentencing Commission, January, 2004
  • Preventing Homelessness Among People Leaving Prison Vera Institute of Justice, December, 2003
  • Recidivism of Sex Offenders Released from Prison in 1994 Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2003
  • A Portrait of Prisoner Reentry in Ohio Urban Institute, November, 2003
  • Back to the Community: Safe & Sound Parole Policies Little Hoover Commission, November, 2003(California)
  • A Portrait of Prisoner Reentry in Illinois Urban Institute, April, 2003(the chapter on where Ill. prisoners are released to is very interesting)
  • A Portrait of Prisoner Reentry in New Jersey Urban Institute, March, 2003
  • A Portrait of Prisoner Reentry in Maryland Urban Institute, March, 2003
  • They're Coming Back: an Action Plan for Successful Reintegration of Offenders That Works for Everyone The Philadelphia Consensus Group on Reentry & Reintegration of Adjudicated Offenders, February, 2003
  • A Better Life- A Safer Community: Helping Inmates Access Federal Benefits Judge David L. Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, January, 2003
  • Beyond the Prison Gates: The State of Parole in America Urban Institute, November, 2002
  • Reentry Trends in United States Inmates returning to the community after serving time in prison Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2002
  • Parole Practices in Massachusetts and Their Effect on Community Reintegration Boston Bar Association Task Force on Parole and Community Reintegration, August, 2002(a 1991 precursor report is here http://www.bostonbar.org/gr/adhoc/parolehd.htm#cr1)
  • Recidivism of State Prisoners Implications for Sentencing and Corrections Policy Sentencing Project, August, 2002
  • Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994 Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2002
  • Every Door Closed: Barriers Facing Parents With Criminal Records. The Center for Law and Social Policy, May, 2002
  • Life Sentences: Denying Welfare Benefits to Women Convicted of Drug Offenses Sentencing Project, February, 2002
  • From Cell to Street: A Plan to Supervise Inmates After Release MassINC, January, 2002(Free registration required)
  • The Effects of Prison Sentences and Intermediate Sanctions on Recidivism: General Effects and Individual Differences Paula Smith, Claire Goggin and Paul Gendreau, January, 2002
  • Incarceration, Reentry and Social Capital: Social Networks in the Balance Dina Rose and Todd Clear, January, 2002
  • Pennsylvania's Motivational Boot Camp 2002 Report to the Legislature Pennsylvania Sentencing Commission, January, 2002
  • Exploring the Needs and Risks of the Returning Prisoner Population Urban Institute, January, 2002(by James Austin, John Irwin, Patricia Hardyman)
  • Use and Management of Criminal History Record Information: A Comprehensive Report, 2001 Update Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2001
  • Trends in State Parole, 1990-2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2001“Forty-two percent of State parole discharges were successful”
  • Prisoner Reentry in Perspective Urban Institute, September, 2001
  • Changing Minds The Impact of College in a Maximum Security Prison Graduate Center of CUNY & Women in Prison at Bedford Hills CF, NY, September, 2001
  • Three State Recidivism Study Correctional Education Association, September, 2001(Methodologically strong study on the effect of prison education programs on reducing recidivism)
  • Prisoner Releases: Trends and Information on Reintegration Programs General Accounting Office, June, 2001
  • From Prison to Home: The Dimensions and Consequences of Prisoner Reentry Urban Institute, June, 2001
  • Follow-Up Study of Offenders Who Earn GEDs While Incarcerated in DOCS State of New York Department of Correctional Services, May, 2001(Helping a prisoner get his GED while incarcerated cuts recidivism)
  • Offenders Returning to Federal Prison, 1986-97 Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2000
  • Analysis of Recidivism Rates of Education Program Participants in Virginia Kim A. Hull, et. al., June, 2000
  • But They All Come Back: Rethinking Prisoner Reentry National Institute of Justice (Jeremy Travis), May, 2000
  • The Effects of Prison Sentences on Recidivism Paul Gendreau and Claire Goggin, March, 1999
  • Education as Crime Prevention: Providing education to prisoners Center for Crime, Communities and Culture, September, 1997
  • Recidivism: The Effect of Incarceration and Length of Time Served Washington State Institute for Public Policy, September, 1993
  • Analysis of Return Rates of the Inmate College Program Participants State of New York Department of Correctional Services, August, 1991(Allowing a prisoner to go to college cuts recidivism.)
  • The Effect of Community Reintegration on Rates of Recidivism: A Statistical Overview of Data for the Years 1971 Through 1985 Massachusetts Department of Corrections, July, 1988“individuals who had experienced a furlough prior to release from prison had significantly lower rates of recidivism than did individuals who had not experienced a furlough prior to release.”
  • Statistical Description of the [Massachusetts] Furlough Program: 1972-1987 Prison Policy Initiative, 1988
  • The Massachusetts Furlough Program: Position Paper Massachusetts Department of Corrections, May, 1987

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