Research about Criminal Justice Issues:

Organized by date added:

Friday, September 17 2021:

  • Keeping COVID Out of Prisons: Approaches in Ten Countries, Institute for Crime & Justice Policy Research. May, 2021. "The South African prison population declined after a period of relative stability prepandemic. Total prisoner numbers were in the region of 162-164,000 in the four years prior to the pandemic, but had fallen to 147,922 in June 2020."
  • Locked in and Locked Down - Prison Life in a Pandemic: Evidence from Ten Countries, Institute for Crime & Justice Policy Research. May, 2021. "We present evidence of how life in custody changed as a result of the global health emergency, drawn from over 80 interviews with prisoners, ex-prisoners and their loved ones, which we and our research partners conducted before and during the pandemic."
  • Reducing Restrictive Housing Use in Washington State Keramet Reiter, JD, PhD. August, 2021. "A greater proportion of people in DOC experienced Intensive Management Unit confinement over time. In 2002, 24% of the prison population had spent at least one day in an IMU. By 2017, over one-third (34%) of the prison population had spent time in an IMU."
  • Supporting Success: The Higher Education in Prison Key Performance Indicator Framework, Institute for Higher Education Policy. September, 2020. "Better understanding of student outcomes, academic quality, civic engagement, and soft skill development associated with higher education in prison will help both practitioners and policymakers."
  • Reforming solitary confinement: the development, implementation, and processes of a restrictive housing step down reentry program in Oregon, Ryan M. Labrecque, Jennifer J. Tostlebe, Bert Useem and David C. Pyrooz. August, 2021. "We focus on the task set forth by the Oregon Department of Corrections (DOC) to create a new unit that is committed to rehabilitative programming, increased socialization opportunities, and blunting some of the harsher conditions of restrictive housing."
  • Back-to-School Action Guide: Re-Engaging Students and Closing the School-to-Prison Pipeline, Sentencing Project. August, 2021. "Unless schools tap the resources of community partners and aggressively embrace promising new approaches, many young people will likely be criminalized or excluded from school due to predictable behavior problems."
  • Improving the Food Environment in Washington State-Run Correctional Facilities: The Healthy Commissary Project, Alyssa Auvinen et al.. August, 2015. "The Healthy Commissary Project demonstrates the feasibility of partnerships between health departments, corrections, and advocacy organizations to implement effective nutrition interventions in correctional facility commissaries."
  • Improving Long-Term Employment Outcomes: Promising Findings from New York State, Center for Employment Opportunities. February, 2019. "12 months post-enrollment [Center for Employment Opportunities] participants were 52% more likely to be employed than their counterparts in the comparison group."

Wednesday, September 15 2021:

  • Association of Jail Decarceration and Anticontagion Policies With COVID-19 Case Growth Rates in US Counties Eric Reinhart and Daniel L. Chen. September, 2021. "When controlling for anticontagion policies, mass release events were associated with a 3.1% decrease in COVID-19 growth rates 2 weeks later and a 5.3% decrease in daily jail population."
  • Nutrition in Midwestern State Department of Corrections Prisons: A Comparison of Nutritional Offerings, Mitchel K. Holliday and Kelli M. Richardson. September, 2021. "Sodium was offered in excess across 14 of the 15 menus reviewed. The average daily offering was 3,625 mg or 158% of the recommended level for males and 3,059 mg or 133% of recommended levels for females."
  • Hate Crime Victimization, 2005-2019 Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2021. "On average, U.S. residents experienced approximately 246,900 hate crime victimizations each year between 2005 and 2019."
  • Hate Crime Recorded by Law Enforcement, 2010-2019 Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2021. "The number of [hate] incidents decreased 17% from 2010 to 2014, before increasing 25% from 2015 to 2019. By comparison, the total volume of reported crime-- both hate and nonhate incidents--decreased 22% during the 10-year period."
  • Family member incarceration and mental health: Results from a nationally representative survey, Kristin Turney. June, 2021. "The stressor of incarceration proliferates to have reverberating mental health consequences for those connected to the incarcerated, via pathways such as destabilized family economic wellbeing or impaired relationships between family members."
  • Prisons and Mental Health: Violence, Organizational Support, and the Effects of Correctional Work, Paywall :( Amy E. Lerman, Jessie Harney, Meredith Sadin. September, 2021. "Correctional workers have a high likelihood of exposure to violence in the workplace. However, empirical literature has largely neglected the mental health consequences of prison work."
  • Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 24 States in 2008: A 10-Year Follow-Up Period (2008-2018), Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2021. "Almost half (49%) of released prisoners had a probation or parole violation or an arrest for a new offense within 3 years that led to imprisonment."

Tuesday, September 14 2021:

  • States of emergency: The failure of prison system responses to COVID-19, Prison Policy Initiative. September, 2021. "It's telling that not one prison system in the U.S. scored higher than a C; as a whole, the nation's response to the pandemic behind bars has been a shameful failure."
  • Access in Brief: Health Care Needs of Adults Involved with the Criminal Justice System, Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission. August, 2021. "When compared to their peers with other forms of coverage, Medicaid beneficiaries under community supervision were more likely to have Hepatitis B or C, chronic bronchitis, or asthma."
  • States of Incarceration: The Global Context 2021, Prison Policy Initiative. September, 2021. "Every U.S. state, and the United States as a nation, is an outlier in the global context. No other country incarcerates as many people, including countries with similar rates of"
  • Racial and Ethnic Disparities throughout the Criminal Legal System: A Result of Racist Policies and Discretionary Practices, Urban Institute. August, 2021. "Racial biases are so deeply embedded in the criminal legal system that disparities based on race exist at each decision point, impacting subsequent decision points and resulting in negative outcomes for Black people and other people of color."
  • Women, Incarceration, and Violent Crime: A Briefing in Response to Plans for Building a New Women's Prison in Massachusetts, Women and Incarceration Project. September, 2021. "The population of women convicted of crimes classified as violent by the Massachusetts DOC should not be used as justification for spending millions of taxpayer dollars on constructing a new women's prison."

Monday, August 30 2021:

  • Is There a Temporal Relationship between COVID-19 Infections among Prison Staff, Incarcerated Persons and the Larger Community in the United States?, Danielle Wallace et al.. June, 2021. "Even with strong infection control policies in place, correctional staff are associated with infection spread within prisons."
  • Understanding the place of punishment: Disadvantage, politics, and the geography of imprisonment in 21st century America, Katharine Beckett and Lindsey Beach. February, 2021. "Geographic variation in the use of prisons in 21st century America affords an opportunity toassess--and advance--alternative theoretical perspectives on punishment."
  • Violence, Hunger, and Premature Death: How Prison Food in Maryland Became Even Worse During Covid-19, The Maryland Food & Prison Abolition Project. August, 2021. "As atrocious as the correctional food systems were prior to 2020, however, the Covid-19 pandemic drastically exacerbated the crisis of prison food prison."
  • Black Disparities in Youth Incarceration Sentencing Project. July, 2021. "Black youth are more than four times as likely to be detained or committed in juvenile facilities as their white peers. In 2015, Black youth's incarceration rate was 5.0 times as high as their white peers, an all-time peak."
  • Better for Everyone: Black Descriptive Representation and Police Traffic Stops, Leah Christiani et al.. March, 2021. "Even though increased black representation would not eliminate racial disparities, it may be an important part of reducing the amount of negative police contact that individuals experience."
  • Racial Equity and Criminal Justice Risk Assessment Urban Institute. March, 2021. "Practitioners and policymakers must determine how (or whether) to balance the use of risk assessment as a component of evidence-based practice with pursuing goals of reducing racial and ethnic disparities in the criminal justice system."

Tuesday, August 24 2021:

  • "Every Thought and Dream a Nightmare": Violence and Trauma Among Formerly Imprisoned Gang Members, Paywall :( Shytierra Gaston, Faraneh Shamserad, and Beth M. Huebner. August, 2021. "Although direct involvement in violence dissipated after prison, exposure to vicarious victimization was substantial and ongoing."
  • Rethinking Approaches to Over Incarceration of Black Young Adults in Maryland Justice Policy Institute. November, 2019. "Nearly eight in 10 people who were sentenced as emerging adults and have served 10 or more years in a Maryland prison are black. This is the highest rate of any state in the country."
  • Voices for Reform in DC: Recommendations for improving reentry following long prison terms, Justice Policy Institute. July, 2021. "This report's observations and recommendations reflect the realities faced by individuals three years after the passage of Incarceration Reduction Amendment Act (IRAA) legislation."
  • Breastfeeding in Incarcerated Settings in the United States: A National Survey of Frequency and Policies, Paywall :( Ifeyinwa V. Asiodu, Lauren Beal, and Carolyn Sufrin. April, 2021. "Our data show inconsistent implementation of policies and practices supportive of breastfeeding in prisons and jails."
  • The Relevance of Women's Economic Marginalization to Recidivism Paywall :( Merry Morash and Deborah A. Kashy. August, 2021. "This study examines whether changes over time in women's criminogenic needs, particularly their financial needs, predict recidivism...Women whose financial needs decreased were less likely to be rearrested and convicted relative to other women."
  • Replacing School Police with Services that Work: Better Ways to Improve School Safety and Reduce Discipline Disparities, Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law. August, 2021. "The ongoing presence of police in schools increases school arrests, instances of physical restraint, and suspensions and expulsions, all of which are disproportionately experienced by students with disabilities, especially students of color."
  • The Presence of School Resource Officers (SROs) in America's Schools Justice Policy Institute. July, 2020. "Allowing police officers to needlessly handle minor infractions in schools often marks a student's first contact with the criminal justice system, potentially setting them up for a lifetime of collateral consequences."

Wednesday, August 11 2021:

  • National Snapshot: Access to Medications For Opioid Use Disorder in U.S. Jails and Prisons, Shelly Weizman, Joanna Perez, Isaac Manoff, Melissa Baney, and Taleed El-Sabawi. July, 2021. "In almost every state, some form of MOUD is available in at least one jail or prison, and only a handful of state departments of corrections have policies against offering MOUD in prisons."
  • Empire State of Incarceration Vera Institute of Justice. May, 2021. "As bail setting practices changed and counties moved to release more people to prevent the spread of COVID-19 across the state, Black people were left behind."
  • Arrest Trends: Suburban Police Are Driving the Use of Arrests, Vera Institute of Justice. May, 2021. "In principal cities, racial disparities in arrests persist but have dropped by more than 50 percent. This progress has not occurred elsewhere; racial disparities in arrests have increased in suburban cities."
  • Reducing Policing's Footprint? Racial Disparities and Arrest Trends After Misdemeanor Decriminalization and Legalization in Denver and Philadelphia, Vera Institute of Justice. May, 2021. "Arrests have declined by at least 40 percent for every decriminalized offense category in Philadelphia, with the steepest decreases in the years immediately following decriminalization."
  • The Intersection of Race and Algorithmic Tools in the Criminal Legal System Vincent M. Southerland. October, 2020. "[Algorithmic] tools, as currently designed and deployed in the current legal framework fail to correct or upend the racial inequity that pervades the criminal legal system."
  • The New York State Trial Penalty: The Constitutional Right to Trial Under Attack, National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. March, 2021. "By 1996 and every year after, 98% to 99% of misdemeanor convictions were obtained by plea. If someone is convicted in New York State, whether of a felony or a misdemeanor, it is overwhelmingly likely that they were convicted by plea rather than at trial."
  • Detention Diversion Advocacy Program (DDAP) Evaluation Moira DeNike. July, 2021. "The findings very clearly indicate that DDAP participants had a lower likelihood of any subsequent justice referrals and of any subsequent felony referrals as compared with a similarly-situated set of non-DDAP-served youth." (DDAP is a juvenile diversion program in San Francisco, operated by the nonprofit organization, the Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice.)

Friday, August 6 2021:

  • Alcohol and Drug Use and Treatment Reported by Prisoners: Survey of Prison Inmates, 2016, Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2021. "Female state prisoners (58%) were more likely than male state prisoners (48%) to have met the criteria for having a substance use disorder in the 12 months prior to admission to prison."
  • On the Road to Freedom: An Abolitionist Assessment of Pretrial & Bail Reforms, Critical Resistance. June, 2021. "While ending money bail is nonnegotiable for our movement, our goal is to weaken the state's power to jail, surveil, and punish."
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2019 Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2021. "The probation population has declined each year since 2007; The parole population increased or stayed relatively the same each year since 2014."
  • Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 34 States in 2012: A 5-Year Follow-Up Period (2012-2017), Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2021. "Nearly half (46%) of prisoners released in 2012 returned to prison within 5 years for a parole or probation violation or a new sentence."
  • Sexual Assaults Recorded by Law Enforcement, 2019 Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2021. "This report presents statistics on sexual assault victimizations that were reported to the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) in 2019 by law enforcement agencies in 20 states."
  • The Evolving Science on Implicit Bias: An Updated Resource for the State Court Community, National Center for State Courts. March, 2021. "Ultimately, judicial leadership must determine the goals of institutional efforts to address systemic and implicit biases."
  • Models of Prosecutor-Led Diversion Programs in the United States and Beyond Kay L. Levine and Ronald F. Wright. May, 2020. "Prosecutor-led diversion programs create the greatest risk of abuse, because other governmental actors are not necessary to resolve a case. The prosecutor might operate the diversion program in a way that widens the net of social control..."

Monday, August 2 2021:

  • The Revelatory Nature of COVID-19 Compassionate Release in an Age of Mass Incarceration, Crime Victim Rights, and Mental Health Reform, Jennifer A. Brobst. July, 2021. "Early COVID-19 compassionate release decisions reveal that courts continue to base early release decisions primarily on an assessment of public safety risk from crime, not community impact, crime victim impact, or even prisoner health."
  • Understanding the Landscape of Higher Education in Prison Survey 2018-2019 A Confidential Follow-up to the 2020 Annual Survey of Higher Education in Prison Programs, Alliance for HIgher Education in Prison. July, 2021. "The survey aimed to illuminate program demographics, program funding, use of technology, student enrollment, and program data collection and evaluation, and the associated challenges and opportunities." (See the five linked data briefs that describe the survey's findings.)
  • Paternal Jail Incarceration and Birth Outcomes: Evidence from New York City, 2010-2016, Paywall :( Yi et al.. April, 2021. "We found strong positive baseline associations (p < 0.001) between paternal jail incarceration during pregnancy with probabilities of all adverse outcomes examined."
  • Building exits off the highway to mass incarceration: Diversion programs explained, Prison Policy Initiative. July, 2021. "We envision the criminal justice system as a highway where people are heading toward the possibility of incarceration; depending on the state or county, this highway may have exit ramps in the form of diversion programs and alternatives to incarceration."
  • Slamming the Courthouse Door: 25 years of evidence for repealing the Prison Litigation Reform Act, Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2021. "The PLRA should be repealed. It was bad policy in the 1990s -- and allowing it to continue today is even worse policy."
  • Punitive Surveillance Kate Weisburd. March, 2021. ""Punitive surveillance" allows government officials and for-profit companies to track, record, search and analyze the location, biometric data and other meta-data of thousands of people on probation and parole, and is subject to almost no limitations."
  • Pregnancy Prevalence and Outcomes in U.S. Jails Sufrin et al.. May, 2020. "About 3% of admissions of females to U.S. jails are of pregnant people; extrapolating study results to national female jail admission rates suggests nearly 55,000 pregnancy admissions in 1 year."
  • Opioid use disorder incidence and treatment among incarcerated pregnant women in the United States: results from a national surveillance study, Paywall :( Sufrin et al.. February, 2020. "Twenty-six per cent of pregnant women admitted to prisons and 14% to jails had OUD. One-third were managed through withdrawal. The majority who were prescribed MOUD were on methadone (78%, prisons; 81%, jails), not buprenorphine."
  • Pregnancy Prevalence and Outcomes in 3 United States Juvenile Residential Systems Paywall :( Kim et al.. February, 2021. "There were 71 admissions of pregnant adolescents reported over 12 months from participating JRS. At the time of the census, 6 of the 183 female adolescents (3.3%) were pregnant."

Wednesday, July 14 2021:

  • Digitizing and Disclosing Personal Data: The Proliferation of State Criminal Records on the Internet, Lageson, Sarah, Elizabeth Webster, and Juan Sandoval. December, 2020. "These digital disclosures...mean that criminal punishment now includes the deprivation of privacy as the justice system distributes personal information across the Internet."
  • Harm Reduction at The Center of Incarceration Dr. Nneka Jones Tapia. April, 2021. "Even when the reality of trauma in correctional institutions is fully appreciated, policies often only focus on programs for people who are incarcerated, as if they are the problem, instead of on the system itself."
  • Bottleneck: The Place of County Jails in California's COVID-19 Correctional Crisis, Hadar Aviram. May, 2021. "The closure of prisons created a bottleneck in jails, jamming the flow of residents in and out of county facilities. This resulted in serious overcrowding, which was documented in several lawsuits brought on behalf of jail population."
  • Government Misconduct and Convicting the Innocent: The Role of Prosecutors, Police and Other Law Enforcement, National Registry of Exonerations. September, 2020. "More than a third of all exonerations included misconduct by police officers, [and] nearly as many involved misconduct by prosecutors."
  • Collective Bargaining Rights, Policing, and Civilian Deaths Cunningham, Jamein, Donna Feir, and Rob Gillezeau. March, 2021. "Using an event-study design, we find that the introduction of duty to bargain requirements with police unions has led to a significant increase in non-white civilian deaths at the hands of police during the late twentieth century."

Monday, July 12 2021:

  • Dead Man Waiting: A brief profile of deaths in Texas prisons among people approved for parole release, Deitch, Michele, Destiny Moreno, and Alycia Welch. June, 2021. "The data reveals that a large number of people die in Texas prisons each year even though the Parole Board had already determined that these individuals were worthy of parole and no longer presented a risk to public safety."

Friday, July 9 2021:

  • Inmates May Work, But Don't Tell Social Security Stephanie Hunter McMahon. July, 2021. "Despite a prevailing requirement that inmates work and despite them being forced to work under threat of punishment, inmates are not "employees" or "workers" in the commonly understood sense."
  • New data: State prisons are increasingly deadly places Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2021. "New data from the Bureau of Justice Statistics shows that state prisons are seeing alarming rises in suicide, homicide, and drug and alcohol-related deaths."
  • What families can expect to be charged under the new FCC rules Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2021. "A new order from the Federal Communications Commission lowers existing caps on rates and fees in the prison and jail telephone industry."
  • Breaking the Cycle: Interrupting Generational Incarceration in Maine, Place Matters Maine. 2015. "Black or African American and Native American or Indigenous children are disproportionately affected by parental incarceration in Maine."
  • Prison Population Trends 2020 Massachusetts Department of Correction. May, 2021. "The MA DOC jurisdiction population's historic decline since 2012 (n=11,723) continued through to January 1st, 2021 (n=6,848)."
  • With over 2,700 deaths behind bars and slow vaccine acceptance, prisons and jails must continue to decarcerate Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2021. "Just because vaccines are increasingly available does not mean that the COVID-19 crisis in prisons and jails is over - far from it. Yet new data show more prisons and jails are returning to "business as usual.""
  • Rise in jail deaths is especially troubling as jail populations become more rural and more female Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2021. "New data show record high deaths of people locked up in jail, as jail populations have shifted toward smaller, rural jails and growing numbers of women."
  • Smoke and mirrors: A cautionary tale for counties considering a big, costly new jail, Prison Policy Initiative. July, 2021. "How law enforcement and jail architects almost duped taxpayers into approving a new jail far bigger than the county needs, by offering biased analysis and misleading arguments."
  • Freedom, Then the Press: New York Media and Bail Reform, April, 2021. "Media outlets across New York played a major role in generating the fear and backlash that is driving the increase in the jail population and exposing thousands more people to the possibility of illness and death behind bars."
  • Policy Assessments Council on Crime and Justice Task Force on Policing. May, 2021. "Task Force members weighed the relative value of each proposal based on the best available research and on their professional expertise and lived experiences."
  • Brutality in the Name of "Safety": Baton Rouge Parish Policing and Tactics, The Promise of Justice Initiative. May, 2021. "With a jail population rate that is 66% higher than the national average, there is statistical proof that EBR readily weaponizes over-policing and incarceration to address what are in fact social and societal problems."
  • The role of officer race and gender in police-civilian interactions in Chicago Paywall :( Ba, Bocar A., Dean Knox, Jonathan Mummolo, and Roman Rivera. February, 2021. "Relative to white officers, Black and Hispanic officers make far fewer stops and arrests, and they use force less often, especially against Black civilians."
  • Do Police Make Too Many Arrests? Cho, Sungwoo, Felipe Goncalves, and Emily Weisburst. April, 2021. "Because the observed decline in enforcement is concentrated among arrests for low-level offenses, we argue that low-level enforcement could be reduced at the margin without likely increases in crime."
  • Citizens, Suspects, and Enemies: Examining Police Militarization, Mitt Regan. March, 2021. "The conviction that police officers need [military-grade weapons] reflects a subtle cultural shift in the understanding of the nature of police work."
  • A New Lease on Life Sentencing Project. June, 2021. "People convicted of homicide and other crimes of violence rarely commit new crimes of violence after release from long-term imprisonment."
  • The Declining Significance of Race in Criminal Sentencing: Evidence from US Federal Courts, Paywall :( Michael T Light. March, 2021. "Sentences [for white and Black people] became more equal almost entirely due to changes in observable case characteristics and not due to changes in the treatment of offenders."

Monday, June 28 2021:

  • Investigation of the Massachusetts Department of Correction United States Attorney's Office District of Massachusetts. November, 2020. "The conditions in Massachusetts Department of Correction's prisons (MDOC) violate the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution."
  • Louisiana Deaths Behind Bars: 2015 - 2019, Incarceration Transparency. June, 2021. "Prisons and jails should ideally have lower death rates than the general public due to the physical proximity of medical care behind bars, 24-hour staffing and supervision, and reduced probability of certain types of deaths, such as car accidents..."
  • The People's Plan for Prison Closure Californians United for a Responsible Budget (CURB). April, 2021. "Accomplishing our goal of closing ten prisons in five years will be hard. It will require political courage. But history is watching us..."
  • No Kickbacks Parole Illinois. June, 2021. "Through its "surcharges", "kickbacks", and denial of basic necessities, the IDOC is effectively siphoning millions of dollars from largely low income communities by preying on people's love for their incarcerated friend or family member."
  • Bringing More Teens Home: Raising the Age Without Expanding Secure Confinement in the Youth Justice System, Sentencing Project. June, 2021. "A decade ago, "raising the age" was considered a high-cost and risky investment. Today, research and outcomes demonstrated that not only did the sky not fall, but proponents underestimated the successes to come."

Friday, June 11 2021:

  • Just over half of incarcerated people are vaccinated, despite being locked in COVID-19 epicenters Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2021. "Most states did not prioritize incarcerated people in their vaccination plans. As a result, seven months since the first vaccines were distributed, just 55% of people in prison have been vaccinated, leaving them vulnerable to infection."
  • The U.S. Sentencing Commission's Recidivism Studies: Myopic, Misleading, and Doubling Down on Imprisonment, Nora V. Demleitner. December, 2020. "The overly broad definition of "recidivism" and the focus on easily measurable and static risk factors, such as prior criminal record, create a feedback loop."
  • Age Gradient in Women's Crime: The Role of Welfare Reform, Paywall :( Hope Corman, Dhaval M. Dave, and Nancy E. Reichman. February, 2021. "Using Federal Bureau of Investigation data, we investigated the age-patterning of effects of welfare reform on women's arrests for property crime, the type of crime that welfare reform has been shown to affect."
  • Youth in Adult and Juvenile Correctional Facilities: Comparison of Services and Behavioral Management, Paywall :( Insun Park and Christopher J. Sullivan. May, 2021. "Given contemporary efforts to prevent adolescents from experiencing the negative consequences of incarceration, it is critical to assess the impact of juvenile transfer."

Tuesday, June 8 2021:

  • Jails, Sheriffs, and Carceral Policymaking Aaron Littman. May, 2021. "Sheriffs have a unique combination of controls over how big and how full their jails are, but this role consolidation does not produce the restraint that some have predicted. Their disclaimers of responsibility are a smokescreen..."

Wednesday, June 2 2021:

  • Carceral-community epidemiology, structural racism, and COVID-19 disparities Eric Reinhart, Daniel L. Chen. May, 2021. "We find that cycling individuals through Cook County Jail in March 2020 alone can account for 13% of all COVID-19 cases and 21% of racial COVID-19 disparities in Chicago as of early August."
  • The Impacts of Solitary Confinement Vera Institute of Justice. April, 2021. "The widespread use of solitary does not achieve its intended purpose--it does not make prisons, jails, or the community safer, and may actually make them less safe."
  • Mapping U.S. Jails' Use of Restrictive Housing: Trends, Disparities, and Other Forms of Lockdown, Vera Institute of Justice. April, 2021. "Units that are not classified as restrictive housing by corrections agencies also held people in their cells for 22 hours or more per day."
  • Prisons and Penny-Pinching: Finding Budget Savings in the Time of COVID-19, Texas Public Policy Coalition. January, 2021. "Even a small percentage reduction in the number of annual revocations can potentially yield millions in annual cost savings."
  • Paid Your Debt to Society? Court-related Financial Obligations and Community Supervision during the First Year after Release from Prison, Paywall :( Nathan W. Link. February, 2021. "One's status as being under correctional supervision at release from prison leads to increased debt, which in turn increases the chance of remaining under supervision during the first year out."
  • Authoritarian exclusion and laissez-faire inclusion: Comparing the punishment of men convicted of sex offenses in England & Wales and Norway, Alice Ievins, Kristian Mjaland. March, 2021. "Contrary to what might be expected, we find that the punishment of men convicted of sex offenses ismore paternalistic and interventionist in England & Wales, as well as more liberal--in that it respects the autonomy of the punished person--in Norway."
  • The carceral production of transgender poverty: How racialized gender policing deprives transgender women of housing and safety, Dilara Yarbrough. May, 2021. "Laws crafted with race-neutral language target survival and coping strategies disproportionately used by people of color and trans people in public space."
  • Risk factors for suicide in prisons: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Shaoling Zhong et al.. February, 2021. "Single risk factors are not sufficient to identify individuals at high risk of suicide."
  • Accessing justice: The impact of discretion, 'deservedness' and distributive justice on the equitable allocation of policing resources, Sarah Charman, Emma Williams. May, 2021. "Indeed, the often invisible and unchecked nature of police discretion challenges its neutrality and highlights the subjective nature of such practices which are influenced by judgement, interpretation and previous experience."
  • Decoupling Crisis Response from Policing -- A Step Toward Equitable Psychiatric Emergency Services, New England Journal of Medicine. May, 2021. "Police responses to psychiatric crises harm patients far too often, especially in minority communities, where a long history of institutional racism informs warranted distrust of law enforcement."
  • Juvenile Life Without Parole: An Overview, Sentencing Project. May, 2021. "The United States stands alone as the only nation that sentences people to life without parole for crimes committed before turning 18."

Thursday, May 27 2021:

  • Federal Prisoner Statistics Collected Under The First Step Act, 2020 Bureau of Justice Statistics. February, 2021. "The portion of federal prisoners who were the parent, step-parent, or guardian of a minor child (defined as a dependent age 20 or younger by the BOP) grew from 45% to 49% from year-end 2018 to year-end 2019."
  • Beyond Recidivism and Desistance Paywall :( Susan Starr Sered, Maureen Norton-Hawk. April, 2021. "Conventional measures of recidivism and desistance tend to...(3) overly focus on individual choices and narratives in contexts where freedoms are constrained by structural and institutional policies and practices."
  • Due Process in the Time of COVID: Defenders as First Responders in a Juvenile Court System Struggling with the COVID-19 Pandemic, National Juvenile Defender Center. March, 2021. "The shift to technology-based communications and remote hearings threatens young people's constitutional rights, including fundamental aspects of effective legal representation, due process, and access to courts."

Tuesday, May 25 2021:

  • Summit Food Services Provides Inadequate Nutrition at Missouri Jail Kevin Bliss, Prison Legal News. October, 2019. "[An independent registered dietitian's] report stated, "the food is too high in sodium, too high in processed, refined carbohydrates and sugars and too low in fiber.""
  • A Better Path Forward for Criminal Justice: A Report by the Brookings-AEI Working Group on Criminal Justice Reform, The Brookings Institution, American Enterprise Institute. April, 2021. "The essays in this volume are intended to provide...research-grounded guidance and insight on core issues and strategies that can sustain bipartisan support for critically needed criminal justice reforms."
  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2017-2018 Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2021. "Of the 372,354 persons under some form of federal correctional control at fiscal year-end 2018, 60% were in secure confinement and 40% were under community supervision."
  • What Doesn't Get Measured Doesn't Get Done: A Roadmap for Data Collection and Reporting in the Era of Bail Reform, Joanna Thomas, Abdiaziz Ahmed, New York City Criminal Justice Agency. April, 2021. "Proper pretrial data collection, analysis, and reporting can help to build systems that meet local needs, save money, improve program practices, and decrease jail crowding."
  • Prison Visitation and Concerns about Reentry: Variations in Frequency and Quality of Visits are Associated with Reentry Concerns among People Incarcerated in Prison, Paywall :( Thomas Baker, Meghan M. Mitchell Jill A. Gordon. May, 2021. "The impact of visitation on incarcerated people's concerns about reentry has received little empirical attention."
  • What you should know about halfway houses [Website] Prison Policy Initiative. September, 2020. "Very little data about halfway houses has been available to the public, even though they are a major feature of the carceral system."
  • Redefining the Narrative: On Behalf of the Statewide Women's Justice Task Force of Illinois, Deanna Benos, Alyssa Benedict, The Women's Justice Institute. April, 2021. "Prisons have been deployed as a default response to women's attempts to survive untenable social conditions, yet there is no evidence that any amount of time in prison is helpful or even improves public safety."
  • Doing Double Time: Women, Incarceration and Employment Discrimination, Diane van den Broek, Prudence Black, Nicki (identity protected). April, 2021. "Her [Nicki's] story presents a portrait of a woman at the frontline of post-incarceration and employment, where vulnerability and insecurity prevail."
  • Pregnant Women in DOJ Custody: U.S. Marshals Service and Bureau of Prisons Should Better Align Policies with National Guidelines, United States Government Accountability Office. January, 2021. "By taking steps to more closely align agency standards and policies with national guidance as feasible, USMS and BOP would be better positioned to help ensure the health of pregnant women in their custody."

