Police and Policing

  • (New) Atlas of Surveillance: Southwestern Border Communities Electronic Frontier Foundation, October, 2019“We found 36 local government agencies using automated license plate readers (ALPR), 45 outfitting officers with body-worn cameras, and 20 flying drones.”
  • "Get on the Ground!": Policing, Poverty, and Racial Inequality in Tulsa, Oklahoma Human Rights Watch, September, 2019“Our analysis of 2012-2017 data provided by the Tulsa Police Department, shows that black people in Tulsa are 2.7 times more likely to be subjected to physical force by police officers than white people on a per capita basis.”
  • The Role of Police Unions in the 21st Century Texas Public Policy Foundation, September, 2019“However, police unions have more recently become involved in policy issues beyond those bounded by typical labor relations--for instance, criminal justice public policy and training; and union involvement can become problematic.”
  • Policing, Poverty, and Racial Inequality in Tulsa, Oklahoma Human Rights Watch, September, 2019“Human Rights Watch found that, beyond the statistical disparities of treatment by police of the different races, black people nearly all had personal experiences of abusive policing, ranging from extreme violence towards themselves or family members, to m”
  • Risk of being killed by police use of force in the United States by age, race-ethnicity, and sex Frank Edwards, Hedwig Lee, and Michael Esposito, August, 2019“For young men of color, police use of force is among the leading causes of death.”
  • report thumbnail Arrest, Release, Repeat: How police and jails are misused to respond to social problems Prison Policy Initiative, August, 2019“Our analysis confirms that people who are repeatedly arrested and jailed are arrested for lower-level offenses, have unmet medical and mental health needs, and are economically marginalized.”
  • The National Initiative for Building Community Trust and Justice: Key Process and Outcome Evaluation Findings Urban Institute, August, 2019“Although community perceptions improved in the aggregate, views of police and police legitimacy remain largely negative in the neighborhoods most affected by crime and disadvantage.”
  • The 911 Call Processing System: A Review of the Literature as it Relates to Policing Vera Institute of Justice, August, 2019“Analysis of calls for service data provides a huge and largely untapped opportunity for researchers and practitioners to inform and transform policy and practice.”
  • Gatekeepers: The Role of Police in Ending Mass Incarceration Vera Institute of Justice, August, 2019“The mass enforcement of relatively minor law violations suggests that policing practices currently tend toward punitive approaches in ways that are often not necessary to achieve public safety.”
  • Changes in Enforcement of Low-Level and Felony Offenses Post-Ferguson: An Analysis of Arrests in St. Louis, Missouri Lee Ann Slocum, Claire Greene, Beth M. Huebner, and Richard Rosenfeld, July, 2019“We find that there was an initial reduction in low-level arrests of Whites and Blacks in the wake of Ferguson. Enforcement of misdemeanors and ordinance violations then increased and returned to expected levels, but only for Blacks.”
  • Police-Mental Health Collaborations: A Framework for Implementing Effective Law Enforcement Responses for People Who Have Mental Health Needs Council of State Governments, July, 2019“Increasingly, officers are called on to be the first--and often the only--responders to calls involving people experiencing a mental health crisis.”
  • Confirmation Bias and Other Systemic Causes of Wrongful Convictions: A Sentinel Events Perspective Kim Rossmo and Joycelyn Pollock, July, 2019“Detectives must minimize the risk of error by accurately assessing evidence reliability and avoiding premature shifts to suspect-based investigations. Resolving issues of cognitive bias and avoiding logic/analytic mistakes are equally important.”
  • When Stop and Frisk Comes Home: Policing Public and Patrolled Housing Alexis Karteron, July, 2019“Largely because of the vast array of behavior that is regulated in public and patrolled housing, law enforcement officers have broad authority to stop, arrest, and search people in and around such locations.”
  • Network exposure and excessive use of force: Investigating the social transmission of police misconduct Marie Ouellet, Sadaf Hashimi, Jason Gravel, and Andrew V. Papachristos, July, 2019“Our findings indicate officers' peers may serve as social conduits through which misconduct may be learned and transmitted.”
  • Fighting Crime or Raising Revenue? Testing Opposing Views of Forfeiture. Brian Kelly, June, 2019“These results add to a growing body of scholarly evidence supporting forfeiture's critics, suggesting that claims about forfeiture's value in crime fighting are exaggerated at best and that police do use forfeiture to raise revenue.”
  • Policing Women: Race and gender disparities in police stops, searches, and use of force Prison Policy Initiative, May, 2019“Women make up an increasing share of arrests and report much more use of force than they did twenty years ago.”
  • More Black than Blue: Politics and Power in the 2019 Black Census The Black Futures Lab, May, 2019“More than half (55 percent) of respondents have personally had a negative interaction with the police at some point, and 28 percent have had at least one negative interaction in the last 6 months.”
  • Failing to Protect and Serve: Police Department Policies Towards Transgender People National Center for Transgender Equality, May, 2019(Only 9 of the 25 departments reviewed include gender identity and/or expression language in their non-discrimination policy, which is the best way to clarify that transgender people are protected.)
  • Aggressive Policing and Academic Outcomes: Examining the Impact of Police Joscha Legewie, Chelsea Farley, Kayla Stewart, May, 2019“Aggressive policing in communities can harm Black boys' educational performance, as measured by state tests.”
  • Racial Disparities in D.C. Policing: Descriptive Evidence From 2013-2017 ACLU of the District of Columbia, May, 2019“From 2013 to 2017, Black individuals composed 47% of D.C.'s population but 86% of its arrestees. During this time, Black people were arrested at 10 times the rate of white people.”
