Jails

Information and data on jails

  • Travis County Jail in 2015: Data points to racism and longer confinement of African Americans Grassroots Leadership, July, 2017“Booking data from the Travis County Jail in 2015 reveals signi cant and persistent discrepancies in the number of days spent in the County jail by people of color, particularly Blacks, as compared to Whites.”
  • Orange County Jails American Civil Liberties Union of Southern California, June, 2017“Failing to remedy poor conditions of confinement and hold deputies accountable for misconduct, the Orange County Sheriff’s Department has implicitly endangered the constitutional rights of incarcerated individuals.”
  • Drug Use, Dependence, and Abuse Among State Prisoners and Jail Inmates 2007-2009 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2017“More than half of state prisoners and two-thirds of sentenced jail inmates meet the criteria for drug dependence or abuse.”
  • Out of Sight: The Growth of Jails in Rural America Vera Institute of Justice, June, 2017“America’s 3,283 local jails are the “front door” to mass incarceration, but for too long have grown outside of public view. Our latest analysis reveals an unexpected finding: there has been a dramatic shift in the geography of incarceration.”
  • Indicators of Mental Health Problems Reported by Prisoners & Jail Inmates: 2011-12 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2017“About 1 in 7 state and federal prisoners (14%) and 1 in 4 jail inmates (26%) reported experiences that met the threshold for serious psychological distress (SPD) in the 30 days prior to a survey that was conducted between February 2011 and May 2012.”
  • Selling Off Our Freedom: How insurance corporations have taken over our bail system Color of Change and the American Civil Liberties Union, May, 2017“Fewer than 10 insurance companies are behind a significant majority of bonds issued by as many as 25,000 bail bond agents.”
  • Bail Reform in California UCLA Luskin School of Public Affairs, May, 2017(This report examines California's system of commercial surety bail, recommending that it be replaced with risk assessment tools and non-bail release to improve predictive accuracy, race neutrality, and other outcomes such as fiscal impact.)
  • The Devil in the Details: Bail Bond Contracts in California UCLA School of Law, May, 2017“After analyzing the fine print in more than 100 contract documents online corresponding to 10 sureties, we identified 20 problems with bail bond contracts that violate common notions of fairness and justice.”
  • Examining Racial Disparities in Criminal Case Outcomes among Indigent Defendants in San Francisco The Quattrone Center & The University of Pennsylvania Law School, May, 2017“Our analysis revealed that Black, White and Latinx indigent defendants in San Francisco have substantially different experiences during the criminal adjudication process.”
  • Era of Mass Expansion: Why State Officials Should Fight Jail Growth Prison Policy Initiative, May, 2017“In most states over the last three decades, the number of people in jails has outpaced population growth by 2, 3 or even 4 times. In 12 states, the jail population has grown more than 3 times faster than the general population.”
  • "Not in it for Justice": How California's Pretrial Detention and Bail System Unfairly Punishes Poor People Human Rights Watch, April, 2017“In six California counties examined in detail in this report, the total cost of jailing people whom the prosecutor never charged or who had charges dropped or dismissed was $37.5 million over two years.”
  • Pretrial Justice: How Much Does It Cost Pretrial Justice Institute, January, 2017“The evidence shows that current pretrial practices--especially those that use money bail and over-use jail beds for lower risk people--are needlessly expensive and doesn’t produce positive results.”
  • Caged In: Solitary Confinement's Devastating Harm on Prisoners with Physical Disabilities American Civil Liberties Union, January, 2017“In Florida, only 44 of 792 grievances by prisoners with disabilities were resolved from 2013 to 2015.”
  • Preventable Tragedies: How to Reduce Mental-Health Related Deaths in Texas Jails The University of Texas School of Law Civil Rights Clinic, November, 2016“In Texas, state health officials estimate that 30 percent of jail inmates have one or more serious mental illnesses.”
  • Moving Beyond Money: A Primer on Bail Reform Criminal Justice Policy Program, Harvard Law School, October, 2016“When pretrial detention depends on whether someone can afford to pay a cash bond, two otherwise similar pretrial defendants will face vastly different outcomes based merely on their wealth.”
  • We are not disposable: The Toxic Impacts of Prisons and Jails Californians United for a Responsible Budget, October, 2016“Pollution and environmental degradation created by prisons and jails exacerbate public health risks for not only incarcerated people but also for the local communities where detention facilities are sited.”