Friday, May 21 2021:

  • Mortality in State and Federal Prisons, 2001-2018 - Statistical Tables Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2021. "In 2018, a total of 4,135 state prisoners died in publicly or privately operated prisons, and an additional 378 federal prisoners died in facilities operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP)."
  • The cumulative risk of jail incarceration Bruce Western, Jaclyn Davis, Flavien Ganter, and Natalie Smith. April, 2021. "The contours of jail incarceration observed in New York City follow the pattern of mass criminalization where large numbers of Black and Latino men are subject to penal control, in most cases for low-level offenses."
  • Mortality in Local Jails, 2000-2018 - Statistical Tables Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2021. "In 2018, a total of 1,120 inmates died in local jails, an increase of nearly 2% from the 1,099 deaths reported in 2017."
  • In Your State Gideon at 50. April, 2016. "This interactive map provides the public and policy-makers with a birds-eye view of some of the most critical aspects of the provision of public defense."
  • Right to Counsel Services in the 50 States: An Indigent Defense Reference Guide for Policymakers, Sixth Amendment Center. March, 2017. "The variations amongst how states deal with the Sixth Amendment does not stop at funding and oversight. The number of structural approaches to providing lawyers to the poor is great."

Monday, May 17 2021:

  • Adequacy of Healthcare Provided In Louisiana State Prisons Loyola University, Louisiana State University, VOTE (Voices of the Experienced). May, 2021. "The real-world minimum wage equivalent of [medical co-pays] for incarcerated people who earn incentive wages of $.02/per hour is: $1,087.5 for a routine visit, $2,175 for an emergency visit, and $725 for a prescription."

Friday, May 14 2021:

  • ALC Court Watch Docket Report #01 Cash Bail, Arbitrary Detention and Apartheid in Allegheny County, [PDF] Abolitionist Law Center. November, 2020. "Black residents of Allegheny County are more likely to be arrested, charged, and have monetary bail imposed against them."
  • ALC Court Watch Docket Report #02 Maintaining Apartheid: Arrest and Cash Bail in Allegheny County, [PDF] Abolitionist Law Center. April, 2021. "In a county that is less than 13% Black, 56% of all arrests between Aug 14 and Dec 31 of 2020 were of Black residents."
  • The Pandemic Gender Gap Behind Bars: Meeting the Needs of Women in Custody During COVID-19 and Planning for the Future, Alycia Welch and Michele Deitch. May, 2021. "Even before the pandemic, women were overlooked in correctional facilities that were not designed for them and that are not administered with them in mind."

Thursday, May 13 2021:

  • How Much Criminal Justice Debt Does the U.S. Really Have? Fines & Fees Justice Center. April, 2021. "At least $27.6 billion of fines and fees is owed across the nation.."
  • The Legacy of Slavery and Mass Incarceration: Evidence from Felony Case Outcomes, Aaron Gottlieb and Kalen Flynn. March, 2021. "We find that a criminal charge in a county with high levels of slavery in 1860 increases the likelihood of pretrial detention, the probability of a sentence of incarceration, and the length of incarceration sentences."

Tuesday, May 11 2021:

  • A First Step, a Second Chance: Public Support for Restoring Rights of Individuals with Prior Convictions, Paywall :( Christina Mancini, Robyn McDougle, and Brittany Keegan. November, 2020. "Results suggest most of the public supports expungement reform, but less than 40% support rights restoration generally, with approval levels dependent on specific type of restoration."

Friday, April 16 2021:

Thursday, April 15 2021:

  • Prison Population Reductions and COVID-19: A Latent Profile Analysis Synthesizing Recent Evidence From the Texas State Prison System, Noel Vest, Oshea Johnson, Kathryn Nowotny & Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein. December, 2020. "Current prison population and level of employee staffing predicted membership in the high-outbreak and high-death profiles when compared with the low-outbreak profile."
  • New data: The revolving door between homeless shelters and prisons in Connecticut, Prison Policy Initiative. February, 2021. "1 in 5 people who used homeless shelters in the Connecticut Coalition to End Homelessness' network had been released from prison in the past three years."
  • Revisiting and Unpacking the Mental Illness and Solitary Confinement Relationship Paywall :( Sonja E. Siennick, Mayra Picon, Jennifer M. Brown & Daniel P. Mears. December, 2020. "Having a mental illness was associated with an increase of up to 170% in the odds of extended solitary confinement, depending on the diagnosis."
  • Death Penalty Statutes and Murder Rates: Evidence from Synthetic Controls, Brett Parker. February, 2021. "Applying this technique using seven states that recently abolished the death penalty and twenty-nine states that retained the punishment during the same period, I find no evidence that the presence of a capital punishment statute in a state is sufficient,"
  • New data on jail populations: The good, the bad, and the ugly, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2021. "While the total jail population dropped by 25% between June 2019 and June 2020, racial disparities increased over the same period."
  • Visualizing the unequal treatment of LGBTQ people in the criminal justice system Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2021. "The data is clear: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ ) people are overrepresented at every stage of criminal justice system, starting with juvenile justice system involvement."
  • One Year Later: Bail Reform and Judicial Decision-Making in New York City, Center for Court Innovation. April, 2021. "Predictably, making more cases newly re-eligible for bail and detention in July increased judges' use of both options."
  • It's all about the incentives: Why a call home from a jail in New York State can cost 7 times more than the same call from the state's prisons, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2021. "These exorbitant phone rates cost some the poorest residents of New York State -- and a group disproportionately made up of women of color -- more than $13 million a year just to talk to their jailed loved ones."
  • The American Racial Divide in Fear of the Police Justin Pickett, Amanda Graham, and Frank Cullen. April, 2021. "Most Whites felt safe, but most Blacks feared the police even more than crime, being afraid both for themselves and for others they cared about."
  • Research roundup: Violent crimes against Black and Latinx people receive less coverage and less justice, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2021. "In a 2018 Washington Post analysis of nearly 50,000 homicides around the country, the authors found that an arrest was made in 63 percent of murders of white victims, compared to 48 percent of those with Latinx victims and 46 percent with Black victims."
  • Pandemic Caseloads Highlights: Court filings and dispositions 2019-2020, Court Statistics Project. March, 2021. "While the number of case filings is expected to return to normal in criminal, traffic, and juvenile over the course of 2021, no surge in cases is expected."
  • Pleading for Justice: Bullpen Therapy, Pre-Trial Detention, and Plea Bargains in American Courts, Paywall :( Amy E. Lerman, Ariel Lewis Green, and Patricio Dominguez. March, 2021. "In a national sample, defendants held in custody pre-trial are significantly more likely to enter a guilty plea, all else equal."

Monday, April 12 2021:

  • Black and (Thin) Blue (Line): Corruption and Other Political Determinants of Police Killings in America, Oguzhan C. Dincer and Michael Johnston. February, 2021. "Our evidence suggests that police can kill Black Americans with impunity because of a lack of accountability - exemplified by corruption - that is largely determined by political influences."
  • Felony Case Delay in New York City: Lessons from a Pilot Project in Brooklyn, Center for Court Innovation. March, 2021. "Despite the constitutional guarantee of a speedy trial, in 2019, for indicted felonies, New York City only met the state's standard for a six-month resolution in about a third of cases."

Friday, April 9 2021:

Thursday, April 8 2021:

  • COVID-19 Testing in State Prisons Council on Criminal Justice. April, 2021. "The evidence suggests that more testing, early testing, and early mass testing may have been strategies that helped states achieve lower rates of COVID-19 mortality behind bars."
  • Misdemeanor Prosecution Amanda Y. Agan, Jennifer L. Doleac, and Anna Harvey. March, 2021. "We find that, for the marginal defendant, nonprosecution of a nonviolent misdemeanor offense leads to large reductions in the likelihood of a new criminal complaint over the next two years."
  • Immigrant Sanctuary Policies and Crime-Reporting Behavior: A Multilevel Analysis of Reports of Crime Victimization to Law Enforcement, 1980 to 2004, Paywall :( Ricardo D. Martinez-Schuldt and Daniel E. Martinez. January, 2021. "We find that Latinos are more likely to report violent crime victimization to law enforcement after sanctuary policies have been adopted within their metropolitan areas of residence."
  • What Jails Cost: A Look at Spending in America's Large Cities, Vera Institute of Justice. April, 2021. "Since 2011, jail budgets increased 13 percent--accounting for inflation--while jail populations declined 28 percent."
  • Policing and public health calls for service in Philadelphia Jerry H. Ratcliffe. March, 2021. "In Philadelphia, at least in a relatively normal (i.e. non-COVID-19) year, calls to the police that start or result in some form of medical/public health connection comprise about 8% of the police activity that originates from the public."
  • Applying Procedural Justice in Community Supervision Assessment of Pilot Testing in the Georgia Department of Community Supervision, Urban Institute. March, 2021. "The supervisee-level analyses found that supervisees from the training group had significantly fewer arrests, warrants, delinquent reports, and convictions than supervisees from the control group."
  • Who Controls Criminal Law? Racial Threat and the Adoption of State Sentencing Law, 1975 to 2012, Scott W. Duxbury. February, 2021. "Results illustrate that states adopted sentencing laws in direct and indirect response to white public punitive policy support and the size of the black population."

Tuesday, March 30 2021:

  • Disabilities Reported by Prisoners Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2021. "Nearly 4 in 10 state prisoners (40%) and 3 in 10 federal prisoners (29%) reported having a disability."
  • Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2021. "Nearly 1.5 million persons age 17 or younger had a parent who was in state or federal prison in 2016."
  • Time Served in State Prison, 2018 Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2021. "The average time served by state prisoners released in 2018, from initial admission to initial release, was 2.7 years, and the median time served was 1.3 years."
  • Veterans in Prison Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2021. "An estimated 107,400 veterans were serving time in state or federal prison in 2016."

Monday, March 29 2021:

  • Foster Care, Permanency, and Risk of Prison Entry Paywall :( Font et al.. March, 2021. "Nearly 13 percent of the sample experienced imprisonment in young adulthood. Compared with emancipated youth, hazard of imprisonment was 1.58-1.96 times higher among reunified youth."
  • The Consequences Are Black and White: Race and Poor Health Following Incarceration, Paywall :( Julie L. Kuper and Jillian J. Turanovic. February, 2021. "Findings indicate that Black respondents reported within-person health declines that were more substantial than those of Whites after first incarceration. Additional analyses revealed that these race differences were more pronounced among Black males."
  • Hidden Figures: Rating the COVID Data Transparency of Prisons, Jails, and Juvenile Agencies, COVID, Corrections, and Oversight Project. March, 2021. "Correctional agencies -- especially jails and juvenile agencies -- are failing at publishing adequate data on how COVID is impacting the people who work and live in these institutions."
  • Locking Up My Generation: Cohort Differences in Prison Spells Over the Life Course, Paywall :( Rand. October, 2020. "Our study highlights a heretofore overlooked perspective: that the crime-punishment wave in the 1980s and 1990s created cohort differences in incarceration over the life course that changed the level of incarceration even decades after the wave."
  • Social Fabric: A New Model for Public Safety and Vital Neighborhoods, The Square One Project. March, 2021. "We have models available, but we've never made a sustained commitment to any institution other than the police and the prison system."
  • Correctional Facility and Inmate Locations: Urban and Rural Status Patterns, Center for Administrative Records Research and Applications. July, 2017. "We find that a disproportionate share of prisons and inmates are located in rural areas, while a disproportionate share of inmates are from urban areas."
  • Revolving Doors: Examining the Effect of Race and Ethnicity on Discretionary Decision-Making in Parole Revocations, Tri Keah S. Henry. August, 2020. "Findings suggest that race/ethnicity significantly influences parole revocation outcomes."

Wednesday, March 24 2021:

  • Grave Consequences: How the Criminalization of Disability Leads to Deaths in Jail, Disability Rights Oregon. February, 2021. "DRO's investigation found the following jail conditions put individuals with disabilities at risk of deadly harm."
  • Proliferation of Punishment: The Centrality of Legal Fines and Fees in the Landscape of Contemporary Penology, Paywall :( Ilya Slavinski and Becky Pettit. January, 2021. "Enforcement of LFOs varies geographically and is related to conservative politics and racial threat."
  • The High Price of Using Justice Fines and Fees to Fund Government in New York Vera Institute of Justice. December, 2020. "In 2018, New York state and local governments collected at least $1.21 billion in criminal and traffic fines and fees as revenue."
  • Reducing the Misuse and Overuse of Jails in Safety and Justice Challenge Sites: An Interim Progress Report, CUNY Institute for State and Local Governance. February, 2021. "Since implementation of the initiative began in 2016, ADP has declined substantially in many SJC sites. Ten of the 14 sites represented in this report experienced ADP reductions by Year 3, for a combined reduction of 18 percent."
  • Racialized Re-entry: Labor Market Inequality After Incarceration, Bruce Western and Catherine Sirois. June, 2019. "Qualitative interviews suggest that whites more than blacks and Hispanics find stable, high-paying jobs through social networks."

Tuesday, March 23 2021:

  • Are Effects of School Resource Officers Moderated by Student Race and Ethnicity? Paywall :( Scott Crosse et al.. March, 2021. "We found that increases in offenses and exclusionary reactions due to increased SRO presence were most evident for Black and Hispanic as opposed to White students."
  • Mass Incarceration and Children's Health: A State-Level Analysis of Adverse Birth Outcomes and Infant, Child, and Teen Mortality, Paywall :( James M Conway. February, 2021. "Results indicated that as hypothesized, incarceration rates positively predicted infant mortality, child mortality (for Black children only), preterm births, and low-weight births. Relationships tended to be stronger for Black than for white children."
  • New York City Jails: COVID Discharge Policy, Data Transparency, and Reform, Eli Miller, Bryan D. Martin, and Chad Topaz. February, 2021. "Their success with discharge during the early stages of COVID-19 suggests that low-risk inmates could be discharged sooner in general."

Monday, March 22 2021:

  • Solitary: The Family Experience, Open MI Door Campaign and Citizens for Prison Reform. February, 2021. "Among those in administrative segregation and Level V cells, approximately 20 percent have been in for 6-12 months; 32 percent have been in for 1-2 years; and a shocking 47 percent have been in isolation for more than 2 years."
  • DPIC Special Report: The Innocence Epidemic, Death Penalty Information Center. February, 2021. "Of the 185 exonerations that have occurred since 1973, 69.2 percent (128) have included official misconduct by police, prosecutors, or other government officials."
  • Getting under the skin: Physiological stress and witnessing paternal arrest in young children with incarcerated fathers, Paywall :( Luke Muentner, Amita Kapoor, Lindsay Weymouth, Julie Poehlmann-Tynan. February, 2021. "Results indicate that children had higher cumulative stress hormone concentrations when they witnessed their father's arrest."
  • Association between county jail incarceration and cause-specific county mortality in the USA, 1987-2017: a retrospective, longitudinal study, Sandhya Kajeepeta et al.. February, 2021. "Specifically, mortality caused by infectious disease, chronic lower respiratory disease, substance use, and suicide is the strongest driver of the association between jail incarceration and county mortality."
  • The Enormous Cost of Parole Violations in New York The Justice Lab and The Independent Commission on New York City Criminal Justice and Incarceration Reform. March, 2021. "In 2019, New York's state and local governments collectively spent $683 million to incarcerate people on parole for rules violations, without evidence that this massive expenditure of resources meaningfully contributed to public safety."
  • Safety We Can Feel Safety We Can Feel. February, 2021. "Respondents wanted to see more funding going towards centers for mental health and addiction recovery (58%), housing and stability assistance (57%), and education and youth programming (53%) as approaches to addressing violence."
  • No End In Sight: America's Enduring Reliance on Life Imprisonment, Sentencing Project. February, 2021. "In the United States, more than 200,000 people are serving life sentences - one out of every seven in prison."

Friday, March 5 2021:

  • Poverty and Mass Incarceration in New York: An Agenda for Change, Brennan Center for Justice. February, 2021. "Roughly 337,000 New Yorkers have spent time in prison at some point in their lives. That burden has fallen disproportionately on people of color: three-quarters of the state's formerly imprisoned population is Black or Latino."
  • What Jails Cost Statewide: Spending on Jails Across the Rural-Urban Spectrum, Vera Institute of Justice. March, 2021. "Three out of five people incarcerated in local jails were in smaller cities and rural communities."

Wednesday, February 10 2021:

Wednesday, February 3 2021:

  • The Reintegration Agenda During Pandemic: Criminal Record Reforms in 2020, Collateral Consequences Resource Center. January, 2021. "In 2020, 32 states, the District of Columbia, and the federal government enacted 106 legislative bills, approved 5 ballot initiatives, and issued 4 executive orders to restore rights and opportunities to people with a criminal record."
  • Reining in Solitary Confinement in Texas: Recent Progress and Next Steps, Texas Public Policy Foundation. January, 2021. "As of 2019, some 25.5% of those in solitary confinement in Texas have been there for 6 years or more, compared to the 5.7% average across the 33 surveyed states."
  • Raising Arizona's Commitment to Health and Safety: The Need for Independent Oversight of Arizona's Prison System, Michele Deitch. January, 2021. "Over the last decade or so, Arizona's prisons have become synonymous with mismanagement, lack of safety, unconstitutional health care, and abysmal conditions for people in custody."
  • The Cost of Incarceration in New York State: How Counties Outside New York City Can Reduce Jail Spending and Invest in Communities, Vera Institute of Justice. January, 2021. "In 2019, the 57 counties outside New York City -- which are responsible for funding their own jails -- collectively spent more $1.3 billion to staff and run their jails."
  • An Essay Concerning Pretrial Services Lehigh County Controller. January, 2021. "In 2019, there were a total of 5,230 cases that made their way through Lehigh County's criminal justice system...Of those cases, roughly 49% were unable to post bail."
  • Do District Attorneys Represent Their Voters? Evidence from California's Era of Criminal Justice Reform, Michael W. Sances. January, 2021. "While voter preferences vary greatly across issues and geography, DA's almost always take the conservative position."
  • Racial Disparities in Youth Incarceration Persist Sentencing Project. February, 2021. "In ten years, the United States has cut youth incarceration in half.1 While the reduction is impressive, youth involvement in the juvenile justice system continues to impact youth of color disproportionately."

Tuesday, February 2 2021:

  • The Pandemic Behind Bars: COVID-19, Vaccination, and the People in Colorado's Prisons and Jails, Colorado Health Institute. January, 2021. "Outbreaks at prisons, jails, and other correctional and detention facilities account for 1 in every 24 cases of COVID-19 in Colorado since the start of the pandemic, and 15 of the 20 largest outbreaks in the state have occurred in prisons and jails."
  • Local Spending on Jails Tops $25 Billion in Latest Nationwide Data The Pew Charitable Trusts. January, 2021. "Jail and other local corrections costs had risen sixfold since 1977, with jail costs reaching $25 billion."
  • The Demand Is Still #DefundPolice: Lessons from 2020, Interrupting Criminalization. January, 2021. (Over the past six months, organizers secured divestment of over $840 million dollars from police departments, investments of at least $160 million dollars in communities, and increased transparency and community control over budgets in many areas.)

Thursday, January 28 2021:

  • The Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder on Prison Adjustment and Recidivism Among Military Veterans: Evidence from Minnesota, Matthew W. Logan, Susan McNeeley, and Mark Morgan. January, 2021. "Our results indicate that the effects of TBI, PTSD, and other indicators of criminogenic risk are relevant when examining the experiences of justice-involved military veterans--especially with respect to recidivism-based outcomes."
  • Health Departments Taking Action on Incarceration: A Framework for Advancing Health Instead of Punishment During COVID-19, Human Impact Partners. January, 2021. "We know that there is no way for anyone to be truly safe and healthy inside a jail, prison, or immigration detention center, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic."
  • People in Jail and Prison in 2020 Vera Institute of Justice. January, 2021. "The number of people incarcerated in state and federal prisons and local jails in the United States dropped from around 2.1 million in 2019 to 1.8 million by mid-2020--a 14 percent decrease."

Tuesday, January 26 2021:

  • Immigration and Crime: A Public Policy Red Herring, CUNY Institute for State & Local Governance. January, 2021. "Despite fears that more immigration leads to higher rates of violent crime, one of the most consistent findings among research on this topic is that increases in immigration are associated with decreases--not increases--in violent offenses."
  • Punishing Relations: How WA DOC's Collateral Damage and Hidden Costs Imprison Families, Washington Corrections Watch. January, 2021. "The financial and emotional burdens of incarceration are primarily borne by female family members, most especially in communities of color."
  • Health Care Needs and Utilization Among New Yorkers With Criminal Justice System Involvement NYC Health, NYC Criminal Justice, and NYU Wagner. January, 2021. "Individuals who have had any jail contact have a higher burden of disease, including chronic illness, multi-morbidity, mental health and substance use disorders, and greater health care utilization."
  • Unmasked: Impacts of Pandemic Policing, COVID19 Policing Project. October, 2020. "Black people specifically were 4.5 times more likely to be policed and punished for violations of COVID-19 orders than white people."
  • Top Trends in State Criminal Justice Reform, 2020 Sentencing Project. January, 2021. "Incarcerated people are nearly 5X more likely to get COVID-19 compared to the general population. Yet only a handful of states took steps to decarcerate in 2020."
  • Chasing Justice: Addressing Police Violence and Corruption in Maryland, ACLU of Maryland. January, 2021. "91% of officers' use of force was targeted toward Black residents."
  • Mass Extraction: The Widespread Power of U.S. Law Enforcement to Search Mobile Phones, Upturn Toward Justice in Technology. October, 2020. "We found that state and local law enforcement agencies have performed hundreds of thousands of cellphone extractions since 2015, often without a warrant."
  • Building Safe, Thriving Communities: Research-Based Strategies for Public Safety, NYU Law School Center for Race, Inequality, and the Law and the Justice Collaborative Institute. October, 2020. "More and more, elected leaders and their constituents are recognizing that a path to safety and stability does not lie in a return to past, failed practices, but in an evidence-based, innovative reimagining of our law enforcement system."

Tuesday, December 29 2020:

  • "Defunding the Police" and People With Mental Illness Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law. August, 2020. "We should dramatically reduce the role of the police in the lives of people with mental illness. As the same time, mental health services should be expanded and racial disparities in their delivery eliminated."

Tuesday, December 22 2020:

  • Incarcerated people and corrections staff should be prioritized in COVID-19 vaccination plans Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2020. "38 of the 49 states addressed (or seemed to address) incarcerated people as a priority group at all, in the original plans or in later updates. But in many states, correctional staff are prioritized before incarcerated people."
  • Officer Use of Force and the Failure of Oversight of New York City Jails Jennifer Ferentz. November, 2020. "Ultimately, this Note argues the actors responsible for changing the rules governing New York City jails and the practices carried out within them are abdicating that responsibility when it comes to this violence."
  • Since you asked: Just how overcrowded were prisons before the pandemic and how overcrowded are they now?, Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2020. "41 states are currently operating at 75% or more of their capacity, with at least 10 of those state prison systems and the federal Bureau of Prisons operating at more than 100%."
  • The research is clear: Solitary confinement causes long-lasting harm, Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2020. "Prisons and jails are already inherently harmful, and placing people in solitary confinement adds an extra burden of stress that has been shown to cause permanent changes to people's brains and personalities."
  • The Impact of Incarceration on Food Insecurity among Households with Children Sally Wallace and Robynn Cox. October, 2012. "Food insecurity for adults and households with children (a less dire level of food insecurity than very low food security) is affected by parental incarceration under most specifications with magnitudes of impact from 4 to 15 percentage points."
  • Trends in Issuance of Criminal Summonses in New York City, 2003-2019 Data Collaborative for Justice. December, 2020. "Almost half of all marijuana possession summonses were issued to Black people (45.5%). Over 40% of summonses issued for disorderly conduct, public consumption of alcohol, and violations of transit authority rules were issued to Black people."

Monday, December 21 2020:

  • The Accreditation Con: A Broken Prison and Detention Facility Accreditation System That Puts Profits Over People, Office of Senator Elizabeth Warren. December, 2020. "It reveals that the ACA's private prison accreditation system is riddled with conflicts of interest, lacks transparency, and is subject to zero accountability even though millions in taxpayer dollars to flow to the ACA and private prison companies."

Thursday, December 17 2020:

  • Hotbeds of Infection: How ICE Detention Contributed to the Spread of COVID-19 in the United States, Detention Watch Network. December, 2020. "ICE's failure to release people from detention during the pandemic added over 245,000 cases to the total U.S. caseload."

Wednesday, December 16 2020:

  • Defund Sheriffs: A Toolkit for Organizers, Working Families, Sheriffs for Trusting Communities, Faith in Action Fund, & Community Resource Hub for Safety and Accountability. October, 2020. "Defunding sheriffs should be an urgent priority for anyone concerned with mass incarceration and police violence."
  • Emergency Department visits for depression following police killings of unarmed African Americans Paywall :( Abhery Das, Parvati Singh, Anju K.Kulkarni, and Tim A. Bruckner. November, 2020. "Police killings of unarmed African Americans correspond with an 11% increase in ED visits per 100,000 population related to depression among African Americans in the concurrent month and three months following the exposure (p < 0.05)."

Tuesday, December 15 2020:

  • Eating Behind Bars: Ending the Hidden Punishment of Food in Prison, Impact Justice. December, 2020. "Budget cuts and stagnant spending have led to fewer hot meals, smaller portions, lower-quality protein, fewer fresh fruits and vegetables, and more ultra-processed foods, as well as poorly equipped and ill-supervised kitchens that compromise quality."
  • Reducing Violence Without Police: A Review of Research Evidence, John Jay College of Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation Center. November, 2020. "Non-policing approaches to violence prevention can produce significant benefits without the attendant harms of policing and punishment."
  • Medicaid's Evolving Role in Advancing the Health of People Involved in the Justice System The Commonwealth Fund. November, 2020. "Siloes between correctional and community health care providers disrupt care coordination and create gaps in treatment and health services that can be life-threatening."
  • Experience to Action: Reshaping Criminal Justice After COVID-19, Council on Criminal Justice. December, 2020. "The size, scale, and scope of the criminal justice system, along with the absence of effective public health coordination, posed a significant obstacle to COVID-19 prevention and control."
  • The "Radical" Notion of the Presumption of Innocence Square One Project. May, 2020. "Of the approximately 612,000 individuals that are currently being held in county jails, the vast majority, about 460,000, are awaiting some type of adjudication and thus are presumed innocent."
  • Counterevidence of crime-reduction effects from federal grants of military equipment to local police Paywall :( Gunderson et al. December, 2020. "We show that the 2014 data are flawed and that the more recent data provide no evidence that 1033 SME reduces crime."
  • The Prison Industry: How It Started, How It Works, How It Harms, Worth Rises. December, 2020. "This report maps the twelve sectors of the prison industry and details the extraction of wealth from the families that have been most disproportionately brutalized by over-policing, mass criminalization, mass incarceration, and mass surveillance."
  • Exploring Disproportionate Minority Contact in the Juvenile Justice System Over the Year Following First Arrest Paywall :( Padgaonkar et al. December, 2020. "Black youth committed fewer offenses prior to arrest than White youth, Black and Latino youth were more likely to be formally processed, and Black youth were most likely to be rearrested."
  • Learned Helplessness, Criminalization, and Victimization in Vulnerable Youth Square One Project. December, 2020. "In the United States and worldwide, youth detainment has become an immediate, catch-all response to challenges perceived as affecting public order and safety."

Friday, December 11 2020:

  • Institutional Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic in American Prisons Meghan A. Novisky, Chelsey S. Narvey, and Daniel C. Semenza. October, 2020. "Correctional facilities remain high-risk locales for outbreaks and it is imperative that policies moving forward protect those who are most vulnerable while ensuring equity in access to those protections."
  • Racial prejudice predicts police militarization Tyler Jimenez, Peter J. Helm, Alexis Wilkinson, & Jamie Arndt. December, 2020. "Studies 2 and 3 are the first to explicitly connect these variables, finding that racial prejudice is predictive of both support for police militarization and actual police acquisitions of military equipment."
  • States Can Shorten Probation and Protect Public Safety The Pew Charitable Trusts. November, 2020. "Many people on supervision serve longer terms than are necessary for public safety."
  • Institutionalizing inequality in the courts: Decomposing racial and ethnic disparities in detention, conviction, and sentencing, Paywall :( Marisa Omori and Nick Petersen. September, 2020. "Our findings indicate that inequality is, in part, institutionalized through legal case factors, suggesting these factors are not "race neutral" but instead racialized and contribute to inequalities in court outcomes."

Tuesday, November 24 2020:

  • Naming and Shaming: Violations of the Human Rights of Transgender Persons with Felonies in Texas, Human Rights Clinic, Austin Community Law Center, and Trans Pride Initiative. November, 2020. "By contributing to and facilitating an environment where the human rights of transgender persons are repeatedly and callously disregarded, Texas violates international treaties and the Eighth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States."