  • Road Runners: The Role and Impact of Law Enforcement in Transporting Individuals with Severe Mental Illness Treatment Advocacy Center, May, 2019“Approximately one-third of individuals with severe mental illness have their first contact with mental health treatment through a law enforcement encounter.”
  • The Voluntariness of Voluntary Consent: Consent Searches and the Psychology of Compliance Roseanna Sommers and Vanessa K. Bohns, April, 2019“This is problematic because it indicates that a key justification for suspicionless consent searches--that they are voluntary--relies on an assessment that is subject to bias.”
  • (New) Cops and No Counselors: How the Lack of School Mental Health Staff is Harming Students ACLU, March, 2019“We found that schools with police reported 3.5 times as many arrests as schools without police. As a result, students with disabilities and students of color are frequently sent into the criminal system.”
  • A Proposal to End Regressive Taxation through Law Enforcement The Hamilton Project, March, 2019“Over the past few decades the directives handed down to the everyday agents of law enforcement have incrementally shifted focus away from public safety and toward public finance.”
  • Driver's License Suspension in North Carolina Brandon L. Garrett and William Crozier, March, 2019“We found that there are 1,225,000 active driver's licenses suspensions in North Carolina for non-driving related reasons, relating to failure to pay traffic fines and court courts, and failure to appear in court for traffic offenses.”
  • (New) New Era of Public Safety: A Guide to Fair, Safe, and Effective Community Policing The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, March, 2019(This report was developed to give individuals, communities, activists, advocacy organizations, law makers, and police departments the knowledge to carry out police reform.)
  • Dirty Data, Bad Predictions: How Civil Rights Violations Impact Police Data, Predictive Policing Systems, and Justice Rashida Richardson, Jason Schultz, Kate Crawford, March, 2019“The failure to adequately interrogate and reform police data creation and collection practices can result in skewed predictive policing systems and create lasting consequences that will permeate throughout the criminal justice system.”
  • A large-scale analysis of racial disparities in police stops across the United States Stanford Computational Policy Lab, March, 2019“Our investigation of nearly 100 million traffic stops across the United States reveals evidence of widespread discrimination in decisions to stop and search drivers.”
  • (New) Police Contact and the Legal Socialization of Urban Teens Amanda Geller and Jeffrey Fagan, February, 2019“We find that both personal and vicarious police contact are associated with increased legal cynicism...Legal cynicism is amplified in teens reporting intrusive contact but diminished among teens reporting experiences characterized by procedural justice.”
  • (New) The Great Decoupling: The Disconnection Between Criminal Offending and Experience of Arrest Across Two Cohorts Vesla M. Weaver, Andrew Papachristos, and Michael Zanger-Tishler, February, 2019“The criminal justice system, we argue, slipped from one in which arrest was low and strongly linked to offending to one where a substantial share of Americans experienced arrest without committing a crime.”
  • Aggressive Policing and the Educational Performance of Minority Youth Joscha Legewie and Jeffrey Fagan, February, 2019“Aggressive policing can thus lower educational performance for some minority groups, providing evidence that the consequences of policing extend into key domains of social life, with implications for the educational trajectories of minority youth.”
  • How Police Technology Aggravates Racial Inequity: A Taxonomy of Problems and a Path Forward Laura Moy, February, 2019“Police technology may (1) replicate inequity in policing, (2) mask inequity in policing, (3) transfer inequity from elsewhere to policing, (4) exacerbate inequitable policing harms, and/or (5) compromise oversight of inequity in policing.”
  • Every Three Seconds: Unlocking Police Data on Arrests Vera Institute of Justice, January, 2019“Across the United States, an arrest occurs every three seconds.”
  • Cellphones, Law Enforcement, and the Right to Privacy Brennan Center for Justice, December, 2018“New technologies that extend the power and reach of law enforcement are likely to exacerbate existing biases in policing and add more surveillance to communities that are already extensively policed.”
  • The Contagiousness of Police Violence Thibaut Horel, Trevor Campbell, Lorenzo Masoero, Raj Agrawal, Andrew Papachristos and Daria Roithmayr, November, 2018“Most remarkably, within two years, exposure to a single shooting more than doubles a network neighbor's probability of a future shooting.”
  • Contacts Between Police and the Public, 2015 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2018(When police initiated the contact, black and Hispanic residents were more likely to experience the threat or use of physical force than white residents.)
  • Militarization fails to enhance police safety or reduce crime but may harm police reputation Jonathan Mummolo, August, 2018(This article argues that militarized police units are more often deployed in communities with large shares of African American residents, they fail to enhance officer safety or reduce local crime, and may diminish police reputation in the mass public.)
  • Emerging Issues in American Policing Volume 4, July 2018 Vera Institute of Justice, July, 2018(This quarterly digest presents innovations in the field of policing from leading academic journals and research publications.)
  • Unequal Treatment: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Miami-Dade Criminal Justice ACLU Florida Greater Miami, July, 2018(This report finds that from arrest to sentencing, racial disparities exist at each decision point in the Miami-Dade County's criminal justice system.)
  • Officer-involved Shootings and Custodial Deaths in Texas Texas Justice Initiative, June, 2018(Overall, most deaths that occur in Texas law enforcement custody are due to natural causes, but that nearly half of all deaths of inmates housed alone in a jail cell are suicides.)
  • Police killings and their spillover effects on the mental health of black Americans: a population-based, quasi-experimental study Jacob Bor, Atheendar S Venkataramani, David R Williams, Alexander C Tsai, June, 2018“Police killings of unarmed black Americans have adverse effects on mental health among black American adults in the general population.”