  • Local Justice Reinvestment: Strategies, Outcomes, and Keys to Success Urban Institute, August, 2016“Over the past six years, 17 local jurisdictions across the country have worked diligently to implement [Justice Reinvestment Initiative], and it appears these efforts have generally paid off.”
  • New Orleans: Who's in Jail and Why? Vera Institute of Justice, August, 2016“This report aims to advance an important public conversation about how we are using our jail and how it impacts safety in our city.”
  • Overlooked: Women and Jails in an Era of Reform Vera Institute of Justice, August, 2016“At this critical moment in jail and local justice system reform, Vera has taken stock of the existing research on women in jail to begin to reframe the conversation to include them.”
  • The Downstream Consequences of Misdemeanor Pretrial Detention University of Pennsylvania Law School, July, 2016“We find that detained defendants are 25% more likely than similarly situated releasees to plead guilty, 43% more likely to be sentenced to jail, and receive jail sentences that are more than twice as long on average.”
  • Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses in County Jails: A Survey of Jail Staff's Perspectives Public Citizen's Health Research Group, The Treatment Advocacy Center, July, 2016“The purpose of our survey was to understand the perspectives of county jail sheriffs, deputies, and other staff with respect to individuals with serious mental illnesses in jails.”
  • Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses in County Jails: A Survey of Jail Staff's Perspectives Public Citizen's Health Research Group and The Treatment Advocacy Center, July, 2016(This report uses data from 230 sheriff's departments in 39 states to examine how correctional staffs understand and deal with inmates struggling with serious mental illnesses.)
  • Correctional Control: Incarceration and supervision by state Prison Policy Initiative, June, 2016“For the first time, this report aggregates data on all of the kinds of correctional control: federal prisons, state prisons, local jails, juvenile incarceration, civil commitment, Indian Country jails, parole and, lastly but importantly, probation.”
  • Distortion of Justice: How the Inability to Pay Bail Affects Case Outcomes University of Pennsylvania Law School, May, 2016“While previous research has shown correlations between pretrial detention and unfavorable case outcomes, this paper is the first to use a quasi-experimental research design to show that the relationship is causal.”
  • Detaining the Poor: How money bail perpetuates an endless cycle of poverty and jail time Prison Policy Initiative, May, 2016“A majority of people unable to meet bail fall within the poorest third of the national income distribution.”
  • The Heavy Costs of High Bail: Evidence from Judge Randomization Columbia Law School, May, 2016“Our estimates suggest that the assignment of money bail causes a 6 percentage point rise in the likelihood of pleading guilty, and a 4 percentage point rise in recidivism.”
  • Is Downsizing Prisons Dangerous? The Effect of California's Realignment Act on Public Safety Criminology and Public Policy, May, 2016“Significant reductions in the size of prison populations are possible without endangering public safety.”
  • Protecting Written Family Communication in Jails: A 50-State Survey Prison Policy Initiative, May, 2016“[W]e find a strong correlation between the states that have strong language protecting letter writing and the states in which no jails are experimenting with banning letters.”
  • Roadblocks to Reform: District Attorneys, Elections, and the Criminal Justice System Status Quo ACLU of Oregon, April, 2016“DAs are arguably the most powerful people in the criminal justice system, but voters don’t seem to know who DAs are or all that they do[.]”
  • Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2016 Prison Policy Initiative, March, 2016(The American criminal justice system holds more than 2.3 million people in thousands of facilities, and we go deeper to provide further detail on where and why.)
  • California Sentencing Institute Map California Sentencing Institute, March, 2016“Explore the interactive map to view population-adjusted rates of adult and juvenile arrests and incarcerations.”
  • Children, Parents, and Incarceration: Descriptive Overview of Data from Alameda and San Francisco County Jails Alameda County Children of Incarcerated Parents Partnership; San Francisco Children of Incarcerated Parents Partnership, March, 2016“The survey was structured to gather information to inform program and policy decisions in consideration of the children’s well-being when their parents become incarcerated in local jails.”
  • How Has Proposition 47 Affected California's Jail Population Public Policy Institute of California, March, 2016“Taken together, we find significant changes in the level and composition of those incarcerated in jails following the passage of Prop 47.”
  • Paying the Price: Failure to Deliver HIV Services in Lousiana Parish Jails Human Rights Watch, 2016“The state of Louisiana is 'ground zero' for the dual epidemics of HIV and incarceration.”
  • Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2015 Prison Policy Initiative, December, 2015(The U.S. locks up more than 2.3 million people in prisons, jails, and other facilities on any given day.)
  • Probation in California Public Policy Institute of California, December, 2015“Probation is the most widely used form of correctional supervision in California.”
  • Census of Jails: Population Changes, 1999-2013 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2015“From 1999 to 2013, the number of inmates in local jails increased by 21%, from 605,943 to 731,570. During this period, the growth in the jail population was not steady, as the jail confined population peaked in 2008 at 785,533 then declined.”
  • In Our Own Backyard: Confronting Growth and Disparities in American Jails Vera Institute of Justice, December, 2015“Rather, mid-sized and small counties--which account for the vast majority of jails--have largely driven growth, with local jail populations increasing since 1970 by 4.1 times in mid-sized counties and 6.9 times in small counties.”
  • In Jail & In Debt: Ohio's Pay-to-Stay Fees ACLU of Ohio, November, 2015(Ohioans are getting billed up to $66.09 a day to be in jail.)
  • Changing Gears: California's Shift to Smart Justice ACLU of California, November, 2015“By June 2015, almost 160,000 petitions had been filed to reduce a felony to a misdemeanor.”
  • Justice in Katrina's Wake: Changing Course on Incarceration in New Orleans Vera Institute of Justice, November, 2015“This report documents the groundbreaking reforms that the City of New Orleans has engaged in to safely decrease its use of detention, from reducing the physical size of its jail to implementing risk-based pretrial release practices.”
  • Detention of Alleged Probation and Parole Violators in Orleans Parish Prison Vera Institute of Justice, October, 2015“Close to one in five people detained in the New Orleans jail are waiting for a court date to sort out alleged violations of their probation or parole.”
  • Proposition 47 Progress Report: Year One Implementation Stanford Law School Stanford Justice Advocacy Project, October, 2015“Since the enactment of Proposition 47 on November 14, 2014, the number of people incarcerated in California’s prisons and jails has decreased by approximately 13,000 inmates, helping alleviate crowding conditions in those institutions.”
  • Public Safety Realignment: Impacts So Far Public Policy Institute of California, September, 2015“Realignment did not increase violent crime, but auto thefts rose. Research so far shows no dramatic change in recidivism rates.”
  • Debtors' Prisons in New Hampshire ACLU of New Hampshire, September, 2015(In 2013 New Hampshire judges jailed people who were unable to pay fines and without conducting a meaningful ability-to-pay hearing in an estimated 148 cases.)
  • Realignment and Crime in 2014: California's Violent Crime in Decline Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, August, 2015“Contrary to alarms raised about potential increases in crime, consistent reports examining offenses at the county level over time show Realignment and crime do not have a causal relationship.”
  • Breaking the Silence: Civil and Human Rights Violations Resulting from Medical Neglect and Abuse of Women of Color in Los Angeles County Jails Dignity and Power Now, August, 2015“This Report by Dignity and Power Now (“DPN”) documents how jail and prison officials violated the rights of seven women of color, and highlights the mental health consequences of the medical neglect and abuse these women suffered.”
  • Louisiana's Debtors Prisons: An Appeal to Justice ACLU of Louisiana, August, 2015“The ACLU of Louisiana (“ACLU”) investigated the imposition and collection of fines, fees and court costs or other legal financial obligations (LFOs) in twelve parishes and two cities from across Louisiana.”
  • Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000-2013 - Statistical Tables Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2015“Suicide has been the leading cause of death in jails every year since 2000.”
  • Pretrial Detention and Jail Capacity in California Public Policy Institute of California, July, 2015“But California’s high rates of pretrial detention have not been associated with lower rates of failure to appear or lower levels of felony rearrests.”
  • Tribal Crime Data Collection Activities, 2015 Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2015“At midyear 2013, a total of 2,287 inmates were confined in 79 Indian country jails--a 3.3% decrease from the 2,364 inmates confined at midyear 2012.”
  • Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Jails: Recommendations for Local Practice Brennan Center for Justice, June, 2015“Overuse of Pre-Trial Detention: Studies consistently find that African American and Hispanic defendants are more than twice as likely to be detained in jail pending trial.”
  • Jail Inmates at Midyear 2014 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2015“The jail population remained steady at the 2012 level and was significantly lower than the peak of an estimated 785,500 at midyear 2008.”