Monday, November 23 2020:

  • Dollars and Sense in Cook County: Examining the Impact of General Order 18.8A on Felony Bond Court Decisions, Pretrial Release, and Crime, Safety and Justice Challenge. November, 2020. "GO18.8A also had no impact on new criminal activity or new violent criminal activity of those defendants released."
  • Hepatitis C Litigation: Healing Inmates as a Public Health Strategy, Robert Katz. April, 2020. "When an inmate HCV lawsuit brings about the universal treatment of infected inmates, it simultaneously vindicates the inmates' Eighth Amendment rights and maximally advances the public health goal of eradicating HCV. I"

Thursday, November 19 2020:

  • Punishing status and the punishment status quo: Solitary confinement in U.S. Immigration prisons, 2013-2017, Konrad Franco, Caitlin Patler, and Keramet Reiter. October, 2020. "Solitary confinement cases involving immigrants from Africa and the Caribbean are vastly overrepresented in comparison to the share of these groups in the overall detained population."
  • Since you asked: What role does drug enforcement play in the rising incarceration of women?, Prison Policy Initiative. November, 2020. "Over the past 35 years, total arrests have risen 25% for women, while decreasing 33% for men. The increase among women is largely driven by drugs."
  • Spend Your Values, Cut Your Losses 2021 Divestment Portfolio: Smart and Safe Justice System Solutions That Put Communities First, Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. November, 2020. "Texas spends the most in the nation on prisons and jails; over the past three decades, it has grown 5x faster than the state's rate of spending on elementary and secondary education."
  • MA DOC Expenditures and Staffing Levels for Fiscal Year 2020 Lifers' Group Inc.. October, 2020. "The DOC spent nearly three-quarters of a billion dollars in Fiscal 2020, a 6% increase or nearly $40 million over Fiscal 2019."
  • How Governors Can Use Categorical Clemency as a Corrective Tool Urban Institute. November, 2020. "Though many clemency deliberations are independent case-by-case assessments, in some cases, governors can also extend clemency eligibility categorically to groups of people in prison to mitigate structural issues or accomplish larger reform goals."
  • Evidence Shows That Most Immigrants Appear for Immigration Court Hearings Vera Institute of Justice. October, 2020. "Data from Vera's programs and other studies shows that most immigrants released from custody continue to appear in court when represented by counsel."
  • New BJS data: Prison incarceration rates inch down, but racial equity and real decarceration still decades away, Prison Policy Initiative. October, 2020. "At the current pace of decarceration, it will be 2088 when state prison populations return to pre-mass incarceration levels."
  • Behavioral Health Crisis Alternatives: Shifting from Police to Community Responses, Vera Institute of Justice. November, 2020. "Communities must pursue new approaches that minimize trauma and distress, promote dignity and autonomy, and reduce repeat encounters with police for people who experience behavioral health crises."
  • The Community Responder Model: How Cities Can Send the Right Responder to Every 911 Call, Center for American Progress. October, 2020. "Estimates for the share of calls that could be handled by [community responders] range from a low of 21 percent of calls in Detroit to a high of 38 percent in Seattle and Portland."
  • Wealth and Retirement: Pondering the Fate of Formerly Incarcerated Men During the Golden Years, Paywall :( Ngina Chiteji. October, 2020. "We find that formerly incarcerated men have little wealth accumulated by their late 40s and 50s, that they have limited access to on-the-job pensions, and that some may not even be able to rely on Social Security when they are old."
  • The Case Against Pretrial Risk Assessment Instruments Pretrial Justice Institute. November, 2020. "RAIs simply add a veneer of scientific objectivity and mathematical precision to what are really very weak guesses about the future, based on information gathered from within a structurally racist and unequal system of law, policy and practice."
  • Releasing people pretrial doesn't harm public safety Prison Policy Initiative. November, 2020. "No matter the type of pretrial reform, the results were the same: Releasing people pretrial did not negatively impact public safety."
  • New BJS data reveals a jail-building boom in Indian country Prison Policy Initiative. October, 2020. "The share of people held pretrial in Indian country jails increased by 20 percentage points (an 80% increase) from 1999 to 2018, and the average length of stay in Indian country jails has doubled since 2002."

Tuesday, November 10 2020:

  • COVID and Corrections: A Profile of COVID Deaths in Custody in Texas, COVID, Corrections, and Oversight Project. November, 2020. "In one prison, the Duncan Unit, almost 6% of the incarcerated population has died."
  • Understanding Health Reform As Justice Reform: Medicaid, Care Coordination, and Community Supervision, Square One Project. October, 2020. "Health system reform built upon the foundation of Medicaid programs can provide many of the health and social supports needed to help people with health problems successfully return and remain in their communities."
  • 2020 State Ratings Report: Human Rights Protections for Children in the U.S. Justice System, Human Rights for Kids. November, 2020. "Our findings reveal that the overwhelming majority of the nation - 42 states - have made minimal to no efforts to create a legal framework to protect the human rights of children in the justice system."

Monday, November 9 2020:

  • Misunderstood and Mistreated: How Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Experience the Texas Criminal Legal System, Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. October, 2020. "Approximately 14,700 people with I/DDs are currently incarcerated in Texas."
  • Civic Responses to Police Violence Desmond Ang and Jonathan Tebes. October, 2020. "We find that exposure to police violence leads to significant increases in registrations and votes. These effects are driven entirely by Blacks and Hispanics and are largest for killings of unarmed individuals."
  • New York's Ferguson Problem: How the state's racist fee system punishes poverty, lacks transparency, and is overdue for reform, No Price on Justice. September, 2020. "A national study found that 34 New York localities are about as reliant, if not more reliant, on fines and fees revenue as Ferguson was during the period investigated."
  • Reducing Racial Disparities in Crime Victimization Anna Harvey and Taylor Mattia. July, 2020. "We find that successful litigation over racially discriminatory practices substantially reduced both absolute and relative Black crime victimization, without increasing white victimization."

Wednesday, October 21 2020:

  • Time-In-Cell 2019: A Snapshot of Restrictive Housing Based on a Nationwide Survey of U.S. Prison Systems, The Arthur Liman Public Interest Program at Yale Law School and the Association of State Correctional Administrators. September, 2020. "As of the summer of 2019, an estimated 55,000 to 62,500 prisoners in the United States were held in isolation for an average of 22 hours a day for 15 days."
  • Sanctuary policies reduce deportations without increasing crime Paywall :( David K. Hausman. October, 2020. "hese findings suggest that sanctuary policies, although effective at reducing deportations, do not threaten public safety."

Tuesday, October 20 2020:

  • Locked Out 2020: Estimates of People Denied Voting Rights Due to a Felony Conviction, Sentencing Project. October, 2020. "As of 2020, an estimated 5.17 million people are disenfranchised due to a felony conviction."
  • Voting with a Criminal Record How Registration Forms Frustrate Democracy, ACLU. October, 2008. "This analysis finds that 33 states plus the District of Columbia currently use registration forms that do not sufficiently convey information about the voter eligibility of the 47 million Americans with criminal records."
  • Challenging Jail-Based Disenfranchisement: A Resource Guide for Advocates, Campaign Legal Center. December, 2019. "Jail-based disenfranchisement is not the result of one bad law; instead, it is caused by a complicated, convoluted net of practical barriers that deprive eligible, incarcerated voters of their constitutional right to vote."
  • Voting in California Jails: A community toolkit, ACLU of Northern California. August, 2020. "There are roughly 82,000 people in California's jails and practically all of those individuals who are adult citizens have the right to vote."
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2017-2018 Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2020. "A total of 84 jails in Indian country held an estimated 2,870 inmates at midyear 2018, a 2% increase from the 2,820 inmates held in 84 facilities at midyear 2017"
  • NYPD Officer Misconduct Analysis New York University's Public Safety Lab. September, 2020. "We find that precincts with higher percentages of Black residents had higher levels of excess misconduct complaints, both all and substantiated, between 2006-2019."
  • Criminal Justice System Involvement and Food Insufficiency: Findings from the 2018 New York City Community Health Survey, Paywall :( Alexander Testa and Dylan B.Jackson. September, 2020. "Personal and family history of CRJ involvement is associated with a higher likelihood of experiencing moderate-to-severe food insufficiency."
  • The Treatment-Industrial Complex: Alternative Corrections, Private Prison Companies, and Criminal Justice Debt, Laura I Appleman. October, 2020. "This Article explores and analyzes the little-researched area of criminal justice debt arising from alternative corrections: how private corrections companies profit from supervising those individuals released, paroled, sent to rehabilitation or diversion"
  • Woke Retailers -- This You? Corporations That Embraced Criminal Justice Reform Rhetoric Have Been Fueling Mass Incarceration, Public Citizen. October, 2020. "In recent years, the retail industry has advocated against criminal justice reforms that reduce shoplifting sentences and/or supported harsher antishoplifting laws in 18 states. Most of the time - in 11 states - the retail industry prevailed."
  • Improving Health Equity for Women Involved in the Criminal Legal System Golembeski et al.. May, 2020. "We delineate reproductive health and motherhood, aging in prison, and reentry as critical areas exemplifying women's complex health-related needs, which may be best addressed via gender-responsive and trauma-informed care."
  • Specialized Parole and Resentencing Laws Focused on Emerging Adults: New and proposed reforms in CA, IL, CO, D.C., and FL, Emerging Adult Justice Project. September, 2020. "Essentially, emerging adults are viewed as less culpable and more malleable by virtue of their age, and the statutes and proposals examined in this factsheet codify that conception."

Friday, October 9 2020:

  • Credit Overdue: How States Can Mitigate Academic Credit Transfer Problems for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System, Southern Poverty Law Center. October, 2020. "The findings confirmed that youth frequently don't receive credit for the work they complete while in juvenile justice facilities."
  • Understanding Police Enforcement Vera Institute of Justice. September, 2020. "Most calls do not relate to serious or violent crime; instead, the most frequent calls involve nuisance complaints and low-level crimes."
  • America's Hidden Common Ground on Police Reform and Racism in the United States: Results from a Public Agenda/USA Today/Ipsos Hidden Common Ground survey, Ipsos and Public Agenda. June, 2020. "Most Americans (58%) say racial bias against Black or African Americans committed by police and law enforcement is a serious problem in their community, including 75% of Democrats and 51% of Independents as well as 40% of Republicans."
  • Youth Justice Under the Coronavirus: Linking Public Health Protections with the Movement for Youth Decarceration, Sentencing Project. September, 2020. "Despite almost two decades of declines in U.S. youth incarceration, The Sentencing Project reveals more than 1,800 incarcerated youth have tested positive for COVID-19 since March, including more than 300 cases in Florida and Texas."

Tuesday, October 6 2020:

  • Eligible, but excluded: A guide to removing the barriers to jail voting, Prison Policy Initiative & Rainbow PUSH Coalition. October, 2020. "Most people in jail are legally eligible to vote, but they are prevented from doing so by numerous barriers."

Thursday, October 1 2020:

  • Solitary Confinement in the Pelican State Texas Public Policy Foundation & Right on Crime. September, 2020. "Louisiana ranks #1 in percentage of inmates in segregation in the United States."
  • Associations Between Parole, Probation, Arrest, and Self-reported Suicide Attempts William C. Bryson, Jennifer Piel & Stephen Thielke. August, 2020. "Adults with recent arrest had higher risk of suicide attempts than those with parole, probation, or matched controls with no CJ involvement."
  • Research Memo: Police Unions and the Obstacles They Pose, Community Resource Hub for Safety and Accountability. September, 2020. "Police unions and the LEOBR/POBR pose major obstacles to police reform, specifically in regard to accountability, transparency, and community safety."
  • Ohio Could Save Big by Implementing Bail Reform: A Fiscal Impact Analysis, ACLU of Ohio. September, 2020. (Over 3,000 people charged with a misdemeanor are awaiting trial in Ohio jails at an annual cost of $74 to $96 million. And nearly 9,600 people charged with a felony are awaiting trial in Ohio jails at an annual cost of $235 to $306 million.)
  • Toward Shared Safety: The First-Ever National Survey of America's Safety Gaps, Alliance for Safety and Justice. September, 2020. "Broad consensus exists at the neighborhood level and across different demographics: public safety policies and investments should prioritize violence prevention, recovery, mental health, reentry and the most effective strategies to stop the cycle of crime"
  • Trauma, Healing, and Justice: Native Hawaiian Women in Hawaii's Criminal Justice System, Paywall :( Toni Bissen. September, 2020. "Native Hawaiian women comprise 21% of the female population in Hawaii but account for 40% of the jail and prison population."

Wednesday, September 30 2020:

Tuesday, September 29 2020:

  • Tracking Enforcement Trends in New York City: 2003-2018, Data Collaborative for Justice. September, 2020. "There were 5.8 enforcement actions among Black people for every one enforcement action among White people in 2018."
  • Pardons and Public Safety: Examining A Decade of Recidivism Data in Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Lawyers for Social Equity. August, 2020. "Of the 3,037 people who applied for a pardon, only 2 (0.066%) were later convicted of a crime of violence."

Friday, September 11 2020:

  • Monitoring Pretrial Reform in Harris County: First Sixth Month Report of the Court-Appointed Monitor, Independent Monitor for the Odonnell v. Harris County. September, 2020. "Second, contrary to bail industry and prosecutor propaganda, the data shows that recidivism has not increased, but is actually slightly down. This suggests that systems can release far more people while also reducing the rates of new arrests."

Wednesday, September 9 2020:

  • Correctional Populations in the United States, 2017-2018 Bureau of Justice Statistics. August, 2020. "An estimated 6,410,000 persons were held in prisons or jails or were on probation or parole in 2018."
  • How Many Complaints Against Police Officers Can Be Abated by Incapacitating A Few "Bad Apples?" Aaron Chalfin and Jacob Kaplan. August, 2020. "Our analysis suggests that surgically removing predictably problematic police officers is unlikely to have a large impact on citizen complaints."
  • Officer-Involved Shootings in Texas: 2016-2019, Texas Justice Initiative. August, 2020. "Shootings of civilians and their subsequent deaths caused by officers have been increasing over the four years"
  • Racial Disparities in the Massachusetts Criminal System The Criminal Justice Policy Program, Harvard Law School. September, 2020. "The Commonwealth significantly outpaced national race and ethnicity disparity rates in incarceration, imprisoning Black people at a rate 7.9 times that of White people and Latinx people at 4.9 times that of White people."
  • The Effects of Holistic Defense on Criminal Justice Outcomes RAND Corporation. January, 2019. "Over the ten-year study period, holistic defense in the Bronx resulted in nearly 1.1 million fewer days of custodial punishment."
  • In the Shadows: A Review of the Research on Plea Bargaining, Vera Institute of Justice. September, 2020. "Researchers estimate that more than 90% of criminal cases that end in conviction are the result of plea bargaining, a low-visibility, off-the-record, and informal process that usually occurs far from open court."
  • Lives on the Line: Women with Incarcerated Loved Ones and the Impact of COVID-19 Behind Bars, Essie Justice Group and Color of Change. September, 2020. (Only 7% of respondents reported that their incarcerated loved one had adequate access to basic necessities to prevent the spread of COVID-19.)

Tuesday, September 8 2020:

  • The Many Roads to Reintegration: A 50-State Report on Laws Restoring Rights and Opportunities After Arrest or Conviction, Collateral Consequences Resource Center. September, 2020. "The area where there is least consensus, and that remains most challenging to reformers, is managing dissemination of damaging criminal record information."
  • The Science of Solitary: Expanding the Harmfulness Narrative, Craig Haney. September, 2020. "Solitary confinement represents a particularly toxic, dangerous subset of a much broader, scientifically well-documented, extremely harmful condition--the deprivation of meaningful social contact."
  • Polluting our prisons? An examination of Oklahoma prison locations and toxic releases, 2011-2017, Paywall :( Maggie Leon-Corwin, Jericho R McElroy, Michelle L Estes, Jon Lewis, Michael A Long. January, 2020. "Our results find that prison zip codes have greater TRI emissions compared to non-prison zip codes."
  • State supervision, punishment and poverty: The case of drug bans on welfare receipt, Amanda Sheely. August, 2020. "I find that poverty is lower among people with drug convictions in states that opted out of the drug ban, compared to full ban states."
  • Local Labor Market Inequality in the Age of Mass Incarceration Luke Petach and Anita Alves Pena. 2020. "While income inequality is associated with higher rates of incarceration for all race and ethnicity groups (although not always in statistically significant fashion), the effect is largest for non-white, nonHispanic individuals."
  • 96 Deaths in Detention: A View of COVID-19 in the Federal Bureau of Prisons as Captured in Death Notices, World Peace Foundation at the Fletcher School. August, 2020. "They reveal substantial shortcomings that are an indictment of the Bureau, the Department of Justice, and the current Administration, and the American public that has proven too willing to write off the lives of millions of incarcerated people."
  • Law Enforcement Super Pacs and the Fight for Reform Democratic Policy Center. June, 2020. "This report outlines an under-investigated aspect of law enforcement union power: their use of independent expenditure groups to influence elections and their ability to hire top Democratic consultants to execute their campaigns."
  • Which Side Are We On: Can Labor Support #BlackLivesMatter and Police Unions?, David Unger. July, 2020. "An estimated 60 to 80 percent of police officers nationwide are unionized,twice the 34 percent unionization rate for the entire public sector, and at least ten times the rate of private sector unionization."
  • Impacts of Private Prison Contracting on Inmate Time Served and Recidivism Anita Mukherjee. August, 2020. "The empirical analysis shows that private prison inmates serve 90 additional days. This is alternatively estimated as 4.8 percent of the average sentence."
  • More Work to Do: Analysis of Probation and Parole in the United States, 2017-2018, Kendra Bradner, Vincent Schiraldi, Natasha Mejia, and Evangeline Lopoo. August, 2020. "From 2008 to 2018, the decline in the number of people on probation has failed to keep pace with the decline in arrests, resulting in an increase in the rate of probation, per arrest."
  • Life Years Lost to Police Encounters in the United States Elizabeth Wrigley-Field. August, 2020. "This implies a loss of roughly 16,000 years of life for recent cohorts of Black men."
  • An Examination of Women's Experiences with Reporting Sexual Victimization Behind Prison Walls Paywall :( April Surrell and Ida M. Johnson. September, 2020. "The interviewees identified stigma and gossip, officer camaraderie, and fear of retaliation as the dominant barriers to reporting and investigating incidents of sexual assault."

Tuesday, September 1 2020:

  • The Other Epidemic: Fatal Police Shootings in the Time of COVID-19, ACLU. August, 2020. "From January 1, 2015, to June 30, 2020, police officers shot and killed 5,442 people."

Monday, August 31 2020:

  • The First Step Act of 2018: One Year of Implementation, United States Sentencing Commission. August, 2020. (Since authorized by the First Step Act, 2,387 out of 226,000 people incarcerated in federal prisons received a reduction in sentence as a result of retroactive application of the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010.)
  • Hidden in Plain Sight: Racism, White Supremacy, and Far-Right Militancy in Law Enforcement, Brennan Center for Justice. August, 2020. "Alarmingly, internal FBI policy documents have also warned agents assigned to domestic terrorism cases that the white supremacist and anti-government militia groups they investigate often have "active links" to law enforcement officials."

Thursday, August 20 2020:

Tuesday, August 18 2020:

  • No Access to Justice: Breaking the Cycle of Homelessness and Jail, Vera Institute of Justice. August, 2020. "Researchers have found that homelessness is between 7.5 and 11.3 times more prevalent among the jail population, and in some places the rate is much higher."
  • Public opinion and the politics of collateral consequence policies Paywall :( Travis Johnston and Kevin H Wozniak. August, 2020. "We find that Americans generally oppose benefit restrictions, though support for these policies is higher among Republicans and people with higher levels of racial resentment."

Tuesday, August 4 2020:

  • Limiting COVID-19 Transmission and Mitigating the Adverse Consequences of a COVID-19 Outbreak in Correctional Settings: RELEASE * COHORT * TEST, AMEND & Berkeley School of Public Health. May, 2020. "As the COVID-19 epidemic sweeps into correctional institutions around the nation, these critical actions must be urgently prioritized by system and political leaders in order to avert a health and humanitarian disaster among incarcerated people..."
  • Whom the State Kills Scott Phillips & Justin Marceau. July, 2020. "The overall execution rate is a staggering seventeen times greater for defendants convicted of killing a white victim."
  • National Association of Pretrial Services Agencies COVID-19 Policy Response Survey National Association of Pretrial Services Agencies. July, 2020. "Most surveyed jurisdictions increased: use of video conferencing for court hearings, pretrial release, release on personal recognizance for non-violent crimes, and cite & release."
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2017-2018 Bureau of Justice Statistics. August, 2020. "An estimated 1 in 58 adults in the U.S. were under community supervision at year-end 2018."
  • Revoked: How Probation and Parole Feed Mass Incarceration in the United States, Human Rights Watch & the ACLU. July, 2020. "The most common rule violations that trigger incarceration in Wisconsin are using drugs and consuming alcohol or entering bars. In Pennsylvania, state parole violations largely result from people failing to report address changes and using drugs."
  • Sticker Shock 2020: The Cost of Youth Incarceration, Justice Policy Institute. July, 2020. "The average state cost for the secure confinement of a young person is now $588 per day, or $214,620 per year, a 44 percent increase from 2014."

Thursday, July 30 2020:

  • Criminal Disqualifications in the Paycheck Protection Program Keith Finlay, Michael Mueller-Smith, Brittany Street. July, 2020. "Black and Hispanic men, younger men, and Black women experience higher than average exclusion from PPP eligibility due to higher rates of contact with the criminal justice system in each state."
  • Who Must Pay to Regain the Vote? A 50-State Survey, Collateral Consequences Resource Center. July, 2020. "In most of the others (16 states), regaining the vote is tied to completion of supervision, which may give courts and supervision officials some discretion to delay reenfranchisement temporarily if LFOs have not been paid, but not to deny it permanently."
  • Aligning Correctional Health Standards With Medicaid-Covered Benefits Marin G. Olson, Utsha G. Khatri, Tyler N. A. Winkelman. July, 2020. "Few correctional facilities have formal accreditation, and even accredited facilities do not always meet constitutional requirements."
  • Confronting the Demographics of Power: America's Sheriffs, Women Donors Network. June, 2020. "Ninety two percent of sheriffs are white. Ninety percent are white men."
  • Good Cop, Bad Cop: Using Civilian Allegations to Predict Police Misconduct, Kyle Rozema and Max Schanzenbach. May, 2019. "The worst 1 percent of officers, as measured by civilian allegations, generate almost 5 times the number of payouts and over 4 times the total damage payouts in civil rights litigation."
  • Do Detainees Plead Guilty Faster? A Survival Analysis of Pretrial Detention and the Timing of Guilty Pleas, Paywall :( Nick Peterson. April, 2019. "Survival analyses indicate that pretrial detainees plead guilty 2.86 times faster than released defendants do."
  • Use of Structured Sanctions and Incentives in Probation and Parole Supervision Robina Institute of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice. July, 2020. "There is strong evidence that the use of incentives by supervising officers produces improved supervision outcomes for individuals convicted of more serious offenses and people classified as higher risk to reoffend."
  • Illinois Failing Key Pillar of COVID-19 Response: Prisons Remain Crowded While Early Releases Exacerbate Racial Inequity, Restore Justice. June, 2020. "White people are being released from prison at much higher rates--and much earlier--than their Black and Latino peers. While white people comprise just 32 percent of the Illinois prison population, they account for nearly half of all early releases."
  • Barred from working: A Nationwide Study of Occupational Licensing Barriers for Ex-Offenders, Institute for Justice. May, 2020. "Six states--Alabama, Alaska, Nevada, Rhode Island, South Dakota, and Vermont--were tied for last, receiving a zero on a 100-point scale for their lack of protections for felons seeking licenses."
  • Youth Detention Admissions Remain Low, But Releases Stall Despite COVID-19 The Annie E. Casey Foundation. July, 2020. "In the months since the pandemic emerged in March, the disparities in detention that disadvantage Black youth have gotten worse, solely because Black youth have been released at a slower rate than their white peers."

Tuesday, July 28 2020:

  • Medical Isolation and Solitary Confinement: Balancing Health and Humanity in US Jails and Prisons During COVID-19, David H. Cloud, Cyrus Ahalt, Dallas Augustine, David Sears MD & Brie Williams. 2015. "Any effective and ethical medical isolation and quarantine program in US jails and prisons must be preceded by the immediate release of as many people as possible from jails and prisons to ensure that adequate physical space & medical staff are available."
  • Decarceration and Crime During COVID-19 ACLU. July, 2020. "Over this time period, we found that the reduction in jail population was functionally unrelated to crime trends in the following months."
  • No Excuses: Governors Must Pursue Decarceration Along With Investments in Reentry Services, The Justice Collaborative Institute. June, 2020. "Meaningful reentry services are available and can be expanded by building upon a large network of existing programs."

Monday, July 27 2020:

Thursday, July 2 2020:

  • Police Officers Rarely Charged for Excessive Use of Force in Federal Court TRAC. June, 2020. "In fact, in the twenty-year period between 1990 and 2019, federal prosecutors filed SS 242 charges about 41 times per year on average."
  • Race and Reasonableness in Police Killings Jeffrey Fagan and Alexis Campbell. May, 2020. "Black suspects are more than twice as likely to be killed by police than are persons of other racial or ethnic groups; even when there are no other obvious circumstances during the encounter that would make the use of deadly force reasonable."
  • Second Look for Justice, Safety and Savings: A Plan to Address Rehabilitated Youth Serving Extreme Sentences in Adult Prisons, Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. May, 2020. "Texas' 40-year requirement before parole can be considered a harsh outlier, rendering its ban on juvenile LWOP virtually meaningless because the "remedy" is equally punitive and extreme."

Wednesday, July 1 2020:

  • The Cumulative Probability of Arrest by Age 28 Years in the United States by Disability Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender, Erin J. McCauley. 2015. "Estimates demonstrated that those with disabilities have a higher cumulative probability of arrest than those without. The risk was disproportionately spread across races/ethnicities, with Blacks with disabilities experiencing the highest risk of arrest."
  • "Whatever they do, I'm her comfort, I'm her protector." How the foster system has become ground zero for the U.S. drug war, Movement for Family Power, NYU Family Defense Clinic, Drug Policy Alliance. June, 2020. "We estimate this number jumps to one in three Black and/or Latinx children having had contact with ACS in the past five years, either through an investigation, service provision or foster care."
  • The Broad Scope and Variation of Monetary Sanctions: Evidence From Eight States, Sarah Shannon, Beth M. Huebner, Alexes Harris, et al.. June, 2020. (Key trends include: the lack of transparent processes in implementing this form of punishment, the wide variation in practices and policies across jurisdictions, and the ways that noncompliance deepens legal entanglements and collateral consequences.)
  • Incarcerated Parents and Child Welfare in Washington Sayer Rippey. March, 2020. "From 2006 to 2016, 32,000 incarcerated parents in the United States permanently lost their parental rights without ever being accused of child abuse.1 Of these, approximately 5,000 lost their parental rights solely because of their incarceration."
  • Incarceration Weakens a Community's Immune System: Mass Incarceration and COVID-19 Cases in Milwaukee Preliminary Results, Measures for Justice. June, 2020. "The number of incarcerations is a strong predictor of the number of COVID-19 cases above and beyond the effect of other predictors in the model, including poverty, unemployment, and population not in the labor force."
  • Examining the Relationship Between Incarceration and Population Health: The Roles of Region and Urbanicity, Paywall :( Robert R. Weidner and Jennifer Schultz. May, 2020. "Results indicate that level of incarceration has a detrimental effect on both mortality (i.e., premature death) and morbidity (i.e., self-reported health), and that these effects are more pronounced in rural and Southern counties."
  • Injustice and the Disappearance of Discretionary Detention under Trump: Detaining Low Risk Immigrants without Bond, Robert Koulish and Katherine Evans. May, 2020. "The data show that officers have manipulated the risk tool by subjecting low-risk immigrants to blanket detention, which has come to define the no-release Trump immigration policy in the New York City area."
  • Trauma and Loss During Reentry: Early Findings from a Multi-State Trial, Florida State University Institute for Justice Research and Development. May, 2020. "47% of our participants experienced at least one traumatic event in the 8 months after their release from incarceration."
  • Sending New Yorkers to Jail: Police Unions, Campaign Contributions, and the Political Fight to Rollback Bail Reform, Center for Community Alternatives, Citizen Action of New York, and the Public Policy and Education Fund of New York. June, 2020. (On average, Senators who voted to expose more New Yorkers to money bail received 10 times as much in law enforcement union donations as those who voted in opposition.)
  • Widespread Desire for Policing and Criminal Justice Reform The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research. June, 2020. "Americans, regardless of race, strongly support policies that include body cameras, holding police accountable for excessive force and racially biased policing, and creating criteria for the use of force."
  • To Serve and Protect Each Other: How Police-Prosecutor Codependence Enables Police Misconduct, Somil Trivedi and Nicole Gonzalez Van Cleve. May, 2020. "The persistent, codependent relationship between police and prosecutors exacerbates police misconduct and violence and is aided by prosecutors in both legal and extralegal ways."
  • Police Brutality Bonds: How Wall Street Profits from Police Violence, Action Center on Race & the Economy. June, 2020. "In the twelve cities and counties included here, we found a total of nearly $878 million in bond borrowing to cover police related settlements and judgments."
  • #DefundPolice Toolkit: Concrete Steps Toward Divestment from Policing & Investment in Community Safety, Interrupting Criminalization: Research in Action & Movement for Black Lives. June, 2020. "#DefundPolice is a strategy that goes beyond dollars and cents--it is not just about decreasing police budgets, it is about reducing the power, scope, and size of police departments."
  • Police Killings in the US: Inequalities by Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Position, People's Policy Project. June, 2020. "Whites in the poorest areas have a police killing rate of 7.9 per million, compared to 2 per million in the least-poor areas. Blacks in the poorest areas have a police killing rate of 12.3 per million, compared to 6.7 per million in the least-poor areas."
  • The Limits of Fairer Fines: Lessons from Germany, Criminal Justice Policy Program at Harvard Law School. June, 2020. "Germany also shows us that considering ability to pay at sentencing in every case is possible without being unduly cumbersome."
  • Why Bail Reform is Safe and Effective: The Case of Cook County, The JFA Institute. April, 2020. "Judge Evans' Order has resulted in over 3,000 people each year who no longer are needlessly jailed because they can't afford bail. Thousands more are either spending less time in jail or avoiding prison sentences. And crime rates have dropped."
  • Paying on Probation: How Financial Sanctions Intersect with Probation to Target, Trap, and Punish People Who Cannot Pay, Criminal Justice Policy Program at Harvard Law School. June, 2020. "All but two states have statutes authorizing the imposition of supervision fees on people sentenced to some or all types of supervised probation.75 Most supervision fees are assessed monthly, and can be quite high, ranging from $10 to $150 per month."
  • The Complexities of Race and Place: Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adult Incarceration for Whites, Blacks, and Latinos, Steven Elias Alvarado. June, 2020. "Blacks, the findings suggest, experience the weakest neighborhood associations with incarceration, suggesting that residential mobility for blacks does not protect against incarceration as much as it does for whites and Latinos."
  • Whitewashing the Jury Box: How California Perpetuates the Discriminatory Exclusion of Black and Latinx Jurors, Berkeley Law Death Penalty Clinic. 2015. "We evaluated nearly 700 cases decided by the California Courts of Appeal from 2006 through 2018, which involved objections to prosecutors' peremptory challenges. In nearly 72% of these cases, district attorneys used their strikes to remove Black jurors."
  • Do Public Defender Resources Matter? The Effect of Public Defender and Support Staff Caseloads on the Incarceration of Felony Defendants, Aaron Gottlieb and Kelsey Arnold. April, 2020. "Results suggest that felony defendants in counties with higher public defender and support staff caseloads are more likely to be detained pretrial and that felony defendants in counties with smaller support staff caseloads receive shorter incarceration."