  • Swept Up in the Sweep: The Impact of Gang Allegations on Immigrant New Yorkers New York Immigration Coalition, May, 2018“By broadly casting immigrant Latinx youth as gang members to be targeted for incarceration and deportation, even the outward pretense of basic rights and due process is pushed to the side.”
  • America Under Watch: Face Surveillance in the United States Georgetown Law Center on Privacy and Technology, May, 2018“For the millions of Americans living in Detroit and Chicago, face surveillance may be an imminent reality.”
  • A Deeper Dive into Racial Disparities in Policing in Vermont Stephanie Seguino and Nancy Brooks, March, 2018(This report substantiates earlier analyses, finding that Black and Hispanic drivers in Vermont are more likely to be stopped and arrested than White or Asian drivers.)
  • (New) Face Off: Law Enforcement Use of Face Recognition Technology Electronic Frontier Foundation, February, 2018“Law enforcement officers can use mobile devices to capture face recognition-ready photographs of people they stop on the street; surveillance cameras boast real-time face scanning and identification capabilities.”
  • Social Media Monitoring in Boston: Free Speech in the Crosshairs ACLU Massachusetts, February, 2018(From 2014-16 the Boston Police Dept. used a social media surveillance system to gather data irrelevant to law enforcement concerns. It treated ordinary citizens as justifiable targets of surveillance, without deterring or solving serious crimes.)
  • Civil Asset Forfeiture: Forfeiting Your Rights Southern Poverty Law Center, January, 2018(This report finds that civil asset forfeiture snares mostly low-level offenders and many individuals who are never charged with a crime in the first place into an unequal system that undercuts due process and property rights.)
  • Estimating the Effects of Law Enforcement and Public Health Interventions Intended to Reduce Gun Violence in Baltimore Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, January, 2018“Although surges in arrests for illegal drug distribution may have a very short-term (1-2 months) violence-reducing effect in an area, there appear to be violence-generating effects up to a year after these drug arrest surges.”
  • Collective Bargaining and Police Misconduct: Evidence from Florida Dhammika Dharmapala, Richard H. McAdams, and John Rappaport, January, 2018“Collective bargaining rights lead to about a 27% increase in complaints of officer misconduct for the typical sheriff's office.”
  • 2017 Police Violence Report Mapping Police Violence, December, 2017“Compiling information from media reports, obituaries, public records, and databases like Fatal Encounters and the WashingtonPost, this report represents the most comprehensive accounting of deadly police violence in 2017.”
  • Policing the Houseless 2.0 Million Dollar Hoods, December, 2017“This report documents that LAPD arrests of houseless persons continued to climb during the first six months of 2017 and that just five charge categories accounted for the majority of houseless arrests.”
  • The Price for Freedom: Bail in the City of L.A. Million Dollar Hoods, December, 2017(The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), using the Los Angeles County Superior Court's misdemeanor and felony bail schedules, levied over $19 billion in money bail on persons they arrested between 2012 and 2016.)
  • Who Does Civil Asset Forfeiture Target Most?: A Review of the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department's Forfeiture Activities for Fiscal Year 2016 Nevada Policy Research Institute, August, 2017“Forfeitures disproportionately target neighborhoods with relatively high levels of minorities and low-income residents.”
  • report thumbnail What "Stop-and-Frisk" Really Means: Discrimination & Use of Force Prison Policy Initiative, August, 2017“This report analyzes the racially disparate use of force in police stops in New York City in 2011.”
  • It Matters If You're Black or White: Racial Disparities in the Handling of Complaints against North Charleston Police Officers NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc., July, 2017“Although 60 percent of the citizen complaints against NCPD officers were filed by Black residents, their complaints were much less likely to be sustained by NCPD than complaints filed by White residents.”
  • Language from police body camera footage shows racial disparities in officer respect Stanford University, June, 2017“Officers speak with consistently less respect toward black versus white community members, even after controlling for the race of the officer, the severity of the infraction, the location of the stop, and the outcome of the stop.”
  • Freedom To Thrive: Reimagining safety & security in our communities The Center for Popular Democracy, Law for Black Lives, and the Black Youth Project 100, June, 2017“This report examines racial disparities, policing landscapes, and budgets in twelve jurisdictions across the country, comparing the city and county spending priorities with those of community organizations and their members.”
  • Increases in police use of force in the presence of body-worn cameras are driven by officer discretion: a protocol-based subgroup analysis of ten randomized experiments Journal of Experimental Criminology, May, 2017“The core of the analysis presented below is to understand what role police discretion plays in the emergent area of police BWCs.”
  • The Impact of Police on Criminal Justice Reform: Evidence from Cincinnati, Ohio Robin S. Engel, Nicholas Corsaro, M. Murat Ozer, May, 2017“When arrest becomes systematically viewed by police as a limited and precious commodity, to be used sparingly and for the most chronic or serious offenders, change throughout the criminal justice system will likely result.”
  • Paying More for Being Poor: Bias and Disparity in California's Traffic Court System Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights of the San Francisco Bay Area, May, 2017“The available county-level data shows that African-American people in particular are four to sixteen times more likely to be booked on arrests related to failure to pay an infraction ticket.”
  • To Protect and Serve: Trends in State-Level Policing Reform, 2015-2016 Vera Institute of Justice, April, 2017“Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Utah and Washington have enacted laws that either limit the use of certain types of force, such as chokeholds, or mandate or strengthen police training on the legal boundaries of justifiable force.”
  • Consequences of Policing Prostitution: An Analysis of Individuals Arrested and Prosecuted for Commercial Sex in New York City Urban Institute, April, 2017“The history of criminalizing prostitution is long, but its modern incarnation in New York City is inextricably intertwined with "broken windows policing," which originated in the early 1990s.”