  • San Francisco Justice Reinvestment Initiative: Racial and ethnic disparities analysis for the reentry council The W. Haywood Burns Institute for Juvenile Justice Fairness & Equity, June, 2015“Black adults are 7.1 times as likely as White adults to be arrested, 11 times as likely to be booked into County Jail, and 10.3 times as likely to be convicted of a crime in San Francisco.”
  • Charging Inmates Perpetuates Mass Incarceration Brennan Center for Justice, May, 2015“Every aspect of the criminal justice process has become ripe for charging a fee. In fact, an estimated 10 million people owe more than $50 billion in debt resulting from their involvement in the criminal justice system.”
  • Pretrial Release in California Public Policy Institute of California, May, 2015“This report uses newly available data to provide information about pretrial release in California and to give policymakers a better understanding of the defendants who tend to be released and the form of release they secure.”
  • The Price of Jails: Measuring the Taxpayer Cost of Local Incarceration Vera Institute of Justice, May, 2015“But as high as $22.2 billion sounds, it actually underestimates the price of jails, because other government agencies bear a large share of jail costs that are not reflected in jail budgets.”
  • From Silo to System: What Makes a Criminal Justice System Operate Like a System? The Justice Management Institute, April, 2015“JMI conducted in-depth interviews with and collected quantitative and qualitative data from eight county-based criminal justice systems that have been cited over the years as being "highly effective."”
  • Incarceration's Front Door: The Misuse of Jails in America Vera Institute of Justice, February, 2015“With nearly 12 million annual admissions- almost 19 times those to state and federal prisons- jails have an impact that is both far-reaching and profound.”
  • Corrections Statistics by State National Institute of Corrections, February, 2015“This unique compilation of data provides a visual representation of key statistics for each state as well as a comparison of each state in relation to other states.”
  • New York City Department of Investigation Report on the Recruiting and Hiring Process for New York City Correction Officers City of New York Department of Investigation, January, 2015“DOI has now reviewed over 150 applications of recently hired COs. Of these, 54 had significant red flags that should have either precluded their hiring altogether or at least required significant follow up or monitoring.”
  • Screening Out Family Time: The for-profit video visitation industry in prisons and jails Prison Policy Initiative, January, 2015(In order to stimulate demand for their low-quality product, jails and video visitation companies work together to shut down the traditional in-person visitation rooms and instead require families to pay up to $1.50 per minute for visits via video.)
  • Women Injustice: Gender and the Pathway to Jail in New York City John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Prisoner Reentry Institute, 2015“Only 12% to 15% of the average daily population of women at Rikers have been sentenced to jail, as most are detained on pending cases.”
  • The Justice Reinvestment Initiative Experiences from the Local Sites Urban Institute, November, 2014“Seven sites adopted strategies that expanded jail diversion (e.g., deferred prosecution programs) and jail programming (e.g., inmate transition programs) as well as increased access to employment and education services.”
  • Video Visitation: How Private Companies Push for Visits by Video and Families Pay the Price Grassroots Leadership; Texas Criminal Justice Coalition, October, 2014“Video-only visitation policies strip away that choice; they are simply another outgrowth of the idea that offering services to prisoners and their families can be commercialized.”
  • Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000-2012 - Statistical Tables Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2014“In 2012, 4,309 inmates died while in the custody of local jails or state prisons-an increase of 2% (67 deaths) from 2011. The number of deaths in local jails increased, from 889 in 2011 to 958 in 2012, which marked the first increase since 2009.”
  • ClaimStat Alert Office of the New York City Comptroller, August, 2014(The 37 percent increase in personal injury correctional facility claims activity from FY 2013 to FY 2014 corresponds to a rise in the number of serious allegations of violence at Rikers.)
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2013 Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2014“Since 2010, about 31% of inmates held in Indian country jails have been confined for a violent offense, a decline from about 39% in each year between midyear 2004 and 2009.”
  • Tribal Crime Data Collection Activities, 2014 Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2014“At midyear 2012, a total of 2,364 inmates were confined in 79 Indian country jails--a 5.6% increase from the 2,239 inmates confined at midyear 2011.”
  • Jail Inmates At Midyear 2013 - Statistical Tables (Revised) Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2014“After a peak in the number of inmates confined in county and city jails at midyear 2008 (785,533), the jail population was significantly lower by midyear 2013 (731,208).”