Friday, June 26 2020:

  • Physical Health and Disability Among U.S. Adults Recently on Community Supervision Paywall :( Tyler N. A. Winkelman, Michelle S. Phelps, Kelly Lyn Mitchell, Latasha Jennings, and Rebecca J. Shlafer. April, 2020. "Compared to the general population, adults recently on community supervision were significantly more likely to report fair or poor health, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hepatitis B or C, one or more chronic conditions, and any disability."
  • Failing Grades: States' Responses to COVID-19 in Jails & Prisons, Prison Policy Initiative and ACLU. June, 2020. "Despite all of the information, voices calling for action, and the obvious need, state responses ranged from disorganized or ineffective, at best, to callously nonexistent at worst."
  • Police Disciplinary Appeals Stephen Rushin. 2019. "Many communities have established appeals procedures that may hamper reform efforts, contribute to officer misconduct, and limit public oversight of police departments."

Tuesday, June 23 2020:

Friday, June 5 2020:

  • Commercialized (In)justice Litigation Guide: Applying Consumer Laws to Commercial Bail, Prison Retail, and Private Debt Collection, National Consumer Law Center. June, 2020. "States and local governments have increasingly offloaded core functions of their criminal legal systems--traditionally public services--onto private corporations operating to maximize profit for their owners and shareholders."

Tuesday, June 2 2020:

  • Criminal Record Stigma in the College-Educated Labor Market Michael Cerda-Jara, Aminah Elster, and David J. Harding. May, 2020. "The overall callback rate is 50 percent lower for college-educated men with criminal records compared to college-educated men with no record."
  • Compassionate release was never designed to release large numbers of people Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2020. "Unfortunately, what they, and the American public, are learning is that compassionate release is not a transparent and linear process, but an unpredictably ordered series of obstacles."
  • Persistent and aggressive interactions with the police: potential mental health implications, J.L. Hirschtick et al.. February, 2019. (Men reporting a high number of lifetime police stops have three times greater odds of current PTSD symptoms compared with men who did not report high lifetime police stops, even after adjusting for a range of factors.)
  • Collateral Damage: The Health Effects of Invasive Police Encounters in New York City, Abigail A. Sewell and Kevin A. Jefferson. April, 2016. "It shows that, holding constant crime levels, segregation measures, and known sociodemographic correlates of health, community-level Terry stop patterns associate with individual-level illness."
  • Risk of Police-Involved Death by Race/Ethnicity and Place, United States, 2012-2018 Paywall :( Frank Edwards, Michael H. Esposito, and Hedwig Lee. August, 2018. (Police were responsible for about 8% of all homicides with adult male victims between 2012 and 2018, with Black men having the highest risk of mortality from police violence.)
  • Police Union Contracts Stephen Rushin. March, 2017. "Across America's largest cities, many police officers receive excessive procedural protections during internal disciplinary investigations, effectively immunizing them from the consequences of misconduct."
  • TRENDS: Police Militarization and the Use of Lethal Force, Paywall :( Edward Lawson, Jr.. July, 2018. (There is a positive and significant association between militarization and the number of suspects killed, controlling for several other possible explanations.)
  • The Wandering Officer Ben Grunwald & John Rappaport. April, 2020. "In any given year over the last three decades, an average of roughly 1,100 full-time law-enforcement officers in Florida walk the streets having been fired in the past, and almost 800 having been fired for misconduct."
  • Catalyzing Policing Reform with Data: Policing Typology for Los Angeles Neighborhoods, Urban Institute. May, 2020. "However, across all groups and their varied activity levels, Black people are stopped at the highest rate."
  • Bail Reform Revisited: The Impact of New York's Amended Bail Law on Pretrial Detention, Center for Court Innovation. May, 2020. "When compared to the original reforms passed in 2019, the amendments will produce a 16 percent relative increase in the use of money bail and pretrial detention among New York City criminal cases and a 16 percent increase in the pretrial jail population."
  • The Relationship Between Structural Racism and Black-White Disparities in Fatal Police Shootings at the State Level Paywall :( Aldina Mesic et al. April, 2018. "For every 10-point increase in the state racism index, the Black-White disparity ratio of police shooting rates of people not known to be armed increased by 24%."
  • Using Shifts in Deployment and Operations to Test for Racial Bias in Police Stops John M. MacDonald and Jeffrey Fagan. May, 2019. "For blacks, impact-zone formation increases arrests, summons, and frisks. For Hispanics, impact-zone formation increases arrests, frisks, and street detention."

Monday, June 1 2020:

  • Does contact with the justice system deter or promote future delinquency? Results from a longitudinal study of British adolescent twins, Ryan T. Motz et al.. December, 2019. "We found that contact with the justice system--through spending a night in jail/prison, being issued an ASBO, or having an official crime record--promotes misbehavior, which supports the labeling hypothesis."
  • U.S. Prison Decline: Insufficient to Undo Mass Incarceration, Sentencing Project. May, 2019. "At the pace of decarceration since 2009, averaging 1% annually, it will take 65 years-- until 2085--to cut the U.S. prison population in half."
  • Racial Disparities in NYPD's COVID-19 Policing: Unequal Enforcement of 311 Social Distancing Calls, The Legal Aid Society. May, 2020. "Although the official data released by the city is limited and incomplete, the data that is available demonstrates the disproportionate impacts of the NYPD's pandemic policing on Black and Latino New Yorkers."
  • A randomized control trial evaluating the effects of police body-worn cameras David Yokum, Anita Ravishankar, and Alexander Coppock. May, 2019. "Our results indicate that cameras did not meaningfully affect police behavior on a range of outcomes, including complaints and use of force."
  • Examining the Role of Use of Force Policies in Ending Police Violence Samuel Sinyangwe. September, 2016. "These results suggest specific changes to police department use of force policies can significantly reduce police violence in America."
  • Evidence that curtailing proactive policing can reduce major crime Paywall :( Christopher M. Sullivan & Zachary P. O'Keeffe. September, 2017. "Analysing several years of unique data obtained from the NYPD, we find that civilian complaints of major crimes (such as burglary, felony assault and grand larceny) decreased during and shortly after sharp reductions in proactive policing."
  • The Effect of Direct and Vicarious Police Contact on the Educational Achievement of Urban Teens Paywall :( Aaron Gottlieb and Robert Wilson. August, 2019. "We find that arrest, police contact that does not result in arrest, and vicarious police contact are all associated with reductions in educational achievement."
  • Preventing the Use of Deadly Force: Paywall :( Jay T. Jennings and Meghan E. Rubado. February, 2017. "Findings show that one policy--the requirement that officers file a report when they point their guns at people but do not fire--is associated with significantly lower rates of gun deaths."

Friday, May 15 2020:

  • People in Prison in 2019 [Website] Vera Institute of Justice. May, 2020. ""Vera researchers collected data on the number of people who were incarcerated in state and federal prisons as of December 31, 2019...[and] updated data on people in prison at the end of the first quarter of 2020.""

Thursday, May 14 2020:

  • Prisons as Panacea or Pariah? The Countervailing Consequences of the Prison Boom on the Political Economy of Rural Towns, John M. Eason. January, 2017. "Thus, neither entirely pariah nor panacea, the prison functions as a state-sponsored public works program for disadvantaged rural communities but also supports perverse economic incentives for prison proliferation."

Tuesday, May 12 2020:

Friday, May 8 2020:

  • The Prison Industry: Mapping Private Sector Players, Worth Rises. May, 2020. "This report exposes over 4,100 corporations that profit from the devastating mass incarceration of our nation's marginalized communities--disproportionately those of color and with low income."

Thursday, May 7 2020:

  • How prepared are state prison systems for a viral pandemic? Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2020. "Most prisons are still aiming to keep the virus out of their facilities, rather than focusing on how to minimize the harm to incarcerated people, to their staff and to society as a whole"
  • Voting in Jails Sentencing Project. May, 2020. "In local jails the vast majority of persons are eligible to vote because they are not currently serving a sentence for a felony conviction."
  • While jails drastically cut populations, state prisons have released almost no one Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2020. "Our analysis finds that jails are responding to the unprecedented public health crisis by rapidly dropping their populations. In contrast, state prisons have barely budged."
  • Prisoners in 2018 Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2020. "At year-end 2018, an estimated 1,465,200 prisoners were under state or federal jurisdiction."
  • Resentencing of Juvenile Lifers: The Philadelphia Experience, Tarika Daftary-Kapur and Tina M. Zottoli. April, 2020. "269 lifers have been re-sentenced in Philadelphia and 174 have been released. Six (3.5%) have been re-arrested. Charges were dropped in four of the cases and two (1%) resulted in new convictions."
  • A Review of Recreation Requirements in U.S. Juvenile Justice Facilities Paywall :( Maria Leon, Corliss Outley, Miner Marchbanks, Brandy Kelly Pryor. August, 2019. "There is not a shared definition of recreation, only 70% of states have daily mandatory minimums requirements, only 44% of states require youth be given time outside, and only 56% of states include justifications for denying youth access to recreation."

Wednesday, May 6 2020:

  • Rikers 6-A Early Release Program: Results After One Month of Operations, Center for Court Innovation. April, 2020. "After one month of operations, only 7 of the 312 released individuals--2.2 percent--have been re-arrested while in the program. Of these, 4 were for alleged misdemeanor offenses."

Friday, May 1 2020:

  • Recommendations for Rapid Release and Reentry During the COVID-19 Pandemic NYU Marron Institute of Urban Management. April, 2020. "[The assumptions and recommendations in this report] provide guidance to agencies supporting rapid release from incarceration and community reentry in response to COVID-19."
  • Since you asked: Is social distancing possible behind bars?, Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2020. "The short answer is no - social distancing is even harder behind bars than in nursing homes or on cruise ships."
  • Since you asked: What data exists about Native American people in the criminal justice system?, Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2020. "Problems with data collection - and an unfortunate tendency to group Native Americans together with other ethnic and racial groups in data publications - have made it hard to understand the effect of mass incarceration on Native people."
  • A Tale of Two Countries: Racially Targeted Arrests in the Era of Marijuana Reform, ACLU. April, 2020. "On average, a Black person is 3.64 times more likely to be arrested for marijuana possession than a white person, even though Black and white people use marijuana at similar rates."
  • Large scale releases and public safety Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2020. "Large-scale releases have been common throughout U.S. and international history for a variety of legal, political and health reasons."
  • Reproductive Healthcare Experiences of Incarcerated Women: A Qualitative Study, Paywall :( Sarah O'Connor and Rebecca Perkins. 2015. "Most women described fragmentation of care with inability to consistently access reproductive and prenatal healthcare services. Frequent transitions between institutions exacerbated problems with access."

Thursday, April 30 2020:

  • Flattening the Curve: Why Reducing Jail Populations Is Key to Beating COVID-19, ACLU, Washington State University, University of Pennsylvania, and University of Tennessee. April, 2020. "Models projecting total U.S. fatalities to be under 100,0001 may be underestimating deaths by almost another 100,000 if we continue to operate jails as usual."
  • Policing in a Time of Pandemic: Recommendations for Law Enforcement, Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics and Georgetown Law Innovative Policing Program. April, 2020. "Traditional law enforcement practices such as stops, searches, and arrests currently create a substantial risk of infection for police, suspects and community members alike."
  • Modeling COVID-19 and impacts on U.S. Immigration and Enforcement (ICE) detention facilities, 2020 Irvine et al.. April, 2020. "Preventing the rapid spread necessitates intervention measures such as granting ICE detainees widespread release from an unsafe environment by returning them to the community."
  • Protecting Rural Jails from Coronavirus Data for Progress and The Justice Collaborative. April, 2020. "Our analysis shows that a significant percentage of people being held in jails--12% nationally and over a third in some states--are housed in counties without any ICU beds."
  • Hundreds are still jailed for technical parole violations in NYC, which means decarceration is happening far too slowly Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2020. "As of April 22nd, there were still 293 people held in NYC jails for technical parole violations:"
  • Policy Reforms Can Strengthen Community Supervision: A framework to improve probation and parole, The Pew Charitable Trusts. April, 2020. "This report details the challenges facing community supervision systems around the country and outlines specific policy changes that states can make to achieve improved outcomes."
  • At Onset of the COVID-19 Pandemic, Dramatic and Rapid Reductions in Youth Detention The Annie E. Casey Foundation. April, 2020. "A survey of juvenile justice agencies in 30 state finds that the number of young people in local secure detention centers fell by 24% in March 2020, a sign that the coronavirus pandemic is dramatically altering the juvenile justice system."

Monday, April 27 2020:

Tuesday, April 14 2020:

  • Understanding Violent-Crime Recidivism J.J. Prescott, Benjamin Pyle, and Sonja B. Starr. September, 2020. "Although estimates vary, our synthesis of the available evidence suggests that released violent offenders, especially homicide offenders who are older at release, have lower overall recidivism rates relative to other released offenders."

Tuesday, April 7 2020:

  • Five ways the criminal justice system could slow the pandemic Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2020. "Given the toll COVID-19 has already taken on our jails and prisons, as well as our society at large, the time is now for federal, state, and local officials to put public health before punishment."
  • The Case for Clean Slate in North Carolina R Street. March, 2020. "1.6 million North Carolinians, or close to one in five individuals, have a criminal record."
  • Mapping disadvantage: The geography of incarceration in New York, Prison Policy Initiative and VOCAL-NY. February, 2020. "A relatively small number of areas in New York are disproportionately impacted by incarceration, and high imprisonment rates correlate with other community problems related to poverty, employment, education, and health."
  • Opioids, Race, and Drug Enforcement: Exploring Local Relationships Between Neighborhood Context and Black-White Opioid-Related Possession Arrests, Paywall :( Ellen A. Donnelly, Jascha Wagner, Madeline Stenger, Hannah G. Cortina, Daniel J. O'Connell, Tammy L. Anderson. March, 2020. "Calls for police service for overdoses increase White arrests in more advantaged, rural communities. Economic disadvantage and racial diversity in neighborhoods more strongly elevate possession arrest rates among Blacks relative to Whites."
  • The National Registry of Exonerations Annual Report The National Registry of Exonerations. March, 2020. "Last year saw a record number of years lost to prison by defendants exonerated for crimes they did not commit--1,908 years in total for 143 exonerations, an average of 13.3 years lost per exoneree."
  • Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2020, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2020. "The American criminal justice system holds almost 2.3 million people"
  • Data Collected Under the First Step Act, 2019 Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2020. (At year-end 2018, a total of 80,599 people in federal prisons-- or 45% of the BOP population--were the parent, step-parent, or guardian of a minor child.)
  • Contraception need and available services among incarcerated women in the United States: a systematic review, Mishka S. Peart & Andrea K. Knittel. March, 2020. "Incarcerated women desire access to standard and emergency contraception from carceral health care systems."
  • Post-release mortality among persons hospitalized during their incarceration Paywall :( David L. Rosen, Andrew L. Kavee, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein. April, 2020. "People hospitalized during incarceration constitute a particularly vulnerable, yet relatively easily identifiable priority population to focus health interventions supporting continuity of care following prison release."
  • Federal Sentencing of Hispanic Defendants in Changing Immigrant Destinations Paywall :( Jeffery T. Ulmer and Brandy R. Parker. June, 2019. "New destinations, along with non-immigrant destinations, sentenced Hispanic non-citizens more harshly, especially the undocumented."
  • Long-term consequences of being placed in disciplinary segregation Christopher Wildeman and Lars Hojsgaard Andersen. March, 2020. "The results from matched difference-in-differences analyses show that Danish inmates placed in disciplinary segregation experience larger drops in employment and larger increases in the risk of being convicted of a new crime in the 3 years after release."
  • Jail Inmates in 2018 Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2020. "The male jail inmate population decreased 9% from 2008 to 2018, while the female inmate population increased 15%."
  • Which Police Departments Want Reform? Barriers to Evidence-Based Policymaking, Samantha Goerger, Jonathan Mummolo, and Sean J. Westwood. April, 2020. "Many agencies that indicate interest in transparent, evidence-based policymaking are likely engaging in cheap talk, and recoil once performance evaluations are made salient."
  • Demonstrations, demoralization, and de-policing Paywall :( Christopher J. Marier and Lorie A. Fridell. March, 2020. "Post-Ferguson protests in 2014 did not appreciably worsen police morale nor lead to substantial withdrawal from most police work, suggesting that the police institution is resilient to exogenous shocks."
  • Policing the American University Civilytics Consulting LLC. February, 2020. "Since reporting began, campus police departments arrests of black adults have annually increased. Recent reductions in total arrests are due to a sharp decrease in arrests of white adults."
  • Time, Money, and Punishment: Institutional Racial-Ethnic Inequalities in Pretrial Detention and Case Outcomes, Paywall :( Brandon P. Martinez, Nick Petersen, Marisa Omori. October, 2019. "Results indicate that time and money significantly stratify defendants by race and ethnicity, where bond amounts increase time detained, and that time detained in turn reinforces racial inequalities in conviction and incarceration."
  • Technical violations, immigration detainers, and other bad reasons to keep people in jail Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2020. "We found that across 10 urban areas, the share of people held at least in part for probation or parole reasons ranged widely, from 6% to 58% of the average daily jail population."
  • Connecting Families: Compelling messaging for prison phone justice campaigns, Worth Rises. March, 2020. "71% of people support providing families and their loved ones behind bars phone calls at no cost."
  • Racial Inequities in New York Parole Supervision Kendra Bradner and Vincent Schiraldi. March, 2020. "Black and Latinx people are significantly more likely than white people to be under supervision, to be jailed pending a violation hearing, and to be incarcerated in New York State prisons for a parole violation."
  • The Race of Defendants and Victims in Pennsylvania Death Penalty Decisions: 2000-2010, Paywall :( Jeffery T. Ulmer, John H. Kramer, and Gary Zajac. August, 2019. "We find that those who kill white victims, regardless of defendant race, are more likely to receive the death penalty."
  • Life Without Parole Sentencing Brandon L. Garrett, Karima Modjadid, Kristen Renberg. 2015. "We find a strong path dependency and concentration of LWOP sentences in prosecution districts, suggesting that prosecutorial discretion explains the rise in the use of such sentences."
  • Reforms without Results: Why states should stop excluding violent offenses from criminal justice reforms, Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2020. "Almost all of the major criminal justice reforms passed in the last two decades explicitly exclude people accused and convicted of violent offenses."
  • Treatment Needs and Gender Differences Among Clients Entering a Rural Drug Treatment Court With a Co-Occurring Disorder The National Drug Court Resource, Policy, and Evidence-Based Practice Center. February, 2020. "Males had longer CJ involvement, alcohol use, and more needle sharing compared to females. Females reported more trauma, sexual abuse, interpersonal violence, chronic and recent medical conditions, unstable housing, and a lower rate of employment."
  • The Future of Dignity: Insights from the Texas Women's Dignity Retreat, Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. March, 2020. "Female incarceration in Texas has increased at more than twice the rate of male incarceration over the past 40 years."
  • Recommendations for Addressing Racial Bias in Risk and Needs Assessment in the Juvenile Justice System Child Trends. January, 2020. "Because risk and needs assessments may disproportionately impact youth of color, there is a need to improve their accuracy and underlying properties."

Wednesday, March 4 2020:

  • Changing Course in the Overdose Crisis: Moving from Punishment to Harm Reduction and Health, Vera Institute of Justice. February, 2020. "U.S. policies, practices, and systems continue to criminalize and punish people who use drugs within and beyond the criminal justice system."
  • Incarcerated Adults with Dependent Children Daniel M. Leeds, Juliana Pearson, Simone Robers, and Leslie Scott. February, 2020. "More than three-quarters of incarcerated parents with a child under the age of 18 have low literacy (75 percent) and numeracy (89 percent) skills."
  • From Decarceration to E-Carceration Chaz Arnett. February, 2020. "A move from decarceration to e-carceration, or from mass incarceration to mass surveillance, will likely fail to resolve, and may exacerbate, one of the greatest harms of mass incarceration: the maintenance of social stratification."
  • Restorative Prosecution? Rethinking Responses to Violence, Olivia Dana and Sherene Crawford. January, 2020. "As progressive prosecutors attempt to take on criminal justice reform, restorative justice offers a path forward, as well as a means of handling violent cases, and complements the reforms they are already carrying out for lower-level, nonviolent cases."
  • County-level jail incarceration and preterm birth among non-Hispanic Black and white U.S. women, 1999-2015 Paywall :( Jaquelyn L. Jahn, Jarvis T. Chen, Madina Agenor, Nancy Krieger. July, 2020. "Jail incarceration increases non-Hispanic Black and White women's risk of preterm birth."
  • After Cash Bail: A Framework for Reimagining Pretrial Justice, The Bail Project. February, 2020. "As we look to a future after cash bail, it is clear that transformational change will require a clear commitment to move past the incarceration paradigm and reimagine how society responds to poverty, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence."
  • Driving While Black and Latinx: Stops, Fines, Fees, and Unjust Debts, New York Law School Racial Justice Project. February, 2020. "Traffc debt suspensions disproportionately harm New Yorkers of color, and will continue to do so if the current law remains unchanged."
  • Women in Prison: Seeking Justice Behind Bars, U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. February, 2020. "Many incarcerated women continue to experience physical and psychological safety harms while incarcerated and insufficient satisfaction of their constitutional rights."

Tuesday, February 18 2020:

  • A Never-Ending Sentence: The Impact of Criminal Conviction in Project-Based Section 8 Housing Tenant Selection Plans in Cuyahoga County, Reentry Housing Workgroup of the Cleveland Reentry Strategy Coalition. 2015. "The review of [Tenant Selection Plans] shows that criminal convictions, even from misdemeanors, have a long-term impact on access to Project-Based Section 8 Housing in Cuyahoga County"
  • Ending the War on Drugs in Travis County, Texas: How Low-Level Drug Possession Arrests are Harmful and Ineffective, TCJC, Grassroots Leadership, Texas Harm Reduction Alliance, and the Civil Rights Clinic at the University of Texas School of Law. February, 2020. "Between 2013 and 2017, the number of low-level Possession of a Controlled Substance (POCS) cases in Travis County increased by 43 percent,3 and Travis County courts saw a 66 percent increase in the overall number of new felony drug possession cases."
  • Laying the Groundwork: How States Can Improve Access to Continued Education for People in the Criminal Justice System, Council of State Governments Justice Center. February, 2020. "These findings highlight how far all states have to go to adopt the statewide postsecondary education policies and practices necessary to help incarcerated people transition to leading productive lives in the community."
  • Mortality in State and Federal Prisons, 2001-2016 Bureau of Justice Statistics. February, 2020. "The number of deaths in state prisons rose 1.3% from 2015 to 2016 (from 3,682 to 3,729), while the number of deaths in federal prisons fell 15% (from 455 to 388)."
  • County Jail Incarceration Rates and County Mortality Rates in the United States, 1987-2016 Sandhya Kajeepeta, Caroline G. Rutherford, Katherine M. Keyes, Abdulrahman M. El-Sayed, and Seth J. Prins. January, 2020. "Within-county increases in jail incarceration rates are associated with increases in subsequent mortality rates after adjusting for important confounders."
  • Mortality in Local Jails, 2000-2016 Bureau of Justice Statistics. February, 2020. "From 2006 to 2016, suicide was the leading single cause of death in local jails each year; it accounted for nearly a third of jail deaths in 2016 (31%)."
  • Reconciling Police and Communities with Apologies, Acknowledgements, or Both: A Controlled Experiment, Thomas C. O'Brien, Tracey L. Meares, Tom R. Tyler. February, 2020. "The evidence suggests that police leaders should combine acknowledgement of responsibility for the mistrust with an apology if they want to enlist the cooperation of people who are least likely to trust the police."
  • In Trouble: How the Promise of Diversion Clashes With the Reality of Poverty, Addiction, and Structural Racism in Alabama's Justice, Alabama Appleseed Center for Law & Justice. February, 2020. "Fifty-five percent of them made less than $14,999 per year, yet the median amount they reported paying for diversion was $1,600 -- more than ten percent of their total income."
  • An Organizer's Guide to Confronting Pretrial Risk Assessment Tools in Decarceration Campaigns Community Justice Exchange. December, 2019. "This guide provides tools for opposing [risk assessment tools], and an analysis that our opposition to them is one part of a larger organizing strategy to end pretrial incarceration and mass supervision."
  • Successful Reentry: A Community-Level Analysis, The Harvard University Institute of Politics Criminal Justice Policy Group. December, 2019. "Our research showed that several dynamic risk factors - namely health, employment, housing, skill development, mentorship, social networks, and organization type - significantly affect the success of reentry."

Monday, February 17 2020:

  • Pathways to Reintegration: Criminal Record Reforms in 2019, Collateral Consequences Resource Center. February, 2020. "In 2019, 43 states, the District of Columbia, and the federal government enacted an extraordinary 152 laws aimed at reducing barriers faced by people with criminal records in the workplace, at the ballot box, and in many other areas of daily life."
  • "Gladiator School: Returning Citizens' Experiences with Secondary Violence Exposure in Prison", Paywall :( Meghan A. Novisky & Robert L. Peralta. February, 2020. "We find that secondary violence was frequently experienced in prison and often took the form of witnessing non-weaponized assaults, weaponized assaults, multi-perpetrator assaults, and homicide."
  • Reversing the Pipeline to Prison in Texas: How to Ensure Safe Schools AND Safe Students, Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. February, 2020. "Traditional, punitive models of student discipline are not only ineffective, but harmful to students and communities."

Friday, January 24 2020:

  • Criminal Justice Reform in the Fentanyl Era: One Step Forward, Two Steps Back, Drug Policy Alliance. January, 2020. "A recent analysis of federal fentanyl sentencing revealed that 75% of all individuals sentenced for fentanyl trafficking were people of color, suggesting that fentanyl enforcement already mirrors other disparate drug enforcement."

Thursday, January 23 2020:

  • Avoiding the Runaround: The Link Between Cultural Health Capital and Health Management Among Older Prisoners, Paywall :( Meghan A. Novisky. July, 2018. "Findings show that older prisoners make deliberate choices to protect their health from the constraints and deprivations inherent in their carceral lives."

Wednesday, January 22 2020:

  • Solitary Confinement and the U.S. Prison Boom Paywall :( Ryan T. Sakoda, Jessica T. Simes. December, 2019. "Long stays in solitary confinement were rare in the late 1980s with no detectable racial disparities, but a sharp increase in capacity after a new prison opening began an era of long-term isolation most heavily affecting Black young adults."
  • State criminal justice policy context and opioid agonist treatment delivery among opioid treatment admissions, 2015 Shivani Mantha, Pia M. Mauro, Christine M. Mauro, Silvia S. Martins. January, 2020. "Criminal justice referral to treatment was associated with an 85% reduction in the odds of receiving [opioid agonist treatment], compared to other sources of treatment referral"
  • America's Favorite Antidote: Drug-Induced Homicide in the Age of the Overdose Crisis, Leo Beletsky. September, 2019. "At a time of crisis, drug-induced homicide laws and prosecutions represent a false prophecy of retribution, deterrence, and incapacitation."
  • Diverted Opportunities: Gaps in Drug Treatment for Justice System-Involved Populations in Harris County, Texas, Katharine Neill Harris and Jay Jenkins. December, 2019. "Findings from this project are consistent with prior research that suggests the justice system is generally not designed to meet the needs of a large segment of the diverted population."
  • School Discipline, Safety, and Climate: A Comprehensive Study in New York City, Center for Court Innovation. October, 2019. "Students with disabilities, those who were chronically absent, and those who were economically disadvantaged were more likely to be arrested than their counterparts."
  • Court-Ordered Community Service: A National Perspective, Center for Court Innovation. November, 2019. "Numerous findings also suggest current practices are undercutting the potential of community service to act as an alternative to fines and fees."
  • Racial disparities in health conditions among prisoners compared with the general population Kathryn M. Nowotny, Richard G. Rogers, Jason D. Boardman. December, 2017. "The incarcerated population generally has worse health than the noninstitutionalized population, especially for hypertension, heart problems, asthma, kidney problems, stroke, arthritis, and cancer."
  • Health Behaviors and Outcomes Associated With Personal and Family History of Criminal Justice System Involvement, New York City, 2017, Paywall :( Maria Baquero, Kimberly Zweig, and Sharon B. Meropol. January, 2020. "New York City adults with personal or family CJS involvement, or both, were more likely to report adverse health outcomes and behaviors."
  • Drug use in the year after prison Paywall :( Bruce Western, Jessica T. Simes. August, 2019. "Results suggest that in a Medicaid expansion state where health coverage is widely provided to people leaving prison, formerly-incarcerated men and women use medications, not illegal drugs, to address their health needs."
  • Mass incarceration and public health: the association between black jail incarceration and adverse birth outcomes among black women in Louisiana, Lauren Dyer, Rachel Hardeman, Dovile Vilda, Katherine Theall & Maeve Wallace. December, 2019. (This analysis of births among black women in Louisiana demonstrated that higher parish-level incarceration prevalence for black individuals were associated with significantly greater risks for preterm birth among parish residents.)
  • An Analysis of State Statutes Regarding the Role of Law Enforcement Paywall :( Carly E. Cortright, Wesley McCann, Dale Willits, Craig Hemmens, Mary K. Stohr. October, 2018. "Our findings indicate a counterintuitive reversal in the trend, with more states removing order maintenance and peacekeeping duties from their statutes despite the wide dominance of community-oriented policing."
  • Bias in Video Evidence: Implications for Police Body Cameras, Ashley Kalle, Georgina Hammock. 2019. "While watching the same video, diff erent conclusions were drawn about what transpired, who was culpable, the character of the individuals involved, and the level of force used based on observers' focus and their racial attitudes."
  • Crisis Response Services for People with Mental Illnesses or Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Review of the Literature on Police-based and Other First Response Models, Vera Institute of Justice. October, 2019. "Police-based and related crisis response services for people with mental illnesses or I/DD can play a vital role in reducing justice system contact and improving health outcomes among these vulnerable populations."
  • Housing Not Handcuffs: Ending the Criminalization of Homelessness in U.S. Cities, National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty. December, 2019. "Over the past thirteen years, there has been a dramatic increase in criminalization laws, yet access to affordable housing grows ever more elusive."
  • Civil Rights and Pretrial Risk Assessment Instruments David G. Robinson and Logan Koepke. December, 2019. "Pretrial risk assessment instruments often appear to function as a substitute for broader or more fundamental changes."
  • Testifying while black: An experimental study of court reporter accuracy in transcription of African American English, Taylor Jones, Jessica Rose Kalbfeld, Ryan Hancock, and Robin Clark. 2019. "Here, we demonstrate that Philadelphia court reporters consistently fail to meet this level of transcription accuracy when confronted with mundane examples of spoken African American English."
  • National Study of Prosecutor Elections UNC School of Law. January, 2020. "Although most prosecutor elections are uncontested, most voters tend to live in jurisdictions that are more likely to give them a choice."
  • Fee Abolition and the Promise of Debt-Free Justice for Young People and Their Families in California: A Status Report on the Implementation of Senate Bill 190, Berkeley Law Policy Advocacy Clinic. October, 2019. "In violation of SB 190, some counties continue to assess prohibited fees against young people ages 18-21 in criminal court for home detention, electronic monitoring, and drug testing."