  • Bullies in Blue: Origins and Consequences of School Policing American Civil Liberties Union, April, 2017“[A]t at its origins, school policing enforced social control over Black and Latino youth who could no longer be kept out of neighborhoods and schools through explicitly discriminatory laws.”
  • How Do People in High-Crime, Low-Income Communities View the Police? Urban Institute, February, 2017“27.8% of respondents agreed/strongly agreed that police almost always behave according to the law. Approximately one-third agreed or strongly agreed that police stand up for values that are important to them and often arrest people for no good reason.”
  • Behind the Badge: How Police View Their Jobs, Key Issues, and Recent Fatal Encounters Between Blacks and Police Pew Research Center, January, 2017“27% of all white officers but 69% of their black colleagues say the protests that followed fatal encounters between police and black citizens have been motivated at least to some extent by a genuine desire to hold police accountable.”
  • Behind the Badge: How Police View Their Jobs, Key Issues, and Recent Fatal Encounters Between Blacks and Police Pew Research Center, January, 2017“27% of all white officers but 69% of their black colleagues say the protests that followed fatal encounters between police and black citizens have been motivated at least to some extent by a genuine desire to hold police accountable.”
  • Driving While Black: A Report on Racial Profiling in Metro Nashville Police Department Traffic Stops Gideon's Army, October, 2016“Between 2011-2015, MNPD (Metro Nashville Police Department) stopped an average of 1,122 per 1,000 black drivers: more black drivers than were living in Davidson County.”
  • Every 25 Seconds: The Human Toll of Criminalizing Drug Use in the United States Human Rights Watch and the ACLU, October, 2016“More than one of every nine arrests by state law enforcement is for drug possession, amounting to more than 1.25 million arrests each year.”
  • Police Employment, Officers Per Capita Rates for U.S. Cities Governing, October, 2016“In 2016, police departments serving cities with populations exceeding 25,000 employed an average of 16.8 officers and 21.4 total personnel for every 10,000 residents.”
  • Police Violence and Citizen Crime Reporting in the Black Community Professor Matthew Desmond, Harvard University; Professor Andrew Papachristos, Yale University; Professor David Kirk, University of Oxford, September, 2016“This study shows that publicized cases of police violence against unarmed black men have a clear and significant impact on citizen crime reporting.”
  • Investigation of the Baltimore City Police Department U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division, August, 2016“[T]he Department of Justice concludes that there is reasonable cause to believe that BPD engages in a pattern or practice of conduct that violates the Constitution or federal law.”
  • Demilitarizing America's Police: A Constitutional Analysis The Constitution Project, August, 2016“The use of military equipment and tactics by law enforcement has clear—and serious—constitutional implications.”
  • The Science of Justice: Race, Arrests, and Police Use of Force Center for Policing Equity, July, 2016“[T]he analyses of 12 law enforcement departments from geographically and demographically diverse locations revealed that racial disparities in police use of force persist even when controlling for racial distribution of local arrest rates.”
  • Texas Custodial Death Report Police, jail, and prison deaths 2005-2015 Texas Justice Initiative, July, 2016(This report examines who is dying in the Texas criminal justice system and how they are dying.)
  • Police Integrity Lost: A Study of Law Enforcement Officers Arrested U.S. Department of Justice, April, 2016“This study is a quantitative content analysis of archived news articles and court records reporting on the arrest(s) of law enforcement officers in the United States from 2005-2011.”
  • Forfeiting the American Dream: How Civil Asset Forfeiture Exacerbates Hardship for Low-income Communities and Communities of Color Center for American Progress, April, 2016“The abuse of civil asset forfeiture falls hardest on those who are least able to weather the economic shock of losing a home, car, or financial resources—namely, low-income individuals and people of color.”
  • Stopped, Fined, Arrested: Racial Bias in Policing and Traffic Courts in California Back on the Road California, April, 2016“[T]here are dramatic racial and socioeconomic disparities in driver’s license suspensions and arrests related to unpaid traffic fines and fees.”
  • Police Perspectives Guidebook Series Vera Institute of Justice, February, 2016“To improve relations between police and the communities they serve, this three-part guide series—written for police, by police—highlights practical, field-informed approaches to building trust with multiracial and multi-ethnic communities.”
  • Racial Disparities in Florida Safety Belt Law Enforcement ACLU, February, 2016“American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) analysis of the most recent seatbelt citation data confirms that the Florida Safety Belt Law has been applied more often to Black motorists than white motorists.”
  • Police Body-Worn Camera Policies Brennan Center for Justice, January, 2016“To help foster and inform this discussion, we have pulled together body camera policies from many police departments that have made them publicly available, as well as model policies from several organizations.”
  • Overlooked in the Undercounted: The Role of Mental Illness in Fatal Law Enforcement Encounters Treatment Advocacy Center, December, 2015“The risk of being killed while being approached or stopped by law enforcement in the community is 16 times higher for individuals with untreated serious mental illness than for other civilians.”
  • Tracking Enforcement Rates in New York City 2003-2014 Misdemeanor Justice Project at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, December, 2015“This third report from the Misdemeanor Justice Project documents the changing patterns in felony arrests, misdemeanor arrests, criminal summonses, and stop, question and frisk activities in New York City from 2003-2014.”
  • Selective Policing: Racially Disparate Enforcement of Low-Level Offenses in New Jersey ACLU of New Jersey, December, 2015“Racial disparities between Black and White arrests exist in every city studied.”