  • Key Factors in California's Jail Construction Needs Public Policy Institute of California, May, 2014“This report highlights two important factors in addressing jail capacity constraints: aging jail facilities and long - term needs.”
  • Profiting from Probation: America's "Offender-Funded" Probation Industry Human Rights Watch, February, 2014“The central problem with offender-funded, pay only probation is this: the longer it takes offenders to pay off their debts, the longer they remain on probation and the more they pay in supervision fees.”
  • Voices from the Field How California Stakeholders View Public Safety Realignment Stanford Criminal Justice Center, January, 2014“...counties now must handle virtually all drug and property crime sentences, which represented 54% of all felony arrestees convicted in California in 2010.”
  • Contra Costa County: A Model for Managing Local Corrections JFA Institute, January, 2014“Over a three-year period, people on felony probation in the County had a recidivism rate of 20% - far lower than the 60% or higher rates statewide found in other studies.”
  • A Review of Mental Health Services in Local and Regional Jails Virginia Office of the State Inspector General, January, 2014“Jails lack the capacity to satisfy the current demand for mental health services.”
  • The Burden of Criminal Justice Debt in Alabama: 2014 Participant Self-Report Survey UAB TASC Jefferson County's Community Corrections Program, 2014“The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success of this approach and the impact of these policies in Alabama. With the general knowledge that increased court costs have not produced projected revenue, we sought to understand why.”
  • California Prison Downsizing and Its Impact on Local Criminal Justice Systems Joan Petersilia, Harvard Law & Policy Review, 2014“Everyone agreed county officials are working more collaboratively toward reducing recidivism, and that new funding has fostered innovative programming. But our interviews also found counties struggling...to carry out an initiative...imposed overnight.”
  • Realigning the Revolving Door: An Analysis of California Counties' AB 109 2011-2012 Implementation Plans Stanford Law School Criminal Justice Center, September, 2013“Sheriff's departments were allocated the largest amount of funding at $125,655,502, or 34.9 percent of all expenditure.”
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2012 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2013“At midyear 2012, a total of 2,364 inmates were confined in Indian country jails—a 5.6% increase from the 2,239 inmates confined at midyear 2011.”
  • Jail Inmates at Midyear 2012 - Statistical Tables Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2013“The average daily population (ADP) in jails remained stable from 735,565 during the 12-month period ending June 30, 2011, and 735,983 during the 12-month period ending June 30, 2012.”
  • The Outskirts of Hope: How Ohio's Debtors' Prisons Are Ruining Lives and Costing Communities ACLU of Ohio, April, 2013“In the second half of 2012, over 20% of all bookings in the Huron County Jail were related to failure to pay fines. Between July 15 and August 31, 2012 at least 45 people in Cuyahoga County and 57 in Erie County were jailed for failure to pay,”
  • Dawson State Jail: The Case for Closure Sentencing Project, Grassroots Leadership, March, 2013“In recent years there have been reports of horrible conditions in the Dawson State Jail involving medical care and inadequate staffing levels. According to reports by CBS News DFW, DSJ has experienced seven deaths since 2004.”
  • New Jersey Jail Population Analysis: Identifying Opportunities to Safely and Responsibly Reduce the Jail Populations Luminosity and Drug Policy Alliance, March, 2013“Inmates who had been indicted but had not yet had a trial had been in custody on average 314 days. 12% of the entire jail population was held in custody solely due to an inability to pay $2500 or less to secure their release pending disposition.”
  • Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000-2010 Statistical Tables Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2012“The suicide rate in local jails declined over time from 49 per 100,000 inmates in 2001 to 36 per 100,000 in 2007. Since 2007, the rate has increased slightly to reach 42 per 100,000 inmates in 2010.”
  • Putting How to Reform Texas' Expensive, Ineffective State Jail System Texas Public Policy Foundation, November, 2012“State jails were designed to be a low-cost alternative to prison, with dual goals of reducing prison populations and reducing recidivism rates in low-risk defendants. Unfortunately, state jails are universally failing in their objective.”
  • The Texas Commission on Jail Standards: The State's Solution for Implementing A Strong County Jail System While Protecting Counties From Liability Texas Criminal Justice Coalition, November, 2012“Texas Commission on Jail Standards guards Texas counties from damaging lawsuits, specifically by setting constitutional jail standards for counties to follow, conducting facility inspections, and enforcing compliance with rules and procedures.”