Tuesday, January 21 2020:

  • Treatment versus Punishment: Understanding Racial Inequalities in Drug Policy, Jin Woo Kim, Evan Morgan, Brendan Nyhan. December, 2019. "Policy makers were more likely to introduce punitive drug-related bills during the crack scare and are more likely to introduce treatment-oriented bills during the current opioid crisis."
  • One Year After the First Step Act: Mixed Outcomes, Sentencing Project. December, 2019. "Expansion of good-time credits implemented in July led to the release of approximately 3,000 in federal prisons; one-third, however, were transferred to the custody of other jurisdictions because of existing detainers."
  • Gang Takedowns in the De Blasio Era: The Dangers of 'Precision Policing', The Policing and Social Justice Project at Brooklyn College. December, 2019. "Gang policing replicates the harms of mass incarceration strategies that have come under increased scrutiny. It is dangerous and discriminatory and will not uplift neighborhoods struggling with intra-community violence, gang-related or otherwise."

Friday, January 17 2020:

  • Winnable criminal justice reforms: A Prison Policy Initiative briefing on promising state reform issues for 2020, Prison Policy Initiative. 2015. ""
  • Top Trends in State Criminal Justice Reform, 2019 Sentencing Project. January, 2020. "In recent years most states have enacted reforms designed to reduce the scale of incarceration and the impact of the collateral consequences of a felony conviction."
  • Suicide in North Carolina Jails: High Suicide and Overdose Rates Require Urgent Jail Reform Action, Disability Rights North Carolina. October, 2019. "Jail deaths by overdose nearly tripled between 2017 and 2018, increasing by 175%"
  • Snapping Back: Food Stamp Bans and Criminal Recidivism, Cody Tuttle. May, 2019. "This paper provides evidence that denying drug offenders SNAP benefits has increased their likelihood of recidivism."
  • Measuring Change: From Rates of Recidivism to Markers of Desistance, Cecelia M. Klingele. 2019. "This Article suggests that, however popular, recidivism alone is a poor metric for gauging the success of criminal justice interventions or of those who participate in them."
  • We All Pay: Mississippi's Harmful Habitual Laws, November, 2019. "Despite making up 13 percent of the state's population,75 percent of the people with 20+ year habitual sentences are Black men."
  • The Problem of Problem-Solving Courts Erin Collins. November, 2019. "They also reveal a new problem with the model itself - its entrenchment creates resistance to alternatives that might truly reform the system."
  • Youth Confinement: The Whole Pie 2019, Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2019. "On any given day, over 48,000 youth in the United States are confined in facilities away from home as a result of juvenile justice or criminal justice involvement."

Tuesday, January 14 2020:

Monday, January 13 2020:

  • Aging alone: Uncovering the risk of solitary confinement for people over 45, Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2017. "We estimate that more than 44,000 people 45 and older experience solitary in state prisons each year."
  • EFF warns against using incarcerated people as "endless supply of free data" Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2016. "Research using incarcerated people now must be pre-approved by an Independent Review Board. That review didn't happen here."
  • 20 years is enough: Time to repeal the Prison Litigation Reform Act, Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2016. "The Prison Litigation Reform Act, which made it much harder for incarcerated people to file and win civil rights lawsuits in federal court, was a key part of the Clinton-era prison boom."
  • Actual violent crime has nothing to do with our fear of violent crime Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2018. "Comparing violent crime rates to public opinion data shows that there's a long-standing disconnect between perception and reality."
  • Police, courts, jails, and prisons all fail disabled people Prison Policy Initiative. August, 2017. "In 2015, police shot 124 people experiencing a mental health crisis. In 36% of those cases, the officers were called to help the person get medical treatment, and shot them instead."
  • New report: Disabled people targeted by violence at high rates, Prison Policy Initiative. July, 2017. "Disabled people experience violent victimization at over twice the rate of people without disabilities."
  • We know how to prevent opioid overdose deaths for people leaving prison. So why are prisons doing nothing? Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2019. "Proven treatments for opioid use disorders exist -- they just aren't accessible to people in and recently released from prison."
  • Seizing Chicago: Drug stings and asset forfeiture target the poor, Prison Policy Initiative. August, 2017. "Instead of protecting Chicago's communities, state asset forfeiture practices and drug stings set up by federal agents target low-income, Black, and Latino residents, setting them up to fail."
  • BJS report: Drug abuse and addiction at the root of 21% of crimes, Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2017. "More than half of the state prison population and two-thirds of the sentenced jail population report drug dependence or abuse, compared to just 5% of the adult general population."
  • Have we gone too far myth busting criminal justice reform? Drug policy is still important, Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2016. "We didn't get mass incarceration from War on Drugs alone, but drugs play an important role in less discussed stages of criminal justice systems"
  • Tracking the impact of the prison system on the economy Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2017. "In 2012 -- the most recent data available -- the more than 2.4 million people who work for the justice system (in police, corrections and judicial services) at all levels of government constituted 1.6% of the civilian workforce."
  • Uncovering Mass Incarceration's Literacy Disparity Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2016. "People in prison are 13 to 24 percent more represented in the lowest levels of literacy than people in the free world."
  • How does unaffordable money bail affect families? Prison Policy Initiative. August, 2018. "Using a national data set, we find that over half of the people held in jail pretrial because they can't afford bail are parents of minor children."
  • For families of incarcerated dads, Father's day comes at a premium Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2017. "Over 1.5 million children have a father incarcerated in prison today."
  • It's not just the franchise: Mass incarceration undermines political engagement, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2017. "Contact with the criminal justice system impacts not only individual experiences of political participation, but also community-wide political engagement."
  • Incarceration shortens life expectancy Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2017. "Each year in prison takes 2 years off an individual's life expectancy. With over 2.3 million people locked up, mass incarceration has shortened the overall U.S. life expectancy by 5 years."
  • Unpacking the connections between race, incarceration, and women's HIV rates Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2017. "If it weren't for the racial disparity in male incarceration rates, Black women would have lower rates of HIV infection than white women."
  • Food for thought: Prison food is a public health problem, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2017. "Administrators looking to save a few cents per meal have traded a healthy food service program for processed foods that make incarcerated people sick."
  • The life-threatening reality of short jail stays Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2016. "Suicide continues to be the leading cause of death in local jails."
  • How America's major urban centers compare on incarceration rates Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2019. (Only 13 of the urban counties evaluated had incarceration rates significantly (that is, more than 10%) lower than the states they belong to.)
  • New York State's elderly prison boom: An update, Prison Policy Initiative. November, 2018. "Even as the incarceration rate for all other age groups declines, the number of people age 50 and over incarcerated in New York continues to rise rapidly."
  • Incremental declines can't erase mass incarceration Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2018. "Ending mass incarceration will require a fresh and holistic look at our societal values and priorities."
  • Another century of mass incarceration? Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2016. "If the U.S. doesn't make reducing the correctional population a priority, generations will be burdened by mass incarceration."
  • Tallying the extent of the Clinton-era crime bills Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2016. "The problem isn't one bill, or two or even three but at least seven bills."
  • BJS data shows graying of prisons Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2016. "ccording to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, people 55+ are now the fastest growing age group in the U.S. prison population."
  • President Obama's record on clemency: A premature celebration, Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2016. "With a little over 6 months left in his term, President Obama is on track to become the President who has granted the smallest portion of clemency requests in history."
  • Using the federal budget to fuel decarceration Prison Policy Initiative. August, 2015. "Given the federal government's historical role in fueling mass incarceration, Chettiar points out, federal budgetmakers could switch gears to instead incentivize smarter and more measured criminal justice policymaking."
  • Criminal justice reform at the ballot box: Even County Auditors are worth your attention, Prison Policy Initiative. October, 2018. "In some counties - like Multnomah County, Oregon - auditors are joining the movement to hold jails accountable."
  • Money and Power: Corruption in Local Sheriff Departments, Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2017. "This practice has led to an unfortunate temptation: some sheriffs try to spend as little as possible on jail food (a cruel practice that also raises public health concerns), so that they can keep any unspent funds for themselves."
  • Exploring the staying power of elected sheriffs - a preliminary analysis Prison Policy Initiative. August, 2017. "The average expenditures of a sheriff over his/her career is nearly 2 million dollars and just looking at a single four year campaign cycle, average expenditures top $600,000."
  • The downstream effect of 35 years of jail growth? A state prison boom, Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2017. "Putting more people in jail for minor crimes will soon mean a state prison system bursting at the seams."
  • Some private prisons are, um, public. Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2016. "It is time to accept the counter-intuitive truth: sometimes the government profits off of mass incarceration."
  • Jails matter. But who is listening? Prison Policy Initiative. August, 2015. "Jails matter because a staggering 11 million people cycle through them each year."
  • LGBTQ youth are at greater risk of homelessness and incarceration Prison Policy Initiative. January, 2019. "Homelessness is the greatest predictor of involvement with the juvenile justice system. And since LGBTQ youth compose 40% of the homeless youth population, they are at an increased risk of incarceration."
  • The dismal state of transgender incarceration policies Prison Policy Initiative. November, 2017. "Even in supposed progressive bastions such as California and Vermont, a trans person is not assured of the full range of basic rights that the federal commission deemed necessary for their safety while incarcerated."
  • New government report points to continuing mental health crisis in prisons and jails Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2017. "Only a third of incarcerated people experiencing serious psychological distress were receiving treatment"
  • Police stops are still marred by racial discrimination, new data shows. Prison Policy Initiative. October, 2018. "Police threatened or used force against nearly 1 million people, who were disproportionately Black or Hispanic."
  • Data confirms that police treat Black Americans with less respect Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2017. "Analyses of police body cam footage reveals racial disparities in officer respect toward civilians."
  • Don't confuse respect for police with confidence in them Prison Policy Initiative. October, 2016. "Americans' respect for local police is apparently much higher than their confidence in the police in general."
  • Stop and frisk dropping but still ineffective Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2016. "The number of stop and frisks has gone down in recent years, but the practice is still not working."
  • New report reveals civil forfeiture Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2015. "Criminal forfeiture accounts for only 13% of all government seizure of property. So almost 90% of forfeiture proceeds come from situations where citizens may have done nothing wrong."
  • New data highlights pre-incarceration disadvantages Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2018. "Boys born into families at the bottom 10% of the income distribution are 20 times more likely to experience prison in their 30's than their peers born into the top 10%."
  • The Crippling Effect of Incarceration on Wealth Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2016. "Once released, that individual may make gains in wealth accumulation, but they will always remain at significantly lower levels of wealth compared to those who are never incarcerated in their lifetime."
  • Findings from Harris County: Money bail undermines criminal justice goals, Prison Policy Initiative. August, 2017. "The authors' findings provide strong evidence that bail set without consideration of defendants' ability to pay violates the Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses."
  • Pretrial detention costs $13.6 billion each year Prison Policy Initiative. February, 2017. "On any given day, this country has 451,000 people behind bars who are being detained pretrial... It costs local governments nationwide: $13.6 billion."
  • Who is in jail? Deep dive Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2015. "It's very important that we get local officials to focus on the policies that impact the size of their pretrial populations because that's the overwhelming majority of the people in jail on a given day."
  • Why expensive phone calls can be life-altering for people in jail - and can derail the justice process Prison Policy Initiative. February, 2019. "The cost of jail phone calls punishes people in the most desperate circumstances, most of whom have not been convicted of a crime."
  • Who's really bringing contraband into jails? Our 2018 survey confirms it's staff, not visitors, Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2018. "By blaming contraband on in-person visitors, sheriffs distract from a far more likely source: jail staff."
  • Texas prisons, we've got some questions about your commissary vendors Prison Policy Initiative. July, 2018. "Incarcerated people can't hunt for the best price -- they are captive to the questionable decisions of commissary purchasing managers."
  • How to spot the hidden costs in a "no-cost" tablet contract Prison Policy Initiative. July, 2018. "Companies like JPay are offering "free" tablet programs to a growing number of states, and legislators should approach these offers with caution."
  • Findings from Knox County, Tenn.: Replacing in-person visits with video calling is bad policy, Prison Policy Initiative. January, 2018. "The ban on in-person visits makes the jail more dangerous, does nothing to stop the flow of contraband, and strips money from the pockets of families."
  • Jail phone companies flood money into sheriff races Prison Policy Initiative. October, 2017. "New research shows jail phone companies contributing significant sums to Sheriff's campaigns, in one case funding a quarter of Sheriff's campaign spending."
  • The Wireless Prison: How Colorado's tablet computer program misses opportunities and monetizes the poor, Prison Policy Initiative. July, 2017. "Tablets could be an important rehabilitative tool, but not when GTL puts profit above service."
  • Evading regulation, some in-state phone calls from jails cost over $1.50 a minute Prison Policy Initiative. January, 2017. "These pricing schemes have resulted in 15 minute calls that would cost $24.95 from the Arkansas County Jail via Securus and $17.77 from the Douglas County jail in Oregon via Global Tel*Link."
  • The multi-million dollar market of sending money to an incarcerated loved one Prison Policy Initiative. January, 2017. "Private companies amassing monopoly contracts, creating potential to rake in $172 million from friends and family sending money to incarcerated loved ones."
  • Paging anti-trust lawyers: Prison commissary giants prepare to merge, Prison Policy Initiative. July, 2016. "We estimate that commissaries throughout the country rake in about $1.6 billion in sales each year."
  • Travis County, Texas: A Case Study on Video Visitation, Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2016. "While the majority rated their experience with video visitation as positive, almost all (91%) reported they would prefer face-to-face visitation."
  • Prison profiteers use campaign contributions to buy contracts Prison Policy Initiative. October, 2015. "The Voice of OC has revealed that $85,000 in campaign contributions to two Orange County, California county supervisors by Global Tel*Link flipped the two supervisors from being opponents of charging families high phone rates into supporters."
  • Are private prisons driving mass incarceration? Prison Policy Initiative. October, 2015. "Private prisons are more like a parasite on the publicly-owned prison system, not the root cause of mass incarceration."
  • Are campaign contributions the new "commission"? Analysis of Securus's contributions in Sacramento, Prison Policy Initiative. August, 2015. "We argue that the FCC can simply ensure that the rates and fees charged are reasonable and leave the companies and the facilities to fight over whether and how to share the reasonable profits that remain."
  • Red states, blue states: What do these mean for people on parole?, Prison Policy Initiative. January, 2019. (In 2016, Massachusetts returned almost a quarter of its entire parole population to prison for technical violations, while Texas returned only 1%..)
  • Should prosecutors and survivors have a voice in shortening long sentences? Prison Policy Initiative. October, 2018. "Prosecutors are particularly unfit to determine whether individuals they have not seen in years or decades still pose a threat to public safety."
  • New reports show probation is down, but still a major driver of incarceration Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2018. "Probation and parole widen the net of incarceration by keeping people under onerous restrictions and monitoring instead of focusing squarely on reentry assistance."
  • Probation population declines: Good, but not good enough, Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2016. "o make a real dent in the country's bloated correctional population, policy makers need to advance criminal justice and social policies aimed at reducing the number of people on probation."
  • Probation: The nicest sounding way to grease the skids of mass incarceration, Prison Policy Initiative. August, 2015. "More than half the people under correctional control are on probation."
  • New poll shows mass incarceration is a Latinx issue Prison Policy Initiative. January, 2018. "The majority of Latinxs favor rehabilitation over more punitive responses to crime, such as added police or prisons."
  • The parallel epidemics of incarceration & HIV in the Deep South Prison Policy Initiative. September, 2017. "HIV disproportionately impacts communities that are already marginalized by poverty, inadequate resources, discrimination -- and mass incarceration."
  • New data: The rise of the "prosecutor politician", Prison Policy Initiative. July, 2017. "Shugerman argues that the prosecutor's office has become a "stepping stone for higher office... with dramatic consequences in American criminal law and mass incarceration.""
  • Jail will separate 2.3 million mothers from their children this year Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2018. "80% of the women jailed each year are mothers. We're inflicting profound damage not only on them, but their children as well."
  • State-level studies identify causes of the national "gender divide" Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2018. "Nationally, women's incarceration rates still hover near record highs, even as men's rates are going down."
  • BJS update: Women's state prison populations rose while men's fell, again., Prison Policy Initiative. January, 2018. "State prisons cut men's populations in 2016, but incarcerated more women, widening the 'gender divide.'"
  • Breaking open the "black box": How risk assessments undermine judges' perceptions of young people, Prison Policy Initiative. August, 2018. "Algorithmic risk assessments treat youth as a one-dimensional factor, pointing only to higher risk."
  • Locking up youth with adults: An update, Prison Policy Initiative. February, 2018. "Incarcerating youth in adult facilities is even more harmful than incarcerating them with people their own age."
  • Girls are being put behind bars more and more. Will Congress do anything to help? Prison Policy Initiative. September, 2016. "Girls, and especially girls of color, are judged for their 'bad character' while boys are 'just being boys.'"
  • Why do we lock juveniles up for life and throw away the key? Race plays a big part., Prison Policy Initiative. September, 2016. "The Phillips Black Project found that black youth are twice as likely to receive a juvenile life without parole sentence compared to their white peers for committing the same crime."

Friday, January 10 2020:

  • Cruel and unusual punishment: When states don't provide air conditioning in prison, Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2019. "13 famously hot states lack universal A/C in their prisons."
  • Since You Asked: How did the 1994 crime bill affect prison college programs?, Prison Policy Initiative. August, 2019. "Without federal aid, the rate of college course participation in prisons dropped by half."
  • Since you asked: Is it me, or is the government releasing less data about the criminal justice system?, Prison Policy Initiative. November, 2019. (Reports by the Bureau of Justice Statistics are slowing down - and its framing of criminal justice issues is becoming more punitive.)
  • Prisons neglect pregnant women in their healthcare policies Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2019. "Our 50-state survey finds that in spite of national standards, most states lack important policies on prenatal care and nutrition for pregnant women."
  • How many people in your state go to local jails every year? Prison Policy Initiative. September, 2019. (The number of people who go to jail each year varies dramatically from state to state. In South Dakota, 2,888 people per 100,000 go to jail each year, while in California 934 per 100,000 go.)
  • How race impacts who is detained pretrial Prison Policy Initiative. November, 2019. "In large urban areas, Black felony defendants are over 25% more likely than white defendants to be held pretrial."
  • When jails replace in-person visits with video, what happens when the technology fails? Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2019. "As more jails ban face-to-face visits in favor of paid video chats, a growing number of people in jail are being cut off from their families when the technology breaks down."
  • The biggest priorities for prison and jail phone justice in 40 states Prison Policy Initiative. September, 2019. "For example, the Minnesota Department of Corrections charges only $0.75 for a 15-minute in-state call from state prison, but the jails in the state charge, on average, $7.19 for the same call."
  • More states are signing harmful "free prison tablet" contracts Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2019. "Tablet computers are delivering a captive audience to profit-seeking companies, while enabling prisons to cut essential services like law libraries."
  • On kickbacks and commissions in the prison and jail phone market Prison Policy Initiative. February, 2019. "Phone providers are so creative in their influence-peddling that the most viable reform strategies do not focus only on "commissions.""
  • New data: Low incomes - but high fees - for people on probation, Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2019. "Nationwide, two-thirds (66%) of people on probation make less than $20,000 per year."
  • BJS fuels myths about sex offense recidivism, contradicting its own new data Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2019. "The BJS data show that people who served time for sex offenses had markedly lower recidivism rates than almost any other group. Yet the data continue to be framed in misleading ways."
  • Who's helping the 1.9 million women released from prisons and jails each year? Prison Policy Initiative. July, 2019. "In 2016, about 81,000 women were released from state prisons nationwide, and women and girls accounted for at least 1.8 million releases from local jails in 2013 (the last year all jails were surveyed)."

Thursday, December 19 2019:

  • Paying for Jail: How County Jails Extract Wealth from New York Communities, Worth Rises and Brooklyn Community Bail Fund. December, 2019. "We estimate that in 2017 the 57 counties outside of New York City extracted over $25.1 million for phone calls, $14.1 million for commissary, and $0.2 million for disciplinary tickets."

Wednesday, December 18 2019:

  • Rethinking the "Drug Dealer" Drug Policy Alliance. December, 2019. "Imprisoning people who sell drugs does not reduce the drug supply, increase drug prices, or prevent drug use."

Monday, December 16 2019:

  • A Piece of the Puzzle: State Financial Aid for Incarcerated Students, Vera Institute of Justice. July, 2019. "Partnering with colleges and universities to provide postsecondary programs can help state corrections agencies meet institutional goals related to evidence-based practices and recidivism reduction."
  • People in Jail in 2019 Vera Institute of Justice. December, 2019. "At midyear 2019, there were an estimated 758,400 people in local jails, up 13,200 (1.8 percent increase) from midyear 2017."
  • Ineffective Assistance of Library: The Failings and the Future of Prison Law Libraries, Jonathan Abel. June, 2012. "The courts' attempts to graft an access-to-courts rationale onto a law library system that had developed for other purposes led to a law library doctrine riddled with contradictions and doomed to failure."

Wednesday, December 4 2019:

  • Driving on Empty: Florida's Counterproductive and Costly Driver's License Suspension Practices, Fines & Fees Justice Center. 2015. "Between 2015-2017, more than 3.5 million suspension notices were issued for unpaid court debt."
  • Association of Punitive and Reporting State Policies Related to Substance Use in Pregnancy With Rates of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome, Laura J. Faherty, Ashley M. Kranz, Joshua Russell-Fritch, et al.. November, 2019. (Punitive policies related to substance use in pregnancy were not associated with a reduction in (neonatal abstinence syndrome) NAS rates, and in fact, these policies may have been associated with an increase in rates of NAS.)
  • Prosecutors and Responses to Violence Institute for Innovation in Prosecution at John Jay College. November, 2019. "The current approach to violent crime contributes nothing to falling crime rates, imprisons people far longer than necessary, diverts resources from more productive strategies, and subjects people to a brutality that should make any prosecutor shudder."

Tuesday, December 3 2019:

  • Socioeconomic Barriers to Child Contact with Incarcerated Parents Paywall :( Batya Y. Rubenstein, Elisa L. Toman, Joshua C. Cochran. August, 2018. "Analyses suggest that lower income parents are less likely to be visited by their children. We also find that economic disadvantage may condition impacts of other practical barriers, such as distance from home."
  • Bringing it all back home: Understanding the medical difficulties encountered by newly released prisoners in New Orleans, Louisiana, William Lee Vail, Anjali Niyogi, Norris Henderson, and Ashley Wennerstrom. 2015. "Most FIPs face significant barriers to access of healthcare, including lack of insurance, funding, knowledge of community services and social support. Importantly, there is an overall distrust of institutions and medical care systems."
  • Growth in ICE Detention Fueled by Immigrants with No Criminal Conviction TRAC Immigration. November, 2019. "On the last day of April 2019, ICE held about 50,000 people in detention centers nationwide. Nearly 32,000 - or 64% - of detainees had no criminal conviction on record."
  • Trends in Correctional Control by Race and Sex The Council on Criminal Justice. December, 2019. (For Black individuals, increases in length of stay, admissions per arrest, and arrests per offender offset the 3% decline in offending rates for rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.)
  • The Influence of Familial Social Support on Physical Health During Reentry Paywall :( Chantal Fahmy and Danielle Wallace. August, 2019. "The results suggest that social support has important repercussions on one's physical health and thus success at reintegration."

Friday, November 29 2019:

  • Trapped Inside: The Past, Present, and Future of Solitary Confinement in New York, New York Civil Liberties Union. October, 2019. "40,000 solitary confinement sanctions were given in 2018. One-quarter were in the form of special housing unit, or SHU sanctions, the most restrictive form of isolation."
  • The Steep Costs of Criminal Justice Fees and Fines: A Fiscal Analysis of Three States and Ten Counties, Brennan Center for Justice. November, 2019. (Criminal fines and fees burden the members of society who are least able to pay, and the costs of collection are many times greater than those of general taxation, effectively canceling out much of the revenue.)
  • The Company Store and the Literally Captive Market: Consumer Law in Prisons and Jails, Stephen Raher. November, 2019. "The growth of public expense associated with mass incarceration has led many carceral systems to push certain costs onto the people who are under correctional supervision."
  • The Price of Taxation by Citation: Case Studies of Three Georgia Cities that Rely Heavily on Fines and Fees, Institute for Justice. October, 2019. "Our findings also suggest taxation by citation is shortsighted. Cities may gain revenue, but they may also pay a price for it in the form of lower community trust and cooperation."
  • Unintended Consequences: Effects of Paternal Incarceration on Child School Readiness and Later Special Education Placement, Anna R. Haskins. April, 2014. "Mass incarceration facilitates the intergenerational transmission of male behavioral disadvantage, and because of the higher exposure of black children to incarceration, it also plays a role in explaining the persistently low achievement of black boys."
  • Overcoming Barriers that Prevent Eligible Incarcerated People from Voting in Massachusetts The Emancipation Initiative. October, 2019. "There are up to 10,000 voters incarcerated in Massachusetts on any given day who retain the right to vote on paper."
  • An Examination of Care Practices of Pregnant Women Incarcerated in Jail Facilities in the United States C. M. Kelsey, Nickole Medel, Carson Mullins, Danielle Dallaire, Catherine Forestell. February, 2017. (In this first study to examine practices in regional jails nationwide, we found evidence that standards of care guidelines to improve health and well-being of pregnant incarcerated women are not being followed in many facilities.)
  • Jails: Inadvertent Health Care Providers: How county correctional facilities are playing a role in the safety net, The Pew Charitable Trusts. January, 2018. (This report examines two ways in which jails can deliver healthcare more effectively: by providing high-value care within their walls and by facilitating well-designed health handoffs to community providers at re-entry.)
  • Jailing Immigrant Detainees: A National Study of County Participation in Immigration Detention, 1983-2013, Emily Ryo and Ian Peacock. November, 2019. "We find that the number of counties confining immigrant detainees steadily increased between 1983 and 2013, with the largest growth concentrated in small to medium sized, rural, and Republican counties located in the South."
  • Broken Ground: Why America Keeps Building More Jails and What It Can Do Instead, Vera Institute of Justice. November, 2019. "Rural areas, suburban areas, and midsized cities remain in a jail population boom and continue to build larger jails."
  • Statewide Policies Relating to Pre-Arrest Diversion and Crisis Response R Street. October, 2019. "Laws that grant local officials noncriminal responses to crises can propel diversion efforts or provide alternative, supplemental crisis responses."
  • Pushed Out and Locked In: The Catch-22 for New York's Disabled, Homeless, Sex-Offender Registrants, Allison Frankel. November, 2019. "New York should immediately stop detaining people solely because they are homeless, and divert its attention from sex-offender regulations that have no demonstrable impact on public safety."
  • Women's Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2019, Prison Policy Initiative. October, 2019. "More incarcerated women are held in local jails than in state prisons, in stark contrast to incarcerated men, meaning that reforms that only impact people in prison will not benefit them."

Wednesday, November 13 2019:

  • Criminal records and college admissions: A modified experimental audit, Robert Stewart and Christopher Uggen. October, 2019. "We find that applicants with prior criminal records were rejected at arate approximately 3 times higher than applicants without records from colleges that require criminal history information."

Monday, November 11 2019:

  • Acute Care for Patients Who Are Incarcerated: A Review, Paywall :( Lawrence A. Haber, Hans P. Erickson, Sumant R. Ranji, et al. September, 2019. "Patients who are incarcerated have a protected right to health care but may experience exceptions to physical comfort, health privacy, and informed decision-making in the acute care setting."
  • The Right to Counsel in Wayne County, Michigan: Evaluation of Assigned Counsel Services in the Third Judicial Circuit, Sixth Amendment Center. August, 2019. "Every aspect of the Sixth Amendment right to counsel is impaired."