  • Police Use of Nonfatal Force, 2002-11 Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2015“Of those who had contact, 1.6% experienced the threat or use of nonfatal force by the police during their most recent contact.”
  • Policing for Profit: The Abuse of Civil Asset Forfeiture Institute for Justice, November, 2015“In 1986, the Department of Justice’s Assets Forfeiture Fund took in $93.7 million in revenue from federal forfeitures. By 2014, annual deposits had reached $4.5 billion--a 4,667 percent increase.”
  • A Multi-Level Bayesian Analysis of Racial Bias in Police Shootings at the County-Level in the United States, 2011-2014 University of California, Davis, November, 2015“The results provide evidence of a significant bias in the killing of unarmed black Americans relative to unarmed white Americans[.]”
  • Diversity on the Force: Where Police Don't Mirror Communities Governing, September, 2015“Despite efforts to improve diversity, minorities remain largely underrepresented in many local police departments.”
  • Police Body Worn Cameras: A Policy Scorecard The Leadership Conference, Upturn, August, 2015“This scorecard evaluates the body-worn camera policies currently in place in major police departments across the country.”
  • Say Her Name: Resisting Police Brutality Against Black Women African American Policy Forum, July, 2015(The failure to highlight and demand accountability for the countless Black women killed by police over the past two decades leaves Black women unnamed and thus underprotected in the face of their continued vulnerability to racialized police violence.)
  • Local Police Departments, 2013: Equipment and Technology Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2015“The percentage of local police departments that authorized their officers to use conducted energy weapons such as Tasers increased from 60% in 2007 to 81% in 2013.”
  • Guilty Property: How Law Enforcement Takes $1 Million in Cash from Innocent Philadelphians Every Year -- and Gets Away with It ACLU of Pennsylvania, June, 2015“Every year, Pennsylvania law enforcement agencies take roughly $14 million in cash, cars, and homes from property owners and never give it back.”
  • Deadly Force: Police Use of Lethal Force In The United States Amnesty International, June, 2015(No one knows how many people are killed by police in the US, but estimates range from 400 to 1000 people each year. Yet not one state in the US complies with international human rights standards on the use of lethal force by police.)
  • Local Police Departments, 2013: Personnel, Policies, And Practices Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2015“About 27% of local police officers were members of a racial or ethnic minority, compared to 15% in 1987. „„”
  • No Right to Rest: Criminalizing Homelessness in Colorado The Denver Homeless Out Loud Report Team, April, 2015“In addition to formal citation and arrest, this survey finds evidence of extrajudicial harassment of homeless people. Both police and private security forces commonly harass and enforce punishments on homeless people, even without legal authority to do so”
  • Above the Law: An Investigation of Civil Asset Forfeiture in California Drug Policy Alliance, April, 2015(Asset forfeiture abuses in California reveal the troubling extent to which law enforcement agencies have violated state and federal law.)
  • NC Traffic Stops The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, April, 2015(Since 2000, the North Carolina Highway Patrol has been collecting data whenever a police officer stops a motorist, and since 2002, all sizable police departments in the state have done so.)
  • San Francisco's Disproportionate Arrest of African American Women Persists Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, April, 2015“African American women, 5.8 percent of San Francisco's total female population, constituted 45.5 percent of all female arrests in 2013.”
  • Arrest-Related Deaths Program: Data Quality Profile Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2015“Data from the ARD represent a national accounting of persons who have died during the process of arrest, including homicides by law enforcement personnel and deaths attributed to suicide, intoxication, accidental injury, and natural causes.”
  • Arrest-Related Deaths Program Assessment: Technical Report Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2015“Provides a technical assessment of the coverage of the Arrest-Related Deaths (ARD) component of the Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP).”
  • Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department Department of Justice Civil Rights Division, March, 2015“This investigation has revealed a pattern or practice of unlawful conduct within the Ferguson Police Department that violates the First, Fourth, and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution, and federal statutory law.”
  • Stop and Frisk in Chicago ACLU of Illinois, March, 2015“Black Chicagoans were subjected to 72% of all stops, yet constitute just 32% of the city’s population.”
  • 2014 Annual Report Denver Office of the Independent Monitor, March, 2015“In particular, the police uses of force within District 6 during the pilot project were frequently not recorded by body worn cameras.”
  • Campus Law Enforcement, 2011-12 Bureau of Justice Statistics, January, 2015“About 75% of the campuses were using armed officers, compared to 68% during the 2004-05 school year.”
  • Survey of law enforcement access to sealed non-conviction records Collateral Consequences Resource Center, 2015“25 states, plus two territories, the District of Columbia and the Federal system, exempt law enforcement agencies generally from sealing or expungement laws, or in a few cases have no law authorizing sealing of non-conviction records.”
  • The criminogenic and psychological effects of police stops on adolescent black and Latino boys Del Toro et al., 2015“Our findings suggest that the single most common proactive policing strategy--directing officers to make contact with individual boys and young men in "high-crime" areas--may impose a terrible cost.”
  • Born Suspect: Stop-and-Frisk Abuses & the Continued Fight to End Racial Profiling in America NAACP, 2015“This report is an analysis of the fight to end racial profiling in New York and the potential for nationwide implementation these efforts in every jurisdiction across the country.”
  • Sheriffs Addressing the Mental Health Crisis in the Community and in the Jails Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice, 2015“This report identifies successful practices that local law enforcement can employ to reduce the arrest and incarceration of people living with mental illness in their jurisdictions.”
  • Decriminalization and Depenalization of Marijuana Possession: A Case Study of Enforcement Outcomes in Prince George's County Meghan Kozlowski, Emily Glazener, James A. Mitchell, James P. Lynch, Jinney Smith, 2015“The results suggest that changing arrest policies for low-quantity marijuana possession led to increases in enforcement for other low-level misdemeanor offenses. Additionally, our findings shed light on net-widening as a potential unintended consequence.”