  • The Family And Recidivism Vera Institute of Justice, September, 2012“Among the inmates surveyed, 84 percent reported that their families were supportive during their incarceration.”
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2011 Bureau of Justice Statistics, September, 2012“At midyear 2011, a total of 2,239 inmates were confined in Indian country jails, a 5.7% increase from „ the 2,119 inmates confined at midyear 2010.”
  • Women's pathways to jail: The roles & intersections of serious mental illness & trauma Bureau of Justice Assistance, September, 2012“[C]hildhood victimization and adult trauma increased the risk of poor mental health, and poor mental health predicted a greater offending history.”
  • "She Doesn't Deserve to be Treated Like This": Prisons as Sites of Reproductive Injustice Rachel Roth, Center for Women Policy Studies, July, 2012“[T]he well-established nature of women’s rights has not stopped prison and jail personnel from trying to deny women abortion care, or at least obstruct women’s access to abortion.”
  • Receipt of A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccine by Prisons and Jails United States, 2009-10 Influenza Season Center for Desease Control, January, 2012“This report summarizes the results of that survey, which found that 55% of jails did not receive A(H1N1) pdm09 vaccine during the pandemic period, whereas only 14% of federal prisons and 11% of state prisons did not receive the vaccine.”
  • Census of Jail Facilities, 2006 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2011“A total of 3,283 jail facilities, including jails in the federal system, were operating in 2006, down 93 from 3,376 in 1999.”
  • Jail Needs Assessment for San Mateo County: A preliminary analysis Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, December, 2011“Based on current trends, CJCJ recommends deferring construction of new jail space until alternative pretrial release [...] expanded probation supervision, reduced probation revocation, and expanded community treatment alternatives have been fully explored”
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2010 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2011“Between 2004 and 2010, the number of inmates held in Indian country jails increased by 21%, from 1,745 to 2,119.”
  • Close To Home: Building on Family Support for People Leaving Jail Vera Institute of Justice, October, 2011“Among incarcerated people, 84 percent reported that their family members continued to be supportive.”
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2009 Bureau of Justice Statistics, February, 2011“Over the 12 months ending June 2009, the average daily jail population in Indian country increased by 12%, and the percentage of occupied bed space increased from 64.2% to 73.5%.”
  • Independent Correctional Oversight Mechanisms Across the United States: A 50-State Inventory Pace Law Review, September, 2010(Although this report is thick with examples of entities that perform (or have the authority to perform) some kind of oversight function, it should be clear upon closer examination that formal and comprehensive external oversight is truly rare.)
  • Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2008-09 Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2010“An estimated 4.4% of prison inmates and 3.1% of jail inmates reported experiencing one or more incidents of sexual victimization by another inmate or facility staff in the past 12 months or since admission to the facility if less than 12 months.”
  • Mortality in Local Jails 2000-2007 Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2010“Suicide was the single leading cause of unnatural deaths in local jails, accounting for 29% of all jail deaths between 2000 and 2007, but the suicide rate declined from 48 to 36 deaths per 100,000 inmates.”
  • Jail Inmates at Midyear 2009 Statistical Tables Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2010“During the 12 months ending June 30, 2009, the number of male (-1.7%), female (-6.0%), and adult (-2.2%) inmates declined.”
  • More Mentally Ill Persons Are in Jails and Prisons Than Hospitals: A Survey of the States Treatment Advocacy Center, May, 2010“Among the ten states mostly likely to have mentally ill individuals in jails and prisons, five were also among the states spending the least money per capita.”
  • Philadelphia's Crowded, Costly Jails: The Search for Safe Solutions Pew Charitable Trusts, May, 2010
  • National Study of Jail Suicide: 20 Years Later U.S. Department of Justice, April, 2010“In 2006, the suicide rate in detention facilities was 36 deaths per 100,000 inmates, which is approximately 3 times greater than that in the general population. This rate represents a dramatic decrease in the rate of suicide in detention facilities.”
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2008 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2009“The report includes data on the number of adults and juveniles held, type of offense, number of persons confined on the last weekday of each month, average daily population, peak population, and admissions in June 2008.”
  • 2009 Annual Report Massachusetts Department of Correction Massachusetts Department of Correction, December, 2009“2009 Releases to the Street from Massachusetts Department of Correction: Top 10 Cities”
  • Jailing Communities The Impact of Jail Expansion and Effective Public Safety Strategies Justice Policy Institute, April, 2009“In 2006, prison population growth was half what it was in 1996, but in recent years, jail population growth has exceeded that of prisons.”