Friday, November 8 2019:

  • Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution in the San Francisco County Jail Paywall :( Lynn D. Wenger et al.. October, 2019. (Of incarcerated people who received naloxone upon re-entry, 32% reported reversing an overdose and 44% received refills from community-based programs after reentry.)
  • Incarceration Exposure and Maternal Food Insecurity During Pregnancy: Findings from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2004-2015, Paywall :( Alexander Testa and Dylan B. Jackson. October, 2019. "Exposure to incarceration either personally or vicariously through a partner is associated with a 165% increase in the odds of food insecurity."
  • Remote Adjudication in Immigration Ingrid V. Eagly. November, 2015. (Detained litigants assigned to televideo courtrooms exhibited depressed engagement with the adversarial process--they were less likely to retain counsel, apply to remain lawfully in the United States, or seek voluntary departure.)
  • The Power of Observation: An Empirical Analysis of the Effects of Body Worn Cameras on Police Use of Force and Productivity, Taeho Kim. October, 2019. (This study finds that body worn cameras are associated with a drop of 43% in use of force, a reduction of 81% in subject injury, yet not with officer injury, or other productivity measures such as crime and clearance rates.)
  • Police Stops and Searches of Indigenous People in Minneapolis: The Roles of Race, Place, and Gender, Marina Mileo Gorsuch and Deborah Rho. April, 2018. "Our analysis shows that Minneapolis police disproportionately stopped Native Americans in Minneapolis in non-vehicle stops and suspicious vehicle stops, but not in traffic enforcement stops."
  • Age-Standardized Mortality of Persons on Probation, in Jail, or in State Prison and the General Population, 2001-2012 Paywall :( Christopher Wildeman, Alyssa W. Goldman, and Emily A. Wang. August, 2019. "Persons on probation died at a rate 3.42 times higher than persons in jail, 2.81 times higher than persons in state prison, and 2.10 times higher than the general US population."

Tuesday, October 15 2019:

Monday, October 14 2019:

  • Postincarceration Fatal Overdoses After Implementing Medications for Addiction Treatment in a Statewide Correctional System, Traci C. Green et al.. April, 2018. "We observed a large and clinically meaningful reduction in postincarceration deaths from overdose among inmates released from incarceration after implementation of a comprehensive MAT program in a statewide correctional facility."
  • Cops and No Counselors: How the Lack of School Mental Health Staff is Harming Students, ACLU. March, 2019. "We found that schools with police reported 3.5 times as many arrests as schools without police. As a result, students with disabilities and students of color are frequently sent into the criminal system."

Friday, October 11 2019:

  • Torture By Another Name: Solitary Confinement in Texas, Texas Civil Right Project. October, 2019. "Our continued investigation has confirmed that people are still suffering severe harm in Texas' solitary confinement cells and are being deprived of minimal life necessities."
  • Literature Locked Up: How Prison Book Restriction Policies Constitute the Nation's Largest Book Ban, Pen America. September, 2019. "With over two million Americans incarcerated, the book-restriction regulations within the United States carceral system represent the largest book ban policy in the United States."
  • Association of Restrictive Housing During Incarceration With Mortality After Release Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Josie Sivaraman, David L. Rosen, et al.. October, 2019. "Compared with individuals who were incarcerated and not placed in restrictive housing, individuals who spent any time in restrictive housing were 24% more likely to die in the first year after release, especially from suicide and homicide."
  • Dying in East Baton Rouge Parish Prison The Promise of Justice Initiative. July, 2018. "Focusing on data from 2012 to 2016, the report notes that inadequate medical and mental healthcare and insufficient staff training has left to a mortality rate among prisoners that is several times higher than the national average."
  • The Cannabis Effect on Crime: Time-Series Analysis of Crime in Colorado and Washington State, Ruibin Lu et al.. October, 2019. "Our results suggest that marijuana legalization and sales have had minimal to no effect on major crimes in Colorado or Washington."
  • Level of Criminal Justice Contact and Early Adult Wage Inequality Robert Apel and Kathleen Powell. February, 2019. "On the contrary, formerly incarcerated blacks earn significantly lower wages than their similar-age siblings with no history of criminal justice contact (and even their similar-age siblings who have an arrest record)."
  • Can Restorative Practices Improve School Climate and Curb Suspensions? RAND Corporation. December, 2018. "Suspension rates of African American students and of those from low-income families also went down in PERC schools, shrinking the disparities in suspension rates between African American and white students andbetween low- and higher-income students."
  • Value to the Soul: People with Criminal Convictions on the Power of the Vote, New Jersey Institute for Social Change. 2015. (In 2019, New Jersey denies the right to vote to 102,245 people. That is more people than reside in New Jersey's capital city of Trenton, and more people than live in Camden, Hoboken, and in hundreds of other municipalities in New Jersey.)
  • Diversion to What? Evidence-Based Mental Health Services that Prevent Needless Incarceration, Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law. September, 2019. "Investing in community-based mental health services provides numerous benefits, including a reduction in law enforcement intervention and incarceration."
  • Atlas of Surveillance: Southwestern Border Communities, Electronic Frontier Foundation. October, 2019. "We found 36 local government agencies using automated license plate readers (ALPR), 45 outfitting officers with body-worn cameras, and 20 flying drones."
  • Police Contact and the Legal Socialization of Urban Teens Amanda Geller and Jeffrey Fagan. February, 2019. "We find that both personal and vicarious police contact are associated with increased legal cynicism...Legal cynicism is amplified in teens reporting intrusive contact but diminished among teens reporting experiences characterized by procedural justice."
  • The Great Decoupling: The Disconnection Between Criminal Offending and Experience of Arrest Across Two Cohorts, Vesla M. Weaver, Andrew Papachristos, and Michael Zanger-Tishler. February, 2019. "The criminal justice system, we argue, slipped from one in which arrest was low and strongly linked to offending to one where a substantial share of Americans experienced arrest without committing a crime."
  • Face Off: Law Enforcement Use of Face Recognition Technology, Electronic Frontier Foundation. February, 2018. "Law enforcement officers can use mobile devices to capture face recognition-ready photographs of people they stop on the street; surveillance cameras boast real-time face scanning and identification capabilities."
  • New Era of Public Safety: A Guide to Fair, Safe, and Effective Community Policing, The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights. March, 2019. (This report was developed to give individuals, communities, activists, advocacy organizations, law makers, and police departments the knowledge to carry out police reform.)
  • Assessing Potential Impacts of 2020 Bail Reforms in New York City Data Collaborative for Justice. September, 2019. "Had the 2020 Bail Reforms been in place in 2018, 20,349 of the 31,609 cases where bail was set would have resulted in release without bail."
  • Bail and Pretrial Detention: Contours and Causes of Temporal and County Variation, Katherine Hood and Daniel Schneider. February, 2019. "The politicization of judicial offices, partisan affiliations of district attorneys and governors, income inequality, unemployment rates, and the size of the black population all seem to be related to bail-setting practices."
  • Disordered Punishment: Workaround Technologies of Criminal Records Disclosure and the Rise of a New Penal Entrepreneurialism, Alessandro Corda and Sarah E. Lageson. September, 2019. "Criminal records, or proxies for them, are now actively produced and managed by third parties via corporate decision-making processes, rather than government dictating boundaries or outsourcing duties to private actors."
  • State Medical and Geriatric Parole Laws National Conference of State Legislatures. August, 2018. "While the vast majority of states have medical parole laws and a number of states have a geriatric parole law, they are rarely used."
  • Voters Support Reducing the Use of Fines and Fees in Sentencing Data for Progress and The Justice Collaborative. August, 2019. "Sixty-four percent either somewhat or strongly supported limiting the use of fines and fees to those able to pay."
  • The Effect of Scaling Back Punishment on Racial Disparities in Criminal Case Outcomes John MacDonald and Steven Raphael. September, 2019. "The findings from this study suggest that policy reforms that scale back the severity of punishment for criminal history and active criminal justice status for less serious felony offenses may help narrow racial inequalities in criminal court dispositions"
  • In Brief: Examining the Changing Racial Composition of Three States' Prison Populations, CSG Justice Center. March, 2015. "In each of these cases, closer inspection of the data shows that these states experienced considerable reductions in the overall number of people being admitted to prison, and that the decline in admissions has been steepest for blacks and Hispanics."
  • State Supreme Court Diversity Brennan Center for Justice. July, 2019. "Twenty-four states currently have an all-white supreme court bench, including eight states in which people of color are at least a quarter of the state's general population."
  • Rhetoric, Not Reform: Prosecutors & Pretrial Practices in Suffolk, Middlesex, and Berkshire Counties, CourtWatch MA. October, 2019. "Prosecutors in Massachusetts may talk about reform and decarceration, but the limited available data suggest their practices don't live up to their rhetoric."
  • On Track: How well are states preparing youth in the juvenile justice system for employment?, CSG Justice Center. September, 2019. "Most incarcerated youth are not provided the workforce development services necessary to obtain viable employment in the community after release."

Thursday, October 10 2019:

Tuesday, September 24 2019:

  • Cashing in on Cruelty: Stories of death, abuse and neglect at the GEO immigration detention facility in Aurora, ACLU of Colorado. September, 2019. "The decision to stop Mr. Samimi's methadone, and subsequent failure to recognize and treat his withdrawal properly, exposes a critical lack of competency, compassion and proper medical care inside the facility."
  • The Effect of Sentencing Reform on Crime Rates: Evidence from California's Proposition 47, Patricio Dominguez-Rivera, Magnus Lofstrom, and Steven Raphael. July, 2019. "We find little evidence that the changes in correctional populations, arrests, and convictions reclassifications ushered in by California's proposition 47 impacted violent crime rates in the state."
  • Immigrants' Deportations, Local Crime and Police Effectiveness Annie Laurie Hines and Giovanni Peri. June, 2019. (We find that Secure Communities-driven increases in deportation rates did not reduce crime rates for violent offenses or property offenses.)
  • Louisiana Death-Sentenced Cases and Their Reversals, 1976-2015 Frank Baumgartner and Tim Lyman. April, 2016. "No matter the race of the offender, killers of whites are more than six times more likely to receive a death penalty than killers of blacks, and 14 times more likely to be executed."
  • Fees, Fines and Fairness: How Monetary Charges Drive Inequity in New York City's Criminal Justice System, New York City Comptroller. September, 2019. "100,000 civil judgments were issued in just one year for failure to pay criminal court debts in New York City, all but criminalizing poverty."
  • Plus a Life Sentence? Incarceration's Effects on Expected Lifetime Wage Growth, Theodore S. Corwin III and Daniel K. N. Johnson. June, 2019. "Our work indicates a dampening effect of incarceration on wage growth in the lifetime."
  • The School to Prison Pipeline: Long-Run Impacts of School Suspensions on Adult Crime, Andrew Bacher-Hicks, Stephen B. Billings, and David J. Deming. August, 2019. "Students who are quasi-randomly assigned to schools with higher conditional suspension rates are significantly more likely to be arrested and incarcerated as adults."
  • The 1994 Crime Bill Legacy and Lessons, Part 1: Impacts on Prison Populations, The Council on Criminal Justice. September, 2019. "Many states, likely encouraged by national-level rhetoric about the wisdom of "tough-on-crime" legislation, adopted their own Truth-in-Sentencing reforms prior to the Crime Bill."
  • The Role of Police Unions in the 21st Century Texas Public Policy Foundation. September, 2019. "However, police unions have more recently become involved in policy issues beyond those bounded by typical labor relations--for instance, criminal justice public policy and training; and union involvement can become problematic."
  • Policing, Poverty, and Racial Inequality in Tulsa, Oklahoma Human Rights Watch. September, 2019. "Human Rights Watch found that, beyond the statistical disparities of treatment by police of the different races, black people nearly all had personal experiences of abusive policing, ranging from extreme violence towards themselves or family members, to m"
  • When Stop and Frisk Comes Home: Policing Public and Patrolled Housing, Alexis Karteron. July, 2019. "Largely because of the vast array of behavior that is regulated in public and patrolled housing, law enforcement officers have broad authority to stop, arrest, and search people in and around such locations."
  • Free to Drive: States punish poverty by suspending millions of driver's licenses for unpaid fines and fees, Free to Drive. September, 2019. "44 states and District of Columbia still suspend, revoke or do not allow a person to renew their driver's license if they have unpaid court debt."
  • Racial Profiling in Louisiana: Unconstitutional and Counterproductive, Southern Poverty Law Center. September, 2018. "For example, in 2016, black people were 2.9 times as likely as white people to be arrested for marijuana possession in Louisiana, despite evidence that black people and white people use marijuana at similar rates."
  • Los Angeles County Office of Diversion and Reentry's Supportive Housing Program A Study of Participants' Housing Stability and New Felony Convictions, RAND Corporation. August, 2019. "LA County ODR's supportive housing program improved housing stability and reduced criminal justice involvement. 86% had no new felony convictions after 12 months."
  • The impact of residential change and housing stability on recidivism: pilot results from the Maryland Opportunities through Vouchers Experiment (MOVE), David S. Kirk, Geoffrey C. Barnes, Jordan M. Hyatt, and Brook W. Kearley. December, 2017. "Rearrest was lower among the treatment group of movers than the non-movers, and was also lower for non-movers who received free housing versus non-movers who did not receive housing."
  • Are a Disproportionate Number of Federal Judges Former Government Advocates? The Cato Institute. September, 2019. "The key takeaway is that the federal judiciary is massively tilted in favor of former prosecutors over former criminal defense attorneys, and in favor of advocates for government more generally over advocates for individuals in cases against government."

Friday, September 20 2019:

  • The State of Capital Punishment National Conference of State Legislatures. July, 2019. "Increasingly, capital punishment legislation being considered in state legislatures across the nation is focused on concerns over cost, viable methods of execution, intellectual disability, and lengthy trial and appellate procedures."
  • The Construction and Criminalization of Disability in School Incarceration Jyoti Nanda. September, 2019. "For students of color, instead of a designation that attracts more resources, disability is one of the mechanisms through which they are criminalized."
  • Unlocking the Bar: Expanding Access to the Legal Profession for People with Criminal Records in California, Stanford Center on the Legal Profession & Stanford Criminal Justice Center. July, 2019. "Successive barriers impede access to California's legal profession for qualified candidates with criminal records."

Thursday, September 19 2019:

  • The Effect of Public Health Insurance on Criminal Recidivism Erkmen Giray Aslim, Murat C. Mungan, Carlos Navarro, and Han Yu. July, 2019. "Exploiting administrative data on prison spells, we show that the ACA Medicaid coverage expansion significantly reduces the probability of returning to prison for violent and public order crimes among multi-time reoffenders."
  • U.S. Prison Population Trends: Massive Buildup and Modest Decline, The Sentencing Project. September, 2019. "By yearend 2017, 1.4 million people were imprisoned in the United States, a decline of 7% since the prison population reached its peak level in 2009. This follows a nearly 700% growth in the prison population between 1972 and 2009."
  • A Fair Fight: Achieving Indigent Defense Resource Parity, Brennan Center for Justice. September, 2019. "Chronic underfunding has led to drastic resource disparities between prosecutors and defenders, undermining the very basis of our criminal legal system."
  • Raise The Floor: Increasing the Minimum Age of Prosecution of Youth as Adults, Campaign for Youth Justice. September, 2019. "Efforts by state legislatures to set or raise the minimum age of transfer are critical first steps toward protecting children and youth from a system that was not created to serve or rehabilitate them."

Friday, September 6 2019:

  • Efficiency and Cost: The Impact of Videoconferenced Hearings on Bail Decisions, [PDF] Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 2010. "We find a sharp increase in the average amount of bail set in cases subject to the video conferencing, but no change in cases that continued to have live hearings."

Friday, August 30 2019:

  • Arrest, Release, Repeat: How police and jails are misused to respond to social problems, Prison Policy Initiative. August, 2019. "Our analysis confirms that people who are repeatedly arrested and jailed are arrested for lower-level offenses, have unmet medical and mental health needs, and are economically marginalized."
  • Women in Prison Camp: Judicial Process and Effect on Families, Capella. June, 2019. "Most women in this study (86%) consider themselves punished predominantly by separation from their families and children. Collateral damage to the families and young children is considered legally permissible and thus remains ignored."

Wednesday, August 28 2019:

  • Association of Parental Incarceration With Psychiatric and Functional Outcomes of Young Adults Elizabeth J. Gifford, Lindsey Eldred Kozecke, and Megan Golonka. August, 2019. "Parental incarceration is associated with a broad range of psychiatric, legal, financial, and social outcomes during young adulthood. Parental incarceration is a common experience that may perpetuate disadvantage from generation to generation."
  • Examining the relationship between U.S. incarceration rates and population health at the county level Robert R. Weidner and Jennifer Schultz. August, 2019. "Results of our analyses indicate that higher levels of incarceration are associated with higher levels of both morbidity (percentage reporting fair or poor health) and mortality (life expectancy)."
  • The Treatment of People with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System: The Example of Oneida County, New York, Alexander Black, Kylie Davis, Kenneth Gray, Connor O'Shea, Alexander Scheuer. June, 2019. "The sub-standard condition of inpatient psychiatric facilities, due to deinstitutionalization and capital flight, means that there are not nearly enough beds or psych wards to house, let alone care for, all individuals with severe mental health issues."
  • The Effectiveness of Mental Health Courts in Reducing Recidivism and Police Contact: A Systematic Review, Desmond Loong, Sarah Bonato, Jan Barnsley, Carolyn S. Dewa. June, 2019. (The results suggest there is some evidence that mental health courts help to reduce recidivism rates, but the effect on police contact is less clear. Results also suggest case managers or access to vocational and housing may be important components.)
  • The Contagiousness of Police Violence Thibaut Horel, Trevor Campbell, Lorenzo Masoero, Raj Agrawal, Andrew Papachristos and Daria Roithmayr. November, 2018. "Most remarkably, within two years, exposure to a single shooting more than doubles a network neighbor's probability of a future shooting."
  • Decriminalization and Depenalization of Marijuana Possession: A Case Study of Enforcement Outcomes in Prince George's County, Meghan Kozlowski, Emily Glazener, James A. Mitchell, James P. Lynch, Jinney Smith. 2015. "The results suggest that changing arrest policies for low-quantity marijuana possession led to increases in enforcement for other low-level misdemeanor offenses. Additionally, our findings shed light on net-widening as a potential unintended consequence."
  • Fighting Crime or Raising Revenue? Testing Opposing Views of Forfeiture., Brian Kelly. June, 2019. "These results add to a growing body of scholarly evidence supporting forfeiture's critics, suggesting that claims about forfeiture's value in crime fighting are exaggerated at best and that police do use forfeiture to raise revenue."
  • Confirmation Bias and Other Systemic Causes of Wrongful Convictions: A Sentinel Events Perspective, Kim Rossmo and Joycelyn Pollock. July, 2019. "Detectives must minimize the risk of error by accurately assessing evidence reliability and avoiding premature shifts to suspect-based investigations. Resolving issues of cognitive bias and avoiding logic/analytic mistakes are equally important."
  • Diversity on the Force: Where Police Don't Mirror Communities, Governing. September, 2015. "Despite efforts to improve diversity, minorities remain largely underrepresented in many local police departments."
  • Sentences of Incarceration Decline Sharply, Public Safety Improves During Kim Foxx's Second Year in Office New data portal demonstrates benefit of criminal justice reform, transparency, The People's Lobby, Reclaim Chicago, and Chicago Appleseed Fund for Justice. July, 2019. "We find that the use of prosecutorial discretion in the Cook County State's Attorney's Office has led to a decrease in incarceration sentences. At the same time, public safety has improved."

Tuesday, August 27 2019:

  • The Darkest Corner: Special Administrative Measures and Extreme Isolation in the Federal Bureau of Prisons, Center for Constitutional Rights. September, 2017. "Special Administrative Measures are the darkest corner of the U.S. federal prison system, combining the brutality and isolation of maximumsecurity units with additional restrictions that deny individuals almost any connection to the human world."
  • Immigration, Citizenship, and the Federal Justice System, 1998-2018 Bureau of Justice Statistics. August, 2019. "In 1998, 63% of all federal arrests were of U.S. citizens; in 2018, 64% of all federal arrests were of non-U.S. citizens."

Monday, August 26 2019:

  • Pretrial Release Without Money: New York City, 1987-2018, New York City Criminal Justice Agency. March, 2019. "In 2018 there were more than three times as many releases without money than money bails."

Friday, August 23 2019:

  • Collateral Consequences: The Crossroads of Punishment, Redemption, and the Effects on Communities, The United States Commission on Civil Rights. June, 2019. "The reach of each collateral consequence extends past people with criminal records to affect families and communities."
  • Incarceration and opioid withdrawal: The experiences of methadone patients and out-of-treatment heroin users, Mitchell et al.. June, 2019. (Withdrawal is infrequently treated and represents a lost opportunity to engage or retain heroin addicted individuals in treatment and thereby reduce their risk for HIV, for overdose deaths, and for recidivism to drug use and crime.)
  • ISOLATED: ICE Confines Some Detainees with Mental Illness in Solitary for Months, Project On Government Oversight. August, 2019. "About 40 percent of the records show detainees placed in solitary have mental illness. At some detention centers, the percentage is much higher."
  • An Analysis of Texas Jail Bookings: How Texas Counties Could Save Millions of Dollars by Safely Diverting People From Jail, Texas Appleseed. April, 2019. "Our overarching finding is that tens of thousands of people who are booked into Texas jails each year never need to be booked in jail at all."
  • Gatekeepers: The Role of Police in Ending Mass Incarceration, Vera Institute of Justice. August, 2019. "The mass enforcement of relatively minor law violations suggests that policing practices currently tend toward punitive approaches in ways that are often not necessary to achieve public safety."
  • The 911 Call Processing System: A Review of the Literature as it Relates to Policing, Vera Institute of Justice. August, 2019. "Analysis of calls for service data provides a huge and largely untapped opportunity for researchers and practitioners to inform and transform policy and practice."
  • Opportunity Costs: Unequal Justice in Alabama's Community Corrections Programs, Southern Poverty Law Center. August, 2019. "The SPLC's eight-month investigation of community corrections programs in Alabama reveals serious flaws in a "user-funded justice" system that, in many locales, seems to be focused more on raising money than on rehabilitation or public safety."
  • The Agony & the Ecstasy of #MeToo: The Hidden Costs of Reliance on Carceral Politics, Guy Padraic Hamilton-Smith. July, 2019. "Approaches that rely on carceral politics are deaf to the needs of survivors, especially when those needs diverge from maximizing state power."
  • Misdemeanor Appeals Nancy J. King and Michael Heise. July, 2019. (Authors found that appellate courts review no more than eight in 10,000 misdemeanor convictions, and disturb only one conviction or sentence out of every 10,000 misdemeanor judgments.)

Monday, August 12 2019:

  • Can't Pay, Can't Vote: A National Survey on the Modern Poll Tax, Campaign Legal Center and the Civil Rights Clinic at Georgetown Law. July, 2019. "But, the majority of states condition rights restoration, either explicitly or implicitly, on the payment of legal financial obligations."
  • The National Initiative for Building Community Trust and Justice: Key Process and Outcome Evaluation Findings, Urban Institute. August, 2019. "Although community perceptions improved in the aggregate, views of police and police legitimacy remain largely negative in the neighborhoods most affected by crime and disadvantage."

Friday, August 9 2019:

Wednesday, August 7 2019:

  • Capital Punishment, 2017: Selected Findings, Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2019. "At year-end 2017, a total of 32 states and the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) held 2,703 prisoners under sentence of death, which was 94 (3%) less than at year-end 2016."
  • Use of Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder in Criminal Justice Settings Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. July, 2019. "Following incarceration, individuals with opioid use disorder enter back into the environment where their substance use originated. Unfortunately, this puts the individual at high risk for relapse."
  • LGBTQ Youth of Color Impacted by the Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Systems: A Research Agenda, UCLA Williams Institute. June, 2019. "LGBTQ youth of color appear to stay longer in child welfare and juvenile justice systems and to be at elevated risk of discrimination and violence once system-involved compared to other groups of youth."
  • Managing Mental Illness in Jails: Sheriffs Are Finding Promising New Approaches, Police Executive Research Forum. September, 2018. "The mental health crisis in the United States has been thrust upon America's correctional agencies."
  • Police-Mental Health Collaborations: A Framework for Implementing Effective Law Enforcement Responses for People Who Have Mental Health Needs, Council of State Governments. July, 2019. "Increasingly, officers are called on to be the first--and often the only--responders to calls involving people experiencing a mental health crisis."
  • Network exposure and excessive use of force: Investigating the social transmission of police misconduct, Marie Ouellet, Sadaf Hashimi, Jason Gravel, and Andrew V. Papachristos. July, 2019. "Our findings indicate officers' peers may serve as social conduits through which misconduct may be learned and transmitted."
  • Changes in Enforcement of Low-Level and Felony Offenses Post-Ferguson: An Analysis of Arrests in St. Louis, Missouri, Lee Ann Slocum, Claire Greene, Beth M. Huebner, and Richard Rosenfeld. July, 2019. "We find that there was an initial reduction in low-level arrests of Whites and Blacks in the wake of Ferguson. Enforcement of misdemeanors and ordinance violations then increased and returned to expected levels, but only for Blacks."
  • Examining Judicial Pretrial Release Decisions: The Influence of Risk Assessments and Race, Brian P. Schaefer and Tom Hughes,. January, 2019. "The findings indicate that Black, moderate or high risk felony arrestees are more likely to be required to post a financial bond than non-financial bond compared to their White or lower risk counterparts."
  • As Wall Street Banks Sever Ties, Private Prison Companies Stand to Lose Over $1.9B in Future Financing Center for Popular Democracy, In the Public Interest, and Public Accountability Initiative. July, 2019. "Given the six banks' commitments to provide no new financing, GEO Group and CoreCivic will potentially face a $1.9 billion shortfall when the current agreements expire."
  • Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Arrests for Drug Possession After California Proposition 47, 2011-2016 Mooney et al.. August, 2018. "Reducing criminal penalties for drug possession can reduce racial/ethnic disparities in criminal justice exposure and has implications for improving health inequalities linked to social determinants of health."
  • Cumulative Sexual Victimization and Mental Health Outcomes Among Incarcerated Women Jennifer Hartsfield, Susan F. Sharp, and Sonya Conner. March, 2017. "Our findings confirm prior research about the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among women prisoners with more than half of the respondents reported experiencing childhood sexual abuse, similar to past research."

Tuesday, August 6 2019:

  • Collective Bargaining and Police Misconduct: Evidence from Florida, Dhammika Dharmapala, Richard H. McAdams, and John Rappaport. January, 2018. "Collective bargaining rights lead to about a 27% increase in complaints of officer misconduct for the typical sheriff's office."

Tuesday, July 30 2019:

  • Fulfilling the Promises of Free Exercise for All: Muslim Prisoner Accommodation in State Prisons, Muslim Advocates. July, 2019. "Despite Muslims constituting a significant and growing share of prisoners, many state departments of correction still have policies that are outdated, under-accommodating, or non-accommodating of Muslim prisoners."
  • The Impact of Police on Criminal Justice Reform: Evidence from Cincinnati, Ohio, Robin S. Engel, Nicholas Corsaro, M. Murat Ozer. May, 2017. "When arrest becomes systematically viewed by police as a limited and precious commodity, to be used sparingly and for the most chronic or serious offenders, change throughout the criminal justice system will likely result."
  • New York, New York: Highlights of the 2019 Bail Reform Law, Vera Institute of Justice. July, 2019. "If implemented effectively, a conservative estimate of the legislation's impact suggests that New York can expect at least a 40 percent reduction overall in the state's pretrial jail population."

Friday, July 26 2019:

  • Reducing Crime Through Environmental Design: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment of Street Lighting in New York City, Crime Lab New York & Science in Service of Cities. April, 2019. "After accounting for potential spatial spillovers, we find that the provision of street lights led, at a minimum, to a 36 percent reduction in nighttime outdoor index crimes."
  • The California Death Penalty is Discriminatory, Unfair, and Officially Suspended. So Why Does Los Angeles District Attorney Jackie Lacey Still Seek to Use It?, ACLU. June, 2019. "All of the 22 people who have received death sentences while Lacey has been in office are people of color."
  • Decreasing HIV transmissions to African American women through interventions for men living with HIV post-incarceration: An agent-based modeling study, Adams et al.. July, 2019. "Interventions to improve care engagement and decrease sexual risk behaviors post-incarceration for men living with HIV have the potential to decrease HIV incidence within African American heterosexual networks."
  • Does our county really need a bigger jail? A guide for avoiding unnecessary jail expansion, Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2019. "Counties will likely find that most people incarcerated in their local jail do not need to be incarcerated and would be better served in the community, allowing the county to avoid the costly and harmful route of jail expansion altogether."
  • Survey of law enforcement access to sealed non-conviction records Collateral Consequences Resource Center. 2015. "25 states, plus two territories, the District of Columbia and the Federal system, exempt law enforcement agencies generally from sealing or expungement laws, or in a few cases have no law authorizing sealing of non-conviction records."
  • Effect of Pretrial Detention in Oregon Oregon Criminal Justice Commission. 2015. "After controlling for several factors (e.g., criminal history), our analyses reveal that detained defendants were more than twice as likely to be incarcerated as part of their sentence compared to those who were released prior to their disposition.."
  • Promoting Equity with Youth Diversion R Street. July, 2019. "The full potential of diversion policies and programs are undermined when youth of different racial and ethnic backgrounds do not have the same opportunities to be diverted and are not offered programs with their individual needs in mind."

Thursday, July 25 2019:

  • Louisiana on Lockdown: A Report on the Use of Solitary Confinement in Louisiana State Prisons, With Testimony From the People Who Live It, Solitary Watch, ACLU LA, and Jesuit Social Research Institute. June, 2019. "The Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections (LADOC) reported that 19 percent of the men in its state prisons--2,709 in all--had been in solitary confnement for more than two weeks. Many had been there for years or even decades."
  • Still Worse Than Second-Class: Solitary Confinement of Women in the United States, ACLU. June, 2019. "Nearly 70 percent of women in prison or jail have a history of mental health conditions--a much higher rate than for men in prison or jail. Solitary confinement has been shown to exacerbate underlying mental health conditions."
  • Not in Isolation: How to Reduce Room Confinement While Increasing Safety in Youth Facilities, Stop Solitary for Kids. June, 2019. "It is more critical than ever that youth justice facility and agency administrators develop alternatives to room confinement consistent with evolving best practices, professional standards, and an understanding of adolescent development."