  • Citizens Police Data Project Invisible Institute, 2015“28,567 allegations of misconduct were filed against Chicago Police Department officers between March 2011 and September 2015.”
  • Militarization and police violence: The case of the 1033 program Casey Delehanty, Gardner-Webb University, 2015“We find a positive and statistically significant relationship between 1033 transfers and fatalities from officer-involved shootings across all models.”
  • Hot Spots Policing George Mason University Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy, 2015“Hot spots policing covers a range of police responses that all share in common a focus of resources on the locations where crime is highly concentrated.”
  • Over A Million Dollars A Day: The Daily Waste of the NYPD's Misdemeanor Arrest Practices Police Reform Organizing Project, December, 2014“Figures for the first nine months of 2014 show that the NYPD makes: ­an average of 648 misdemeanor arrests per day at the daily cost to the city of $1,134,000.”
  • Aggressive Policing and the Mental Health of Young Urban Men Geller et al., December, 2014“Participants who reported more police contact also reported more trauma and anxiety symptoms, associations tied to how many stops they reported, the intrusiveness of the encounters, and their perceptions of police fairness.”
  • CPD Traffic Stops and Resulting Searches in 2013 ACLU of Illinois, December, 2014“City-wide. The rate of black drivers in the stops (46%) is far higher than the rate of black residents in the city population (32%).”
  • Law enforcement duties and sudden cardiac death among police officers in the United States: case distribution study British Medical Journal, November, 2014“Stressful law enforcement duties are associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death that is markedly higher than the risk during routine/non-emergency duties.”
  • On the Streets of America: Human Rights Abuses in Ferguson Amnesty International, October, 2014(This briefing outlines some of the human rights concerns witnessed by Amnesty International and recommendations that need to be implemented with regards to the use of lethal force by law enforcement and the policing of protests.)
  • Criminal, Victim, or Worker?: The Effects of New York's Human Trafficking Intervention Courts on Adults Charged with Prostitution-Related Offenses Red Umbrella Project, October, 2014(Decreasing the incarceration of people charged with prostitution is a good step forward, but as long as people who are in the sex trades are "rescued" through arrest, they will continue to be re-victimized by the police and the courts.)
  • Black, Brown and Targeted: A report on Boston Police Department Street Encounters from 2007-2010 ACLU of Massachusetts, October, 2014(Most alarmingly, the analysis found that Blacks were subjected to 63% of these encounters, even though they made up just 24% of Boston's population. The analysis also showed that crime does not explain this racial disparity.)
  • Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras Office of Justice Programs, September, 2014“The evaluations in Mesa and Rialto documented substantial drops in citizen complaints following deployment of the technology. The UK studies documented a similar effect.”
  • Investigation of the Newark Police Department United States Department of Justice Civil Rights Division, July, 2014“Approximately 75% of reports of pedestrian stops by NPD officers failed to articulate sufficient legal basis for the stop, despite the NPD policy requiring such justification.”
  • War Comes Home The Excessive Militarization of American Policing American Civil Liberties Union, June, 2014“Using... federal funds, state and local law enforcement agencies have amassed military arsenals purportedly to wage the failed War on Drugs, the battlegrounds of which have disproportionately been in communities of color.”
  • Stop-and-Frisk: A First Look Six Months of Data on Stop-and-Frisk Practices in Newark American Civil Liberties Union of New Jersey, February, 2014“Although black Newarkers represent 52 percent of the city's population, they make up 75 percent of all stops.”
  • Standing with LGBT Prisoners: An Advocate's Guide to Ending Abuse and Combating Imprisonment National Center for Transgender Equality, 2014“According to the National Transgender Discrimination Survey, 16% of transgender adults have been in a prison or jail for any reason.”
  • Officer Involved Shooting Information Philadelphia Police Department, 2014“An officer involved shooting is the discharge of a firearm, whether accidental or intentional, by a police officer, whether on or off duty.”
  • Evaluation of the Shreveport Predictive Policing Experiment RAND Corporation, 2014“The program did not generate a statistically significant reduction in property crime.”
  • Justice in Washing State Survey, 2012 Revised and Updated 2014 The Washington State Minority Health Commission, The Washington State Center for Court Research, 2014“When we asked about their personal encounters with police officers and the courts, we found substantial differences between Whites and African Americans in terms of the frequency of negative encounters.”
  • Requests for Police Assistance, 2011 Bureau of Justice Statistics, September, 2013“An estimated 1 in 8 U.S. residents age 16 or older, or 31.4 million persons, requested assistance from police at least once, most commonly to report a crime, suspicious activity, or neighborhood disturbance.”
  • Coming of Age with Stop and Frisk: Experiences, Perceptions, and Public Safety Implications Vera Institute of Justice, September, 2013“Young people who have been stopped more often are less willing to report crimes, even when they are the victims. Each additional stop in the span of a year is associated with an 8% drop in the person's likelihood of reporting a violent crime.”
  • Justifiable Homicides by Law Enforcement Officers: What is the Role of Mental Illness? Treatment Advocacy Center, National Sheriff's Association, September, 2013“The transfer of responsibility for persons with mental illness from mental health professionals to law enforcement officers has brought with it major problems for the latter.”
  • Police Behavior during Traffic and Street Stops, 2011 Bureau of Justice Statistics, September, 2013“Of those involved in traffic and street stops, a smaller percentage of blacks than whites believed the police behaved properly during the stop.”