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2007 Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2008“Eighty-three jails in Indian country held an estimated 2,163 inmates at midyear 2007, up from 1,745 inmates held in 68 facilities at midyear 2004.”
  • Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2008“The total rated capacity of local jails at midyear 2007 reached 813,502 beds, up from an estimated 677,787 beds at midyear 2000.”
  • Sexual Victimization in Local Jails Reported by Inmates, 2007 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2008“An estimated 5.1% of female inmates, compared to 2.9% of male inmates, said they had experienced one or more incidents of sexual victimization.”
  • Jailing Juveniles: The Dangers of Incarcerating Youth in Adult Jails in America Campaign for Youth Justice, November, 2007“The report "Jailing Juveniles" shows how difficult is it to keep children safe in adult jails. In fact, youth have the highest suicide rates of all inmates in jails... Youth in adult jails are also at great risk of physical and sexual assault.”
  • Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2007“For the 12 months ending June 30, 2006, State systems reported a larger increase than the Federal system in the number of inmates housed in private prisons.”
  • Impacts of Jail Expansion in New York State: A Hidden Burden Center for Constitutional Rights, May, 2007“The growth in the number of people held in jail has not been caused by an increase in crime, as index crime reports decreased by 30 percent in the last decade in upstate and suburban New York overall.”(Construction of new prisons in New York poses a financial, employment and environmental burden on communities.)
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2004 Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2006“At midyear 2004 jails in Indian country held 1,745 inmates; 39% of inmates were confined for a violent offense.”
  • Medical Problems of Jail Inmates Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2006“More than a third of jail inmates reported having a current medical problem.”
  • Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2005 Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2006
  • Turning Jails Into Prisons: Collateral Damage from Kentucky's War on Crime Robert G. Lawson (Published in Kentucky Law Journal, Volume 95), 2006
  • Fees Paid by Jail Inmates: Fee Categories, Revenues, and Management Perspectives in a Sample of U.S. Jails National Institute of Corrections, December, 2005“Survey responses indicate that 90% of the jails that responded are currently charging jail inmate fees.”
  • Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2004 Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2005
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2003 Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2005
  • Profile of Jail Inmates, 2002 Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2004
  • Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2003 Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2004
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2002 Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2003
  • Jail-based voter registration campaigns Sentencing Project, May, 2003
  • Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2002 Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2003
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2001 Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2002“At midyear 2001, jails in Indian country supervised 2,030 persons”
  • Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2001 Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2002
  • Jail Crowding: Understanding Jail Population Dynamics National Institute of Corrections, January, 2002“Three indicators are available for analysis nationally: serious crime, adult arrests, and county resident population.”
  • Census of Jails 1999 Bureau of Justice Statistics, September, 2001“At midyear 1999 the Nation's jails held 605,943 inmates, up 32% since the last census in 1993.”
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2001
  • HIV in Prisons and Jails, 1999 Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2001
  • Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2001
  • Drug Use, Testing, and Treatment in Jails Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2000“Most Jails that test for drugs find at least one inmate who tests positive”
  • Veterans in Prison and Jail Bureau of Justice Statistics, January, 2000“Male military veterans are incarcerated at less than half the rate of non-veterans”
  • Profile of Jail Inmates, 1996 Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 1998
  • A Review of the Jail Function within State Unified Corrections Systems National Institute of Corrections, September, 1997“This document describes the provision of jail services in the six states that have integrated state-level prison and jail systems. This type of correctional system is often described as a “state unified system.””
  • HIV in Prisons and Jails, 1995 Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 1997“Between 1991 and 1995 about 1 in 3 inmate deaths were attributable to AIDS-related causes.”
  • Mental Illness in US Jails: Diverting the nonviolent, low-level offender Center on Crime Communities and Culture, November, 1996
  • Prison and Jail Inmates, 1995 Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 1996
  • Jails and Jail Inmates, 1993-94 Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 1995
  • Profile of Jail Inmates, 1989 Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 1991“Results from the 1989 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails indicate that between 1983 and 1989, while the jail population increased by 76.9%, its composition changed significantly.”
  • Jails: Intergovernmental Dimensions of a Local Problem Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, May, 1984“According to the latest survey of jails, there currently are 3,493 such facilities in the United States, holding more than 212,000 people at any given time, and approximately 7 million over the course of the year.”

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