Wednesday, July 17 2019:

  • ICEwatch: ICE Raids Tactics Map A Brief Summary of ICE Raids Trends to Accompany, Immigrant Defense Project. July, 2018. "Since its inception, ICE has demonstrated an indifference to community members' constitutional rights and little interest in internal accountability for misconduct."

Tuesday, July 16 2019:

  • Convictions of Innocent People with Intellectual Disability Sheri Lynn Johnson, John H. Blume, Amelia Hritz. June, 2019. "The available data raise the disturbing likelihood that wrongful convictions of the persons with intellectual disability are not rare/"
  • Preventing Suicide and Self-Harm in Jail: A Sentinel Events Approach, Vera Institute of Justice. July, 2019. "Research and guidance from experts demonstrate that it is possible to forestall suicides in custody with a comprehensive suicide prevention program."
  • Bail Reform in New York: Legislative Provisions and Implications for New York City, Center for Court Innovation. April, 2019. "In New York City, 43 percent of the almost 5,000 people detained pretrial on April 1, 2019 would have been released under the new legislation. Outside of New York City, the effects could be even greater."
  • Prosecutorial Misconduct: Mass Gang Indictments and Inflammatory Statements, Babe Howell. May, 2019. "Inflammatory narratives which improperly attribute carnage and enormous amounts of violence to large groups of young men of color play into three pressing problems of society--racism, wrongful convictions, and mass incarceration."
  • At the Intersection of Health and Justice: How the Health of American Indians and Alaska Natives Is Disproportionately Affected by Disparities in the Criminal Justice System, Bette Jacobs, Mehgan Gallagher, and Nicole Heydt. February, 2019. "Issues related to unemployment, substance abuse, and systemic legal disparities are precursors to many cases leading to disability and death. Incarceration affects one's life course and, consequently, one's health."

Monday, July 15 2019:

  • Economic decline, incarceration, and mortality from drug use disorders in the USA between 1983 and 2014: an observational analysis, Elias Nosrati et al.. July, 2019. (The rapid expansion of the prison and jail population in the USA over the past four decades might have contributed to the increasing number of deaths from drug use disorders.)
  • The Debt Spiral: How Chicago's Vehicle Ticketing Practices Unfairly Burden Low-Income and Minority Communities, Woodstock Institute. 2015. "Tickets are disproportionally issued to drivers from low-income and minority areas, who then become trapped in an inescapable cycle of debt simply because they lack the means to pay these tickets."
  • Punishing Homelessness Sara Rankin. January, 2019. "Cities throughout the country are increasingly enacting and enforcing laws that punish the conduct of necessary, life-sustaining activities in public, even when many people have no other option."
  • Disparate Justice: Where Kentuckians Live Determines Whether They Stay in Jail Because They Can't Afford Cash Bail, Kentucky Center for Economic Policy. June, 2019. "In certain counties, people with low incomes face much higher risk of harms from being detained in jail ranging from job loss to higher likelihoods of being found guilty and committing crimes in the future."
  • Democracy, Bureaucracy and Criminal Justice Reform Lauren M. Ouziel. May, 2019. "Elected leaders are voted in with high expectations for transformative change, yet may be stymied by the bureaucracy's resistance to it."
  • Understanding Risk and Needs in Misdemeanor Populations: A Case Study in New York City, Center for Court Innovation. June, 2018. "Despite the low-level nature of most criminal behavior, many defendants have serious needs for treatment and services that, if left unmet, can lead to a revolving door of more low-level arrests and re-arrests."
  • Second Looks & Second Chances Shon Hopwood. June, 2019. "It is difficult, if not impossible, to determine who, after having been convicted of a serious crime, has the capacity to become rehabilitated and redeemed. Character is not static, people change, and the law must recognize this reality."
  • Extraneous factors in judicial decisions Shai Danziger, Jonathan Levav, and Liora Avnaim-Pesso. April, 2011. "We find that the percentage of favorable rulings drops gradually from ~65% to nearly zero within each decision session and returns abruptly to ~65% after a break. Our findings suggest that judicial rulings can be swayed by extraneous variables."
  • "Nothing Good Happens in There:" Closing and Repurposing Youth Detention Facilities in California, Impact Justice. July, 2019. "Our experience in this field has demonstrated time and again that simply closing a facility is not enough: The real focus of the work must be in developing and implementing repurposing strategies which truly benefit the community."
  • Restorative Justice and Youth Offenders in Nebraska Kristen M. Blankley and Alisha Caldwell Jimenez. June, 2019. "Although Nebraska's statewide victim/youth conference program is developing, the program is promising and offers some opportunities for other restorative justice programs around the country."

Wednesday, July 3 2019:

  • The Public Finance of Capital Punishment Alex Lundberg. April, 2019. "In Texas the cost of trial is borne primarily at the county level. A panel of Texas county spending over the last decade shows counties meet the expense of trial by raising property tax rates and by reducing public safety expenditure."
  • Next Steps in Federal Corrections Reform Implementing and Building on the First Step Act, Urban Institute. May, 2019. (Successful implementation will require the commitment and buy-in of the DOJ and BOP, education and training, adequate funding, faithful development and execution of the risk and needs assessment tool, and outside oversight to monitor progress.)
  • The Impact of Parental Incarceration on the Physical and Mental Health of Young Adults Rosalyn D. Lee, Xiangming Fang, and Feijun Luo. December, 2012. "This study suggests exposure to parental incarceration in childhood is associated with health problems in young adulthood."
  • Linkages Between Incarceration and Health Michael Massoglia and Brianna Remster. May, 2019. "Incarceration is associated with worse health for all formerly incarcerated persons compared with never incarcerated persons."
  • Citizenship and Punishment: The Salience of National Membership in U.S. Criminal Courts, Michael T. Light, Michael Massoglia, and Ryan D. King. October, 2014. "Noncitizens--particularly undocumented immigrants--are far more likely to be incarcerated and sentenced for longer periods than are U.S. citizens."
  • Hidden challenges: Sex offenders legislated into homelessness, Jill S. Levenson. June, 2016. (The unique stigma of the registered sex offender status coupled with residence restrictions can obstruct community re-entry even more profoundly)
  • Emotional Judges and Unlucky Juveniles Ozkan Eren and Naci Mocan. September, 2016. "We show that upset losses of the LSU football team increase disposition (sentence) length imposed by judges, and that this effect persists throughout the work week following a Saturday game."

Tuesday, July 2 2019:

  • Appropriate Placement and Treatment of Transgender Prisoners: Constitutional Concerns and Arguments for Alternative Housing and Treatment Policies, Scott J. Schweikart. December, 2018. "The problem facing transgender prisoners has a significant racial and socio-economic component as imprisoned transgender people are"

Friday, June 28 2019:

  • Recidivism of Felony Offenders in California Public Policy Institute of California. June, 2019. "We find that rearrest and reconviction rates have declined for felony offenders released from October 2011 to October 2015."

Thursday, June 27 2019:

Friday, June 21 2019:

  • Judicial Politics and Sentencing Decisions Alma Cohen and Crystal S. Yang. June, 2017. "Exploiting the random assignment of cases to judges, we find that Republican appointed judges sentence black defendants to longer prison terms than similar whites compared to Democratic appointed judges."

Wednesday, June 19 2019:

  • Sharks and Minnows in the War on Drugs: A Study of Quantity, Race and Drug Type in Drug Arrests, Joseph E. Kennedy, Isaac Unah, and Kasi Wahlers. December, 2018. "This Article is the first to conclusively establish that the war on drugs is being waged primarily against those possessing or selling minuscule amounts of drugs."
  • How Police Technology Aggravates Racial Inequity: A Taxonomy of Problems and a Path Forward, Laura Moy. February, 2019. "Police technology may (1) replicate inequity in policing, (2) mask inequity in policing, (3) transfer inequity from elsewhere to policing, (4) exacerbate inequitable policing harms, and/or (5) compromise oversight of inequity in policing."
  • Confined and Costly: How Supervision Violations Are Filling Prisons and Burdening Budgets, Council of State Governments. June, 2019. (45% of state prison admissions nationwide are due to violations of probation or parole.)

Friday, June 14 2019:

  • The Safe Alternatives to Segregation Initiative: Findings and Recommendations for the Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections, Vera Institute of Justice. May, 2019. "17.4 percent of people incarcerated in Louisiana's state-operated prisons were housed in some form of segregated housing, which is approximately 3.9 times the estimated national average of 4.5 percent."
  • Not in my Exam Room: How U.S. Immigration Enforcement Is Obstructing Medical Care, Physicians for Human Rights. June, 2019. "Public health research has documented widening racial and ethnic health disparities as a result of punitive and discriminatory immigration enforcement practices within the militarized border zone."
  • Promoting Reentry Success Through Increased Access to Social Security Benefit American Jail Association. February, 2019. "Jails that connect people experiencing disabling health conditions to Social Security Administration (SSA) disability benefits programs can see significant reductions in recidivism rates."
  • Aggressive Policing and the Mental Health of Young Urban Men Geller et al.. December, 2014. "Participants who reported more police contact also reported more trauma and anxiety symptoms, associations tied to how many stops they reported, the intrusiveness of the encounters, and their perceptions of police fairness."
  • Paid in Full: A Plan to End Money Injustice in New Orleans, Vera Institute of Justice. June, 2019. "Money injustice is deeply unfair and harmful to those directly impacted, exacerbates poverty and racial inequality, wastes scarce taxpayer dollars, and does not deliver the safety all people value."
  • The State of Black Immigrants Black Alliance for Just Immigration. January, 2019. "Black immigrants are disproportionately represented among immigrants facing deportation in immigration court on criminal grounds."
  • The Gendered Burdens of Conviction and Collateral Consequences on Employment Joni Hersch and Erin E. Meyers. June, 2019. "Licensing restrictions, stigma, and perceived risk in hiring decisions in female-dominated occupations and industries, along with barriers to childcare subsidies are all likely to exert a heightened burden on women."
  • Promoting a New Direction for Youth Justice Strategies to Fund a Community-Based Continuum of Care and Opportunity, Urban Institute. March, 2019. "Structural inequalities result in the reality that some communities simply do not have the resources to offer all youth the same access to education, jobs, health care, supports, and opportunities that promote healthy development and safe neighborhoods."

Wednesday, June 12 2019:

  • Evaluation of North Carolina's Pathways from Prison to Postsecondary Education Program RAND Corporation. May, 2019. "Housing, employment, and transportation were among the top referrals to services provided to Pathways students, followed by family and substance abuse treatment services."
  • Unlocking Potential: Pathways from Prison to Postsecondary Education, Vera Institute of Justice. May, 2019. (The presence of higher education in prisons has the potential to reshape the ways in which incarcerated people--and their future potential--are viewed, by shifting the perspectives of corrections staff, faculty, administrators, families and students.)
  • Investing in Futures: Economic and Fiscal Benefits of Postsecondary Education in Prison, Vera Institute of Justice. January, 2019. "Expanding access to postsecondary education in prison is likely to reduce recidivism rates, resulting in a decrease in incarceration costs across states of $365.8 million per year."
  • Expanding Medicaid Access to Halfway House Residents: Early Qualitative Findings from Connecticut's Experience, Urban Institute. December, 2018. "Residents no longer have to contend with their fears of returning to the medical unit of a correctional facility for care, and they perceive that Medicaid gives them access to their choice of higher-quality providers."
  • Gone but Not Forgotten: The Untold Stories of Jail Deaths in Washington, Columbia Legal Services. May, 2019. (Over 200 people died in Washington jails between January 1, 2005 and June 15, 2016.)
  • The Immediate Consequences of Federal Pretrial Detention Stephanie Holmes Didwania. June, 2019. "Using data spanning 71 federal district courts, I find that pretrial release reduces a defendant's sentence length by around 67 percent and increases the probability that a defendant will receive a sentence below the recommended sentencing range."
  • Moving Beyond Youth Prisons: Lessons from New York City's Implementation of Close to Home, Columbia University Justice Lab. February, 2019. (New York City's Close to Home initiative represented more than moving jurisdictional control over residential services from one place to another. Rather, it was a fundamental shift in philosophy, which prioritized communities over incarceration.)

Thursday, June 6 2019:

  • Prosecutors and Frequent Utilizers: How Can Prosecutors Better Address The Needs of People Who Frequently Interact with the Criminal Justice and Other Social Systems?, Institute for Innovation in Prosecution at John Jay College. February, 2019. "These considerations shift the focus of prosecution from punishment to problem solving, and metrics of success beyond conviction and recidivism rates to individual and community wellbeing."
  • Does Locked Up Mean Locked Out? The Effects of the Anti-Drug Act of 1986 on Black Male Students' College Enrollment, Tolani Britton. April, 2019. "The results suggest that Black males had a 2.2% point decrease in the relative probability of college enrollment after the passage of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986."
  • Do Private Prisons Affect Criminal Sentencing? Christian Dippel and Michael Poyker. March, 2019. "We found that a doubling of private prisons' capacities causes a moderate increase in the sentencing length of 23 days, but has no effect on the probability of getting a prison term."

Tuesday, June 4 2019:

  • Aggressive Policing and Academic Outcomes: Examining the Impact of Police, Joscha Legewie, Chelsea Farley, Kayla Stewart. May, 2019. "Aggressive policing in communities can harm Black boys' educational performance, as measured by state tests."
  • Justice "cost points": Examination of privatization within public systems of justice, Alexes Harris, Tyler Smith, Emmi Obara. May, 2019. "Even though justice institutions primarily remain public entities, private corporations are running many key justice system programs and generating large profits from captive populations."
  • Levers of Change In Parole Release And Revocation Robina Institute of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice. May, 2019. "Paroling authorities have continued to occupy an influential, but low visibility niche, across the landscape of corrections. Parole boards and the release systems they drive exert a large impact on prison populations that is seldom acknowledged."

Friday, May 31 2019:

  • Thinking About Emerging Adults and Violent Crime Emerging Adult Justice Project. May, 2019. "Viewed through this lens, punishment oriented approaches to violent acts are inadequate. Instead, punitive criminal justice policy often perpetuates violence by adding to the socio-economic disadvantage in which violence can flourish."
  • Urban crime rates and the changing face of immigration: Evidence across four decades, Robert Adelman, Lesley Williams Reid, Gail Markle, Saskia Weiss, and Charles Jaret. September, 2016. "Our results indicate that immigration is consistently linked to decreases in violent (e.g., murder) and property (e.g., burglary) crime throughout the time period."
  • Reconsidering the "Violent Offender" Square One Project. May, 2019. "A meaningful decrease in the United States' historically high rates of incarceration will require that reforms extend to people imprisoned for offenses considered violent."
  • More Black than Blue: Politics and Power in the 2019 Black Census, The Black Futures Lab. May, 2019. "More than half (55 percent) of respondents have personally had a negative interaction with the police at some point, and 28 percent have had at least one negative interaction in the last 6 months."

Thursday, May 30 2019:

  • Policing Women: Race and gender disparities in police stops, searches, and use of force, Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2019. "Women make up an increasing share of arrests and report much more use of force than they did twenty years ago."

Friday, May 24 2019:

  • Failing to Protect and Serve: Police Department Policies Towards Transgender People, National Center for Transgender Equality. May, 2019. (Only 9 of the 25 departments reviewed include gender identity and/or expression language in their non-discrimination policy, which is the best way to clarify that transgender people are protected.)
  • LGBTQ People Behind Bars: A Guide to Understanding the Issues Facing Transgender Prisoners and Their Legal Rights, National Center for Transgender Equality. October, 2018. "Transgender people are nearly ten times more likely to be sexually assaulted than the general prison population, with an estimated 40% of transgender people in state and federal prisons reporting a sexual assault in the previous year."
  • Road Runners: The Role and Impact of Law Enforcement in Transporting Individuals with Severe Mental Illness, Treatment Advocacy Center. May, 2019. "Approximately one-third of individuals with severe mental illness have their first contact with mental health treatment through a law enforcement encounter."
  • America Under Watch: Face Surveillance in the United States, Georgetown Law Center on Privacy and Technology. May, 2018. "For the millions of Americans living in Detroit and Chicago, face surveillance may be an imminent reality."
  • Racial Disparities in D.C. Policing: Descriptive Evidence From 2013-2017, ACLU of the District of Columbia. May, 2019. "From 2013 to 2017, Black individuals composed 47% of D.C.'s population but 86% of its arrestees. During this time, Black people were arrested at 10 times the rate of white people."
  • When Music Takes the Stand: A Content Analysis of How Courts Use and Misuse Rap Lyrics in Criminal Cases, Erin Lutes, James Purdon, and Henry F. Fradella. May, 2019. "The analyses demonstrate that rap evidence is routinely admitted against defendants in criminal proceedings, even in cases in which the prejudicial effect of such evidence clearly outweighs its probative value."

Thursday, May 2 2019:

  • Criminal Justice Solutions: Model State Legislation, Brennan Center for Justice. December, 2018. "This report offers state lawmakers model legislation based on smart, bold policy solutions that would keep crime low while reducing mass incarceration."
  • Cellphones, Law Enforcement, and the Right to Privacy Brennan Center for Justice. December, 2018. "New technologies that extend the power and reach of law enforcement are likely to exacerbate existing biases in policing and add more surveillance to communities that are already extensively policed."
  • Say Her Name: Resisting Police Brutality Against Black Women, African American Policy Forum. July, 2015. (The failure to highlight and demand accountability for the countless Black women killed by police over the past two decades leaves Black women unnamed and thus underprotected in the face of their continued vulnerability to racialized police violence.)

Wednesday, May 1 2019:

  • Can We Downsize Our Prisons and Jails Without Compromising Public Safety? Findings from California's Prop 47, Bradley J. Bartos and Charis E. Kubrin. August, 2018. "Our findings reveal that Prop 47 had no effect on homicide, rape, aggravated assault, robbery, and burglary. At the same time, we find that larceny and motor vehicle thefts appear to have increased moderately."
  • Criminal Justice Administrative Fees: High Pain for People, Low Gain for Government, The Financial Justice Project of San Francisco. May, 2018. "Over the last six years, more than 265,000 fines and fees have been charged to local individuals, totaling almost $57 million."
  • Prisoners in 2017 Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2019. "The imprisonment rate for sentenced prisoners under state or federal jurisdiction decreased 2.1% from 2016 to 2017 (from 450 to 440 sentenced prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents)."
  • Jail Inmates in 2017 Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2019. "County and city jails held 745,200 inmates at midyear 2017."
  • Heat in U.S. Prisons and Jails Corrections and the Challenge of Climate Change, Daniel W. E. Holt. August, 2015. "Correctional departments should consider not only the direct impacts of rising temperatures but also indirect impacts such as greater risks of wildfires and drought, increased burdens on the electric grid, and growing pressures on food and water supplies."
  • The Voluntariness of Voluntary Consent: Consent Searches and the Psychology of Compliance, Roseanna Sommers and Vanessa K. Bohns. April, 2019. "This is problematic because it indicates that a key justification for suspicionless consent searches--that they are voluntary--relies on an assessment that is subject to bias."
  • The Prison Industrial Complex: Mapping Private Sector Players, Worth Rises. April, 2019. "More than half of the $80 billion spent annually on incarceration by government agencies is used to pay the thousands of vendors that serve the criminal legal system."
  • Are Private Prisons to Blame for Mass Incarceration and Its Evils? Prison Conditions, Neoliberalism, and Public Choice, Hadar Aviram. January, 2015. "Public institutions have privatized so many of their internal functions that they can hardly be differentiated from private ones. Public actors behave in ways as atrocious and neglectful, and they respond to the same market pressure, as private actors."
  • Applying a racial equity lens to fines and fees in the District of Columbia D.C. Policy Center. 2015. "Fixed fines and fees can disproportionately harm families of color, both due to discriminatory practices in issuing fines and fees and in the systemic issues of income and wealth inequities that make it more difficult for these families to pay"
  • The Determinants of Declining Racial Disparities in Female Incarceration Rates, 2000-2015 Samuel L. Myers, Jr., William J. Sabol, and Man Xu. December, 2018. "From 2000 to 2016 there was considerable narrowing of the disparity in incarceration rates between black females and white females in America's prisons."
  • Report on the Bronx 120 Mass "Gang" Prosecution Babe Howell and Priscilla Bustamante. April, 2019. "The Bronx 120 indictments appear not only to be overbroad and unfair, but they seem profoundly unwise."
  • Girls in the Juvenile Justice System Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. April, 2019. "More than half of all female delinquency cases involved black or Hispanic youth."

Friday, April 26 2019:

  • Solitary Confinement: Inhumane, Ineffective, and Wasteful, Southern Poverty Law Center. April, 2019. "solitary is disproportionately used for people with mental illnesses, people of color, and people with disabilities."
  • The Next Step: Ending Excessive Punishment for Violent Crimes, The Sentencing Project. April, 2019. "Excessive penalties for violent crimes are not only ineffective--incapacitating people who no longer pose a public safety threat and producing little deterrent effect--they also divert investment from more effective public safety programs."
  • Judged for More Than Her Crime: A Global Overview of Women Facing the Death Penalty, The Cornell Center on the Death Penalty Worldwide. September, 2018. "We estimate that at least 500 women are currently on death rows around the world"
  • Neither Justice nor Treatment: Drug Courts in the United States, Physicians for Human Rights. June, 2017. "Overall, PHR found that drug courts largely failed at providing treatment to those who truly needed it, and filled up limited treatment spaces with court-mandated patients who didn't always need the care."
  • Reclassified State Drug Law Reforms to Reduce Felony Convictions and Increase Second Chances, Urban Institute. October, 2018. "Reclassifying drug possession from a felony to a misdemeanor can reduce the negative impacts imposed on people and communities by felony convictions, reduce imprisonment of people convicted of drug possession, and redirect limited resources to treatment."
  • People in Prison in 2018 Vera Institute of Justice. April, 2019. "Prison incarceration rates fell in 35 states and grew in 15 others."
  • Swept Up in the Sweep: The Impact of Gang Allegations on Immigrant New Yorkers, New York Immigration Coalition. May, 2018. "By broadly casting immigrant Latinx youth as gang members to be targeted for incarceration and deportation, even the outward pretense of basic rights and due process is pushed to the side."
  • Misdemeanors by the Numbers Sandra Mayson and Megan Stevenson. April, 2019. "With a single exception, the per-capita misdemeanor case-filing rate is higher for black people than for white people for every offense type, in every jurisdiction."

Wednesday, April 17 2019:

Monday, April 8 2019:

  • Mass Probation and Inequality: Race, Class, and Gender Disparities in Supervision and Revocation, Michelle Phelps. 2018. "The results suggest that probation supervision contributes to racial disparities in imprisonment, both by diverting more white defendants to probation initially and by revoking black probationers at greater rates."

Friday, April 5 2019:

  • Dirty Data, Bad Predictions: How Civil Rights Violations Impact Police Data, Predictive Policing Systems, and Justice, Rashida Richardson, Jason Schultz, Kate Crawford. March, 2019. "The failure to adequately interrogate and reform police data creation and collection practices can result in skewed predictive policing systems and create lasting consequences that will permeate throughout the criminal justice system."
  • Impact of Risk Assessment on Judges' Fairness in Sentencing Relatively Poor Defendants Jennifer L. Skeem, Nicholas Scurich, and John Monahan. January, 2019. "When risk assessment information was added to these cases, judges were more likely to sentence the relatively poor defendant to incarceration than his more affluent counterpart."

Monday, April 1 2019:

  • A Public Health Strategy for the Opioid Crisis Saloner et al.. November, 2018. "A tough-on-crime approach has a high likelihood of backfiring: overzealous law enforcement can lead fewer people to come forward when their companions are overdosing, thereby increasing health risks."
  • Incarceration as Forced Migration: Effects on Selected Community Health Outcomes, James C. Thomas and Elizabeth Torrone. October, 2006. "High rates of incarceration can have the unintended consequence of destabilizing communities and contributing to adverse health outcomes."
  • Sheriffs Addressing the Mental Health Crisis in the Community and in the Jails, Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice. 2015. "This report identifies successful practices that local law enforcement can employ to reduce the arrest and incarceration of people living with mental illness in their jurisdictions."
  • Criminal Justice Debt in the South: A Primer for the Southern Partnership to Reduce Debt, National Consumer Law Center. December, 2018. "The excessive criminal justice debts that burden people leaving prison create a barrier to successful reentry, contributing to cycles of incarceration."
  • The Effects of Pretrial Detention on Conviction, Future Crime, and Employment: Evidence from Randomly Assigned Judges, Will Dobbie, Jacob Goldin, and Crystal S. Yang. January, 2018. (We find that pretrial detention significantly increases the probability of conviction, primarily through an increase in guilty pleas. It has no net effect on future crime, but decreases formal sector employment and the receipt of some government benefits.)
  • Evaluation of Pretrial Justice System Reforms That Use the Public Safety Assessment: Effects in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, MDRC. March, 2019. "Mecklenburg County substantially reduced its use of money bail and detained fewer defendants, without sacrificing public safety or court appearance rates."
  • The Unintended Impact of Pretrial Detention on Case Outcomes: Evidence from New York City Arraignments, Emily Leslie and Nolan G. Pope. August, 2017. "Our results indicate a strong causal relationship between pretrial detention and case outcomes. We see consistent evidence that detainees plead guilty more often to more serious offenses and some evidence that they serve longer sentences."
  • Commercialized (In)Justice: Consumer Abuses in the Bail And Corrections Industry, National Consumer Law Center. March, 2019. "The growth of the corrections industry accelerates the trend whereby the costs of our legal system are imposed on low-income, disadvantaged communities least able to shoulder such burdens, rather than shared as a collective public responsibility."
  • A National Survey of Criminal Justice Diversion Programs and Initiatives Center for Health and Justice at TASC. December, 2013. (With many diversion programs in the country, there are no overarching standards for collecting or publishing data for the purposes of evaluating different types of programs against common sets of performance measures such as reducing costs and recidivism.)
  • A Survey of Prosecutorial Diversion in Illinois Center for Health and Justice at TASC. March, 2017. "As a growing field, there are many opportunities for improvement in diversion practices--in how programs are designed, implemented, and evaluated; in how data are collected and shared; and in ensuring that community services are available and accessible."
  • Criminalization of Self-Induced Abortion in the United States: Report to the U.N. Working Group on Discrimination Against Women, Farah Diaz-Tello and Cynthia Soohoo. June, 2017. "Whether people end their own pregnancies out of preference or necessity, historical and present trends indicate that criminalization is not a deterrent to self-induction."

Friday, March 29 2019:

  • High Time for Criminal Justice Reform: Marijuana Expungement Statutes in States with Legalized or Decriminalized Marijuana Laws, Alana E. Rosen. February, 2019. "States that legalize or decriminalize marijuana should automatically include expungement provisions that dismiss and erase, resentence, or redesignate the records of individuals with previous marijuana-related convictions."
  • No Credit For Time Served? Incarceration and Credit-Driven Crime Cycles, Abhay Aneja and Carlos Avenancio-Leon. February, 2019. "Incarceration significantly reduces access to credit, and that in turn leads to substantial increases in recidivism, creating a perverse feedback loop."
  • What Percentage of Americans Have Ever Had a Family Member Incarcerated?: Evidence from the Family History of Incarceration Survey, Enns et al.. March, 2019. "45 percent of Americans have ever had an immediate family member incarcerated. The incarceration of an immediate family member was most prevalent for blacks (63 percent) but common for whites (42 percent) and Hispanics (48 percent) as well."
  • Pregnancy Outcomes in US Prisons, 2016-2017 Sufrin et al.. March, 2019. "Overall, 1396 pregnant women were admitted to prisons; 3.8% of newly admitted women and 0.6% of all women were pregnant in December 2016."
  • Misdemeanor Disenfranchisement? The demobilizing effects of brief jail spells on potential voters, Ariel White. March, 2018. "Jail sentences arising from misdemeanor cases decrease voter turnout in the next election, especially for black defendants."
  • Aggressive Policing and the Educational Performance of Minority Youth Joscha Legewie and Jeffrey Fagan. February, 2019. "Aggressive policing can thus lower educational performance for some minority groups, providing evidence that the consequences of policing extend into key domains of social life, with implications for the educational trajectories of minority youth."
  • A Proposal to End Regressive Taxation through Law Enforcement The Hamilton Project. March, 2019. "Over the past few decades the directives handed down to the everyday agents of law enforcement have incrementally shifted focus away from public safety and toward public finance."
  • No Right to Rest: Criminalizing Homelessness in Colorado, The Denver Homeless Out Loud Report Team. April, 2015. "In addition to formal citation and arrest, this survey finds evidence of extrajudicial harassment of homeless people. Both police and private security forces commonly harass and enforce punishments on homeless people, even without legal authority to do so"
  • Too High a Price: What Criminalizing Homelessness Costs Colorado, Homeless Advocacy Policy Project. February, 2016. "Cities issue citations to homeless residents at a staggering rate."
  • "Forced into Breaking the Law": The Criminalization of Homelessness in Connecticut, Allard K. Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic. October, 2016. "This cycle of incarceration and homelessness comes at a steep cost to people experiencing homelessness, as well as to taxpayers, all while failing to address the root cause of homelessness: a lack of housing solutions."
  • Towed into Debt: How Towing Practices in California Punish Poor People, Western Center on Law & Poverty. March, 2019. "For many Californians, a vehicle tow means the permanent loss of their car and, along with it, the loss of employment, access to education and medical care, and, for some, their only shelter."
  • Driver's License Suspension in North Carolina Brandon L. Garrett and William Crozier. March, 2019. "We found that there are 1,225,000 active driver's licenses suspensions in North Carolina for non-driving related reasons, relating to failure to pay traffic fines and court courts, and failure to appear in court for traffic offenses."
  • Racial Bias in Bail Decisions David Arnold, Will Dobbie, and Crystal S. Yang. April, 2018. "Estimates from Miami and Philadelphia show that bail judges are racially biased against black defendants, with substantially more racial bias among both inexperienced and part-time judges."
  • Who Pays for Government? Descriptive Representation and Exploitative Revenue Sources, Michael W. Sances and Hye Young You. September, 2016. "We find municipal governments with higher black populations rely more heavily on fines and fees for revenue. Further, we find that the presence of black city council members significantly reduces - though does not eliminate - this pattern."