  • Racial Disparities in Arrests in the District of Columbia, 2009-2011 Washington Lawyers' Committee, July, 2013“While there are about as many African Americans aged 18 or older (47.6%) as there are adult whites (42%) living in this city, eight out of 10 adults arrested for a crime in Washington are African American.”
  • Collecting DNA at Arrest: Policies, Practices, and Implications Urban Institute, May, 2013“Arrestee DNA laws led to more profiles in CODIS, contributed to additional hits, imposed significant administrative and analytic burdens on many state crime laboratories and collecting agencies, and raised important legal and policy issues.”
  • Operation Ghetto Storm Malcolm X Grassroots Movement, April, 2013“There is no centralized database that keeps track of extrajudicial killings by police... With no numbers, there can be no studies, no analysis of trends and no accountability.”
  • Mapping Muslims: NYPD Spying and its Impact on American Muslims The Muslim American Civil Liberties Coalition (MACLC), The Creating Law Enforcement Accountability & Responsibility (CLEAR), The Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (AALDEF)., March, 2013“Interviewees noted deep apprehension of the NYPD's intentions and practices towards them, including day-to-day interactions with beat-police officers such as filing stolen phone complaints, asking an officer for directions, or reporting hate crimes.”
  • Policing and the Economic Downturn Striving for Efficiency Is the New Norm Police Executive Research Forum, February, 2013“In 2010, 58% of responding agencies said that police services in their community had already declined or would decline with the implementation of recent or planned budget cuts. In 2012 that figure dropped to 44%.”
  • The Crisis Continues Inside Police Internal Affairs American Civil Liberties Union of New Jersey, February, 2013“164 of the local police departments we spoke to unlawfully denied complaints by telephone. Only 207 of the 371 New Jersey police departments that our volunteers spoke to indicated that they would allow complaints to be filed by telephone.”
  • Predictive Policing: The Role of Crime Forecasting in Law Enforcement Operations RAND Corporation, 2013“Predictive policing is the application of analytical techniques--particularly quantitative techniques--to identify likely targets for police intervention and prevent crime or solve past crimes by making statistical predictions.”
  • Policing Immigration New York University School of Law; University of Chicago Law School, 2013“The data undermine the government's claim that Secure Communities is principally about making communities more secure from crime.”
  • The Health Effects of Conducted Energy Weapons The Expert Panel on the Medical and Physiological Impacts of Conducted Energy Weapons Council of Canadian Academies, 2013“Since 1998, at least 33 deaths have followed the deployment of a CEW in Canada.”
  • Engaging Police in Immigrant Communities Promising Practices from the Field Vera Institute of Justice, October, 2012“This report describes a variety of approaches to building and maintaining effective police-immigrant relations developed by a diverse group of law enforcement agencies.”
  • Arrest in the United States, 1990-2010 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2012“The number of murder arrests in the U.S. fell by half between 1990 and 2010. The adult and juvenile arrest rates dropped substantially in the 1990s, while both continued to fall about 20% between 2000 and 2010, reaching their lowest levels since at least”
  • Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2012“From 2004 to 2008, the number of officers employed by Customs and Border Protection increased by more than 9,000 (or 33%), the largest increase at any federal agency.”
  • Rethinking the Blues How We Police in the U.S. and at What Cost Justice Policy Institute, May, 2012“Crime is at the lowest levels it has been in over 30 years, but funding for police increased 445 percent between 1982 and 2007, with federal funding increasing the most at 729 percent.”
  • Arrests Effected by SSA or Officers assigned to School Safety Division New York City Police Department, October, 2011
  • Contacts between Police and the Public, 2008 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2011“Black drivers were about three times as likely as white drivers and about two times as likely as Hispanic drivers to be searched during a traffic stop.”
  • Census Of State And Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2008 Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2011“From 2004 to 2008, state and local law enforcement agencies added about 9,500 more full-time sworn personnel than during the previous 4-year period.”
  • Tribal Law Enforcement, 2008 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2011“Eleven of the 25 largest tribal law enforcement agencies served jurisdictions covering more than 1,000 square miles.”
  • The Early Release of Prisoners And its Impact on Police Agencies and Communities in California Police Executive Research Forum, May, 2011“...there is research indicating that enforcement alone is ineffective in lowering recidivism rates, and in any case, prisons are far too expensive to be used as a default sanction for many criminal offenders.”
  • Missouri Vehicle Stops 2009 Annual Report Missouri Attorney General's Office, 2011
  • Local Police Departments, 2007 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2010“In 2007, 75% of local police officers were employed by departments that authorized the use of conducted energy devices such as Tasers, compared to 47% in 2003”
  • Stop, Question & Frisk Policing Practices In New York City A Primer Center on Race, Crime and Justice at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, March, 2010“In 2009 alone, Blacks and Hispanics combined were stopped 9 times more than Whites.”
  • Aviation Units in Large Law Enforcement Agencies, 2007 Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2009“In 2007, 92% of aviation units engaged in vehicle pursuits. Almost 90% of units performed counternarcotics missions, and about 80% conducted counterterrorism missions. Nearly 70% of units engaged in firefighting activities”
  • State and Local Law Enforcement Training Academies, 2006 Bureau of Justice Statistics, February, 2009“Of an estimated 57,000 recruits who entered basic training programs during 2005, 86% or 49,000, successfully completed their program and graduated from the academy.”
  • Campus Law Enforcement, 2004-05 Bureau of Justice Statistics, February, 2008“Three-quarters of campus law enforcement agencies used sworn officers with full arrest powers.”
  • Arrest-Related Deaths in the United States, 2003-2005 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2007“Three-quarters of the law enforcement homicides reported to DCRP involved arrests for a violent crime. Public-order offenders accounted for 8% of homicides, followed by property (4%) and drug offenders (2%).”
  • Analysis of the NYCPD's in the Context of Claims of Racial Bias Andrew Gelman, Jeffrey Fagan, and Alex Kiss, September, 2007“[F]or violent crimes and weapons offenses blacks and Hispanics are stopped about twice as often as whites.”
  • Contacts between Police and the Public, 2005 Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2007“In 2005 police searched 9.5 percent of stopped blacks and 8.8 percent of stopped Hispanics, compared to 3.6 percent of white motorists.”
  • Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2004 Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2006“Women accounted for 16% of Federal officers in 2004. A third of Federal officers were members of a racial or ethnic minority in 2004. This included 17.7% who were Hispanic and Latino, and 11.4% who were black or African American.”
  • Characteristics of Drivers Stopped by Police, 2002 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2006“Among traffic stops of young male drivers in 2002, 11% were physically searched or had their vehicle searched by police. Among these young male drivers who were stopped, blacks (22%) and Hispanics (17%) were searched at higher rates than whites (8%).”
  • Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2004 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2006“Although local police employment was up slightly nationwide from 2000 to 2004, 20 of the nation's 50 largest local police departments saw a decline in sworn personnel during this period, including 6 of the 7 largest.”
  • Citizen Complaints about Police Use of Force Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2006“Large State and local law enforcement agencies... received more than 26,000 citizen complaints about officer use of force during 2002. This total figure resulted in [an] overall rate[] 6.6 complaints per 100 full-time sworn officers.”
  • Sheriffs' Offices, 2003 Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2006
  • Local Police Departments, 2003 Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2006
  • Traffic Stop Audit Project An Institutional Ethnography of Traffic Stop Policy and Practice in the Minneapolis Police Department Council on Crime and Justice, April, 2006“The distinction between traffic law enforcement stops (e.g. speeding) and investigative stops is often blurred. Law enforcement stops are often made for investigative purposes rather than expressed criminal intent.”
  • Report to the Legislature of the State of Illinois: The Illinois Pilot Program on Sequential Double-Blind Identification Procedures Illinois State Police, March, 2006“The data collected shows that the sequential double-blind method led to a lower rate of suspect identifications as well as a higher rate of known false errors.”
  • Stress Among Probation and Parole Officers and What Can Be Done About It National Institute of Justice, June, 2005
  • Traffic Stop Data Collection Policies for State Police, 2004 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 2005
  • Contacts between Police and the Public: Findings from the 2002 National Survey Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2005
  • Low Level Offenses in Minneapolis: An Analysis of Arrests and their Outcomes Council on Crime and Justice, October, 2004(The diperate treatment of Black and White people is greater at the hand of the police than in the courts.)
  • Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics, 2000: Data for Individual State and Local Agencies with 100 or More Officers Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2004
  • Minnesota Statewide Racial Profiling Study Council on Crime and Justice, September, 2003“Results show that law enforcement officers stopped and searched Black, Latino, and American Indian drivers at greater rates than White drivers, yet found contraband on Blacks, Latinos, and American Indians at lower rates than in searches of White drivers.”
  • Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2002 Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2003
  • Reporting Crime to the Police, 1992-2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2003
  • Sheriffs' Offices 2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, January, 2003
  • Tribal Law Enforcement, 2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, January, 2003
  • Local Police Departments 2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, January, 2003
  • Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 2001 Federal Bureau of Investigation, December, 2002
  • Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2002
  • Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2002(Police per capita up 7% over the decade)
  • Characteristics of Drivers Stopped by Police, 1999 Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2002“Approximately 422,000 persons age 16 or older said the police used or threatened to use force against them at least once during 1999.”
  • Violence in the Workplace, 1993-99 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2001“Law enforcement officers most at risk for workplace violence”(This report presents data for 1993 through 1999 from the National Crime Victimization Survey estimating the extent of workplace crime in the United States.)
  • Traffic Stop Data Collection Policies for State Police, 2001 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2001
  • Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 2000 Federal Bureau of Investigation, November, 2001
  • Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, July, 2001
  • Local Police Departments, 1999 Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2001
  • Sheriffs' Offices 1999 Bureau of Justice Statistics, May, 2001
  • Contacts between Police and the Public: Findings from the 1999 National Survey Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2001(In 1999 an estimated 43.8 million persons age 16 or older had least one face-to-face contact with a police officer.)
  • Policing and Homicide, 1976-98: Justifiable Homicide of Felons by Police and Murder of Police by Felons Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2001
  • Community Policing in Local Police Departments, 1997 and 1999 Bureau of Justice Statistics, February, 2001(changes in the prevalence of community oriented policing policies)
  • Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 1998 Bureau of Justice Statistics, March, 2000“Number of Federal law enforcement officers grew 11 percent in two years”
  • Sheriffs' Departments, 1997 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 1999“personnel increases in local sheriff's departments”
  • Local Police Departments, 1997 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 1999(personnel increases in local police departments)
  • Use of Force By Police: Overview of National and Local Data Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 1999
  • Driving While Black: Racial Profiling On Our Nation's Highways American Civil Liberties Union, June, 1999“All the evidence to date suggests that using traffic laws for non-traffic purposes has been a disaster for people of color and has deeply eroded public confidence in law enforcement.”
  • Shielded from Justice: Police Brutality and Accountability in the United States Human Rights Watch, July, 1998
  • Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 1996 Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 1998
  • Police Use of Force Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 1997
  • Campus Law Enforcement Agencies, 1995 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 1996(600 agencies at 4-year schools with 2,500+ students)

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