Tuesday, March 19 2019:

  • Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2019, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2019. "The American criminal justice system holds almost 2.3 million people."
  • Criminal Immigrants in 2017: Their Numbers, Demographics, and Countries of Origin, Cato Institute. March, 2019. "Legal and illegal immigrants were less likely to be incarcerated than native-born Americans in 2017, just as they were in 2014 and 2016."
  • Failure should not be an option: Grading the parole release systems of all 50 states, Prison Policy Initiative. February, 2019. "Parole systems should give every incarcerated person ample opportunity to earn release and have a fair, transparent process for deciding whether to grant it."
  • Reducing Barriers to Reintegration: Fair chance and expungement reforms in 2018, Collateral Consequences Resource Center. January, 2019. "In terms of sheer volume of new laws, 2018 marks the high point of recent state efforts to restore rights and status to people with a criminal record."
  • Expungement of Criminal Convictions: An Empirical Study, J.J. Prescott and Sonja B. Starr. March, 2019. (Among those legally eligible for expungement in Michigan, just 6.5% obtain it within five years of eligibility.)
  • Diversion in the Criminal Justice System Michael Mueller-Smith and Kevin T. Schnepel. January, 2019. "We find robust evidence across both experiments that diversion cuts reoffending rates in half (-32 p.p.) and grows quarterly employment rates by 53 percent (+18 p.p.) over 10 years."

Monday, March 18 2019:

  • Reforming Restrictive Housing: The 2018 ASCA-Liman Nationwide Survey of Time-in-Cell, The Association of State Correctional Administrators & The Liman Center for Public Interest Law at Yale Law School. October, 2018. "Across all the reporting jurisdictions, the median percentage of the population held in restrictive housing was 4.2%; the average was 4.6%."
  • Community and the Crime Decline: The Causal Effect of Local Nonprofits on Violent Crime, Paywall :( Patrick Sharkey, Gerard Torrats-Espinosa, Delaram Takyar. October, 2017. "We find strong evidence that establishment of community nonprofits had a substantively meaningful negative effect on murder, violent crime, and property crime."
  • Toward Misdemeanor Justice: Lessons from New York City, Greg Berman & Julian Adler. June, 2018. "This article seeks to articulate a new approach to misdemeanor justice that reconciles the maintenance of public safety with the urgent need to reduce unnecessary incarceration."
  • Criminalization of HIV Transmission and Exposure: Research and Policy Agenda, Zita Lazzarini et al.. August, 2013. "More than half the states have HIV-specific criminal laws, whereas all have traditional criminal provisions. Yet criminal laws have not been shown to be effective in reducing rates of HIV infection."
  • Police killings and their spillover effects on the mental health of black Americans: a population-based, quasi-experimental study, Jacob Bor, Atheendar S Venkataramani, David R Williams, Alexander C Tsai. June, 2018. "Police killings of unarmed black Americans have adverse effects on mental health among black American adults in the general population."
  • Too Poor to Pay: How Arkansas's Offender-Funded Justice System Drives Poverty & Mass Incarceration, Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law. March, 2019. "In Arkansas, thousands have been jailed, often repeatedly, for weeks or even months at a time, simply because they are poor and cannot afford to pay court costs, fines and fees."
  • How New Orleans Funds Justice Vera Institute of Justice. September, 2018. "New Orleans's criminal justice system has a funding structure that requires the court and other justice system agencies to raise revenues by imposing fees on people who come in contact with the system."
  • Ending Mass Incarceration: A Presidential Agenda, Brennan Center for Justice. February, 2019. (Presidential candidates should commit to tackling some of the most pervasive and damaging parts of our criminal justice system, including overly punitive sentences, bail practices that favor the rich, and drug policies that unfairly target people of color)
  • Criminalizing Race: Racial Disparities in Plea-Bargaining, Carlos Berdejo. April, 2018. "Efforts to mitigate racial disparities in sentencing and incarceration rates should consider disparities in the plea-bargaining process and initial charging decisions."
  • A New Path to Justice: Getting Women Off Rikers Island, Vera Institute of Justice. November, 2018. "The advisory group developed several recommendations for how New York City can embrace a different approach at three critical junctures in the criminal justice system: (1) at arrest; (2) at arraignment; and (3) when women are held at RMSC."

Friday, March 15 2019:

  • Mass incarceration, public health, and widening inequality in the USA Christopher Wildeman, Emily A Wang. April, 2017. "Soaring incarceration since the mid-1970s has profoundly affected health in the USA, especially in poor and minority communities."
  • Exploring Healthcare Experiences for Incarcerated Individuals Who Identify as Transgender in a Southern Jail Erin McCauley et al.. 2015. "Participants experienced high levels of abuse and harassment, solitary confinement, mental health issues, and lack of access to hormone treatment."
  • Consequences of Policing Prostitution: An Analysis of Individuals Arrested and Prosecuted for Commercial Sex in New York City, Urban Institute. April, 2017. "The history of criminalizing prostitution is long, but its modern incarnation in New York City is inextricably intertwined with "broken windows policing," which originated in the early 1990s."
  • A large-scale analysis of racial disparities in police stops across the United States Stanford Computational Policy Lab. March, 2019. "Our investigation of nearly 100 million traffic stops across the United States reveals evidence of widespread discrimination in decisions to stop and search drivers."
  • Return to Nowhere: The Revolving Door Between Incarceration and Homelessness, Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. February, 2019. "People experiencing homelessness are 11 times more likely to face incarceration when compared to the general population, and formerly incarcerated individuals are almost 10 times more likely to be homeless than the general public."
  • No Safe Place: The Criminalization of Homelessness in U.S. Cities, National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty. July, 2014. "Despite a lack of affordable housing and shelter space, many cities have chosen to criminally punish people living on the street for doing what any human being must do to survive."
  • Seattle's Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD): Program Effects on Recidivism Outcomes, Susan E. Collins, Heather S. Lonczak, Seema L. Clifasefi. 2015. (Findings indicated positive effects of the Seattle's Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion program on criminal recidivism over shorter six-month and longer evaluation-wide timeframes.)
  • Mothers Behind Bars: A state-by-state report card and analysis of federal policies on conditions of confinement for pregnant/parenting women, The Rebecca Project for Human Rights and The National Women's Law Center. October, 2010. "Pregnant women, incarcerated women and their children are subject to federal and state correctional policies that fail to recognize their distinct needs or honor their families."

Wednesday, February 20 2019:

  • Evaluating the Impacts of Eliminating Prosecutorial Requests for Cash Bail Aurelie Ouss and Megan T. Stevenson. February, 2019. "In spite of this large decrease in the fraction of defendants having monetary incentives to show up to court, we detect no change in failure-to-appear in court or in recidivism."
  • Perinatal Needs of Pregnant, Incarcerated Women Barbara A. Hotelling. April, 2008. "Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems."
  • The Price They Pay: Protecting the Mother-Child Relationship Through the Use of Prison Nurseries and Residential Parenting Programs, Anne E. Jbara. October, 2012. "Based on the emotional and cognitive benefits for both mothers and babies, the prison nursery program is a worthwhile addition to the prison system in the United States."

Tuesday, February 19 2019:

  • Health Insurance Trends and Access to Behavioral Healthcare Among Justice-Involved Individuals--United States, 2008-2014, Tyler N. A. Winkelman et al.. December, 2016. (High uninsurance rates, lack of care coordination, and poor access to high quality behavioral health treatment are critical public health issues given the prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders among justice-involved individuals.)
  • Release from Prison -- A High Risk of Death for Former Inmates Ingrid A. Binswanger et al.. January, 2007. "During the first 2 weeks after release from the Washington State Department of Corrections, the risk of death among former inmates was 12.7 times that among Washington State residents of the same age, sex, and race."
  • A randomized clinical trial of methadone maintenance for prisoners: Findings at 6 months post-release, Michael S. Gordon et al.. August, 2008. "This study suggests that methadone maintenance treatment, provided to prisoners with histories of heroin addiction, may be an effective intervention for interrupting the cycle of relapse often experienced by individuals with heroin addiction histories."
  • A Study of Methadone Maintenance For Male Prisoners: 3-Month Postrelease Outcomes, Timothy W. Kinlock et al.. July, 2008. "Participants who received prison-initiated maintenance treatment were significantly more likely to enter community-based treatment than were inmates who received either information on how to access drug abuse treatment after release or counseling only"
  • Why It's Inappropriate Not to Treat Incarcerated Patients with Opioid Agonist Therapy Sarah E. Wakeman. 2015. "In addition to not offering treatment initiation for those who need it, most correctional facilities forcibly withdraw stable patients from opioid agonist therapy upon their entry into the criminal justice system."
  • Potential drivers of HIV acquisition in African-American women related to mass incarceration: An agent-based modelling study, Joella Adams et al.. December, 2018. "Using Philadelphia as a case study, we found that the mass incarceration of African American men can substantially increase the number of HIV transmissions to African American women within the community."
  • Jail Inmates in 2016 Bureau of Justice Statistics. February, 2018. "At midyear 2016, about 740,700 inmates were confined in county and city jails in the United States."
  • State of Phone Justice: Local jails, state prisons and private phone providers, Prison Policy Initiative. February, 2018. (Charging pretrial defendants high phone rates punishes people who are legally innocent, drives up costs for their appointed counsel, and makes it harder for them to contact family members and others who might help them post bail or build their defense.)
  • The Unfair Criminalization of Gay and Transgender Youth: An Overview of the Experiences of LGBT Youth in the Juvenile Justice System, Center for American Progress. June, 2012. "Gay, transgender, and gender nonconforming youth are significantly over-represented in the juvenile justice system--approximately 300,000 gay and transgender youth are arrested and/or detained each year, of which more than 60 percent are black or Latino."
  • The Overrepresentation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Questioning, Gender Nonconforming and Transgender Youth Within the Child Welfare to Juvenile Justice Crossover Population, Angela Irvine and Aisha Canfield. April, 2016. (The experience of crossing from the child welfare system to the juvenile justice system is important to think about because it is a measure of the heightened vulnerability and marginalization of LGBQ/GNCT youth, especially LGBQ/GNCT youth of color.)
  • Confronting California's Continuing Prison Crisis: The Prevalence And Severity Of Mental Illness Among California Prisoners On The Rise, Stanford Justice Advocacy Project. May, 2017. "While the overall state prison population has decreased dramatically, the percentage of state prisoners with mental illness has increased by 77 percent."
  • Every Three Seconds: Unlocking Police Data on Arrests, Vera Institute of Justice. January, 2019. "Across the United States, an arrest occurs every three seconds."
  • Where Pretrial Improvements Are Happening Pretrial Justice Institute. January, 2019. "There are many ways jurisdictions can improve pretrial systems and the outcomes they produce without introducing new laws or amending state constitutions. Simply changing practice within existing legal structures can create immediate and positive results."
  • The Wisconsin Community Corrections Story [PDF] Columbia University Justice Lab. January, 2019. "Wisconsin serves as a good example of a place where parole and probation supervision are contributing to a prison population that is highly racially disparate and growing."
  • Undue Influence: A Prosecutor's Role in Parole Proceeding, R. Michael Cassidy. September, 2018. (Prosecutors should ordinarily refrain from personally testifying at parole hearings, and should submit written comments to the parole board only in rare situations.)
  • Compassionate Release Policy Reform: Physicians as Advocates for Human Dignity, Andreas Mitchell and Brie Williams. September, 2017. "Physicians can help generate political momentum toward policy analysis and change, contribute medical expertise toward the structuring of scientifically sound compassionate release policies, and advocate directly for their incarcerated patients."
  • Unlocking the Black Box: How the Prosecutorial Transparency Act Will Empower Communities and Help End Mass Incarceration, ACLU. 2015. (We cannot end mass incarceration until we transform the practices of prosecutors. This requires a far more complete picture of how they are making their decisions as well as the direct impact of those decisions on individuals and communities.)
  • Guidelines for Indigent Defense Caseloads: A Report to the Texas Indigent Defense Commission, Public Policy Research Institute. January, 2015. (The problems in providing criminal defense representation for the indigent in state courts are well documented. But of all the difficulties, none has proven more vexing than outrageously high caseloads of public defenders and sometimes private lawyers.)
  • Juvenile Arrests, 2016 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. December, 2018. "Juvenile arrests have been on the decline for more than a decade, but patterns vary by offense and demographic group."

Wednesday, January 16 2019:

  • To Serve and Collect: The Fiscal and Racial Determinants of Law Enforcement, Michael D. Makowsky, Thomas Stratmann, and Alexander T. Tabarrok. 2015. (This study finds increases in arrest rates of African-Americans and Hispanics for drugs, DUI violations, and prostitution where local governments are running deficits, but only in states that allow police departments to retain seizure revenues.)
  • Driven by Dollars: A State-By-State Analysis of Driver's License Suspension Laws for Failure to Pay Court Debt, Legal Aid Justice Center. September, 2017. "43 states (and D.C.) suspend driver's licenses because of unpaid court debt."
  • Associations between sex work laws and sex workers' health: A systematic review and meta-analysis of quantitative and qualitative studies, Lucy Platt et al.. December, 2018. "The public health evidence clearly shows the harms associated with all forms of sex work criminalization, including regulatory systems, which effectively leave the most marginalized, and typically the majority of, sex workers outside of the law."
  • Mortality After Prison Release: Opioid Overdose and Other Causes of Death, Risk Factors, and Time Trends From 1999 to 2009, Ingrid A. Binswanger et al.. October, 2013. "The leading cause of death in former prisoners was overdose. Pharmaceutical opioids were the most common substances involved in these deaths."
  • Intra-City Differences in Federal Sentencing Practices Federal District Judges in 30 Cities, 2005 - 2017, United States Sentencing Commission. January, 2019. "In most cities, the length of a defendant's sentence increasingly depends on which judge in the courthouse is assigned to his or her case."
  • Top Trends in State Criminal Justice Reform, 2018 Sentencing Project. January, 2019. (This briefing paper describes key criminal justice reforms undertaken in 2018.)

Tuesday, January 15 2019:

  • Work and opportunity before and after incarceration Brookings Institution. March, 2018. "The combination of high rates of incarceration and low employment rates among exprisoners implies that roughly one third of all not-working 30-year-old men are either in prison, in jail, or are unemployed former prisoners."
  • The Economics of Bail and Pretrial Detention The Hamilton Project. December, 2018. "Pretrial detention has a substantially negative economic impact on individuals, disrupting their labor market activities and causing increased recidivism."
  • Justice Derailed: A case study of abusive and unconstitutional practices in Colorado city courts, ACLU of Colorado. 2015. "Colorado's municipal courts operate with little meaningful statewide oversight or accountability, providing an opportunity for civil liberties violations and other abusive practices to occur unnoticed, unreported, and unaddressed by state agencies."
  • Roe v Wade and the new Jane Crow: Reproductive rights in the age of mass incarceration, [PDF] Lynn Paltrow. January, 2013. "Efforts to establish separate legal"
  • The War on Drugs and the War on Abortion: Some Initial Thoughts on the Connections, Intersections, and the Effects, Lynn Paltrow. May, 2002. (By recognizing the similarity between reproductive rights and the drug war there is an opportunity for a deeper understanding of each issue and a basis for developing analysis and action that can counteract the forces of punishment and prohibition.)
  • Criminalizing Pregnancy: Policing Pregnant Women Who Use Drugs in the USA, Amnesty International. May, 2017. "Often known as "fetal assault", "chemical endangerment" or "personhood" laws, these measures have been used to arrest and prosecute women who experience pregnancy complications and conditions such as drug dependence."
  • How the Criminalization of Pregnancy Robs Women of Reproductive Autonomy Michele Goodwin. November, 2017. "More than one-third of states consider pregnant women's illicit drug use a form of child abuse, resulting in unprecedented forms of criminal and civil punishment"
  • Invisible Women: Mass Incarceration's Forgotten Casualties, Michele Goodwin. June, 2015. "To place this in context, the U.S. jails more women than Russia, China, Thailand, and India combined. Nearly a third of the world's women inmates are incarcerated in the United States."

Thursday, December 20 2018:

  • Crime in 2018: Updated Analysis, Brennan Center for Justice. December, 2018. "This analysis updates the September report and finds that, where data were available, rates of crime, violent crime, and murder in major American cities are estimated to decline through the end of 2018."
  • New York Should Re-examine Mandatory Court Fees Imposed on Individuals Convicted of Criminal Offenses and Violations New York City Bar. November, 2018. "Courts should not prioritize revenue-raising over the successful re-integration of incarcerated persons back into society."
  • Paradox of Probation: Community Supervision in the Age of Mass Incarceration, Michelle Phelps. March, 2013. (The results suggest that across place and time, probation paradoxically exerts both a prison alternative and net-widener effect, with the two forces often cancelling one another out.)
  • Correctional Control 2018: Incarceration and supervision by state, Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2018. "An estimated 4.5 million adults are under community supervision, nearly twice the number of people who are incarcerated in jails and prisons combined."
  • The Minimum Wage, EITC, and Criminal Recidivism Amanda Y. Agan and Michael D. Makowsky. September, 2018. (This report finds that the average minimum wage increase of $0.50 reduces the probability that men and women return to prison within 1 year by 2.8%.)
  • 50-State Comparison Characteristics of Pardon Authorities Collateral Consequences Resource Center. June, 2018. (This report provides a 50 state comparison of pardons, including: type of administration, type of process, eligibility requirements, effect, frequency of grants, and alternative restoration.)
  • 21 Principles for the 21st Century Prosecutor Brennan Center for Justice. 2015. "Given their powers, prosecutors are well positioned to make changes that can roll back over-incarceration. They can use their discretion to improve the overall fairness and efficacy of the criminal justice system."
  • Fact Check: A Survey of Available Data on Juvenile Crime in Baltimore City, Abell Foundation. June, 2018. "While there has been an increase in the number of juveniles charged as adults for serious crimes, the number of these cases remains relatively small--less than 10 percent of all juvenile arrests."

Monday, December 17 2018:

  • The Death Penalty in 2018: Year End Report, Death Penalty Information Center. December, 2018. "The 25 executions carried out in 2018 marked the fourth consecutive year with fewer than 30 executions-something that had not occurred in the United States since 1988-1991."
  • Every Second: The Impact of the Incarceration Crisis on America's Families, December, 2018. "Every second adult in America has had an immediate family member incarcerated."
  • The Opportunity Atlas: Mapping the Childhood Roots of Social Mobility, Opportunity Insights. October, 2018. "Moving to a neighborhood that is just a mile or two away can change children's average earnings by several thousand dollars a year and have significant effects on a spectrum of other outcomes ranging from incarceration to teenage birth rates."
  • Incarceration Incentives in the Decarceration Era Avlana Eisenberg. January, 2016. "The detailed incentives unearthed by this study demonstrate the significant hurdles facing emerging decarceration policies and the urgent challenge of accounting for, overcoming, and co-opting entrenched prison industry stakeholders."
  • Modernizing Parole Statutes: Guidance from Evidence-Based Practice, Robina Institute of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice. August, 2018. (This paper's recommendations serve as a starting place for those interested in modernizing parole laws around three areas: the parole decision-making process, the terms/conditions of supervision, and the administration of the paroling authority itself.)
  • Recidivism in Delaware: An Analysis of Prisoners Released in 2011 through 2013, Delaware Criminal Justice Council Statistical Analysis Center. December, 2017. (This report finds in 2011-2013, between 71-78% of people released from prison in Delaware are arrested again within 3 years.)
  • Everywhere and Nowhere: Compassionate Release in the States, Families Against Mandatory Minimums. June, 2018. "While compassionate release is nearly universal, it is underused. We believe that is due, in part, to poor design."

Tuesday, November 20 2018:

  • Defendants Whose Death Sentences Have Been Reduced Because of a Finding of "Mental Retardation" since Atkins v. Virginia Death Penalty Information Center. July, 2012. "The authors found that states that significantly deviated from accepted clinical methods for determining intellectual disability, such as Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Texas, had the lowest success rates."
  • Improving Parole Release in America Edward E. Rhine, Joan Petersilia, and Kevin R. Reitz. January, 2016. "This article lays out a ten-point program for the improve-ment of discretionary parole-release systems in America."
  • The Ungers, 5 Years and Counting: A Case Study in Safely Reducing Long Prison Terms and Saving Taxpayer Dollars, Justice Policy Institute. November, 2018. "The experience of the Unger group, with 188 people who were incarcerated for decades for serious violent crimes having been safely released to the community, demonstrates that this country locks up too many people for too long."
  • Eight Keys to Mercy: How to shorten excessive prison sentences, Prison Policy Initiative. November, 2018. (This report provides state leaders with eight strategies to shorten overly long prison sentences.)
  • Making Sense of Sentencing State Systems and Policies, National Conference of State Legislatures. June, 2015. (This report summarizes states' criminal codes and sentencing systems.)
  • The Continuing Leverage of Releasing Authorities: Findings from a National Survey: Executive Summary, Robina Institute of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice. October, 2016. "Releasing authorities continue to retain significant and unrecognized clout in their decision-making. Their practices and policies impact the achievement of the criminal justice system's fundamental goals: fairness, offender rehabilitation, and safety."
  • Model Penal Code: Sentencing, Proposed Final Draft, The American Law Institute. June, 2017. (The Model Penal Code provides guidance on some of the most important issues that courts, corrections systems, and policymakers are facing today.)
  • Women's Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2018, Prison Policy Initiative. November, 2018. "Women's incarceration has grown at twice the pace of men's incarceration in recent decades, and has disproportionately been located in local jails."

Tuesday, November 6 2018:

  • Money for Communities, Not Cages: The Case for Reducing the Cook County Sheriff's Jail Budget, Chicago Community Bond Fund. October, 2018. "By re-allocating money from reactionary corrections programs to proactive and preventative community services, Cook County can begin to effectively invest in the communities and people previously neglected and criminalized."
  • Getting Back on Course: Educational exclusion and attainment among formerly incarcerated people, Prison Policy Initiative. October, 2018. "This report reveals that formerly incarcerated people are often relegated to the lowest rungs of the educational ladder."
  • Expanding the Vote: Two Decades of Felony Disenfranchisement Reform, Sentencing Project. October, 2018. "More than 6 million citizens will be ineligible to vote in the midterm elections in November 2018 because of a felony conviction."
  • A Failure in the Fourth Degree: Reforming the State Jail Felony System in Texas, Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. October, 2018. "This report demonstrates through data and personal interviews with 140 incarcerated individuals the defective nature of Texas' state jail system, and it puts forth actionable policy recommendations for consideration by the 2019 Texas Legislature"
  • Out of Sight: LGBTQ Youth and Adults in Texas' Justice Systems, Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. October, 2018. "LGBTQ people are more likely to experience abuse and harassment by staff and others in the correctional facility, improper placement and solitary confinement, and denial of health care and programming."
  • Contacts Between Police and the Public, 2015 Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2018. (When police initiated the contact, black and Hispanic residents were more likely to experience the threat or use of physical force than white residents.)
  • Under Pressure: How fines and fees hurt people, undermine public safety, and drive Alabama's racial wealth divide, Alabama Appleseed Center for Law and Justice. October, 2018. (83% of people surveyed gave up necessities like rent, food, medical bills, car payments, and child support, in order to pay down their court debt.)
  • Philadelphia Bail Watch Report Findings and Recommendations based on 611 Bail Hearings, Philadelphia Bail Fund & Pennsylvanians for Modern Courts. October, 2018. "Philadelphia's preliminary arraignment system disadvantages individuals charged with crimes and, as a result, threatens one of the most sacred principles in our nation's criminal justice system: a person is innocent until proven guilty"
  • The Color of Youth Transferred to the Adult Criminal Justice System: Policy & Practice Recommendations, Campaign for Youth Justice. September, 2018. (Black youth are disproportionately sent to adult court by judges at some of the highest percentages seen in 30 years.)
  • Diversion from Justice: A Rights-Based Analysis of Local "Prostitution Diversion Programs", Global Health Justice Partnership of the Yale Law School and Yale School of Public Health. September, 2018. "While progressive at face value, prostitution diversion programs lack the evidence base and public accountability mechanisms to support their claims of doing good in the lives of people selling sex."
  • Un-Meetable Promises: Rhetoric and Reality in New York City's Human Trafficking Intervention Courts, Global Health Justice Partnership of the Yale Law School and Yale School of Public Health. September, 2018. (Embedding social services in a criminal justice context enables an overreach by the courts as gatekeepers and managers of service; mitigating immediate harms to sex workers requires shrinking (not expanding) the authority of the courts over defendant.)
  • The High Costs of Low Risk: The Crisis of America's Aging Prison Population, The Osborne Association. May, 2018.
  • Mandatory Minimum Penalties for Federal Identity Theft Offenses in the Federal Criminal Justice System U.S. Sentencing Commission. September, 2018. (Section 1028A convictions have increased both as a number and as a percentage of cases involving a mandatory minimum penalty since the Commission began collecting data on these offenses.)
  • Electronic Monitoring of Youth in the California Juvenile Justice System UC Berkeley School of Law. July, 2017. "The report demonstrates electronic monitoring programs can impose dozens of strict and inflexible rules on participants. Financial burdens imposed by electronic monitoring programs disproportionately hurt low-income families."

Wednesday, September 19 2018:

  • Decarceration Strategies: How 5 States Achieved Substantial Prison Population Reductions, The Sentencing Project. September, 2018. (This report summarizes key strategies and practices used by Connecticut, Michigan, Mississippi, Rhode Island, and South Carolina to reduce their prison populations, followed by extensive reviews for each of the five states.)
  • Emerging Issues in American Policing Volume 4, July 2018, Vera Institute of Justice. July, 2018. (This quarterly digest presents innovations in the field of policing from leading academic journals and research publications.)
  • The effect of prison visitation on reentry success: A meta-analysis, Meghan Mitchell and Kallee McCollough. July, 2016. (Results indicate that prison visitation generates modest reductions in post-release offending, which is moderated by gender, visitation type, time at risk, and recidivism measures.)
  • Repairing the Road to Redemption in California Californians for Safety and Justice. September, 2018. (This report highlights the lifetime consequences of having a conviction in California for individuals, families, and communities and includes recommendations to increase legal remedies and remove unnecessary restrictions.)
  • A Way Out: Abolishing Death by Incarceration in Pennsylvania, Abolitionist Law Center. September, 2018. (This report articulates a multi-strategy, movement-building framework for abolishing death by incarceration in Pennsylvania.)
  • Exonerations in 2017 The National Registry of Exonerations. March, 2018. "The National Registry of Exonerations has recorded 139 exonerations in 2017."
  • Exonerations in the United States Before 1989 National Registry of Exonerations. March, 2018. "This year we have added stories and data about 369 earlier exonerations, from 1820 through 1988."
  • The Price of Justice: The High Cost of "Free" Counsel for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System, Juvenile Law Center. July, 2018. (The report shows that requiring youth and their families to pay for the cost of court-appointed counsel forces youth deep into the criminal justice system, keeps them under justice system supervision longer, and pushes families deeper into poverty.)

Tuesday, September 18 2018:

  • Officer Health and Wellness: Results from the California Correctional Officer Survey, Amy E. Lerman. November, 2017. (This report summarizes the results from a correctional officer study examining mental and physical wellness; exposure to violence; attitudes towards rehabilitation and punishment; job training and management; work-life balance; and training and support.)
  • The Role of Gun Supply in 1980s and 1990s Youth Violence Alan Bartley & Geoffrey Fain Williams. June, 2015. (This report documents that the positive supply shock increased the availability of guns to criminally active youth and led to higher rates of gun access for young black men.)

Monday, August 27 2018:

  • Full Human Beings: An argument for incarcerated voter enfranchisement, Peoples Policy Project. May, 2018. (This report argues that all US states should allow incarcerated people to vote, something that only Maine and Vermont currently permit.)
  • Militarization fails to enhance police safety or reduce crime but may harm police reputation Jonathan Mummolo. August, 2018. (This article argues that militarized police units are more often deployed in communities with large shares of African American residents, they fail to enhance officer safety or reduce local crime, and may diminish police reputation in the mass public.)
  • New York State Parole Board: Failures in Staffing and Performance, The Parole Preparation Project and The Release Aging People in Prison Campaign. August, 2018. (This report examines the status of the New York State Parole Board, finding that severe staffing shortages, unlawful procedures, and unethical behavior threaten the board's integrity and fail both incarcerated people and the public.)

Wednesday, August 22 2018:

Wednesday, August 15 2018:

  • Nowhere to Go: Homelessness among formerly incarcerated people, Prison Policy Initiative. August, 2018. "Formerly incarcerated people are almost 10 times more likely to be homeless than the general public."

Wednesday, August 8 2018:

  • Reentering Women: The Impact of Social Ties on Long-Term Recidivism, Kelle Barrick, Pamela K. Lattimore, and Christy A. Visher. July, 2014. "Results from this study suggest that in-prison family contact and post-release family support are protective whereas in-prison non-family contact is a risk factor."
  • The Trial Penalty: The Sixth Amendment Right to Trial on the Verge of Extinction and How to Save It, National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. July, 2018. "The 'trial penalty' (the difference between the sentence offered in a plea offer prior to trial vs the sentence a defendant receives after trial) is now so severe & pervasive that it has virtually eliminated the constitutional right to a trial."
  • Young Adults and Community Supervision The Need for a Developmentally Appropriate Approach to Probation, Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. August, 2018. "The purpose of this report is to highlight evidence-based probation practices that improve outcomes, strengthening public safety and changing the life trajectory of young adults who might otherwise spend years in prison."

Tuesday, August 7 2018:

Monday, August 6 2018:

  • The Changing State of Recidivism: Fewer People Going Back to Prison, The Pew Charitable Trusts. August, 2018. "The share of people who return to state prison three years after being released dropped by nearly a quarter over a recent seven-year period."
  • Girls Matter: Centering Gender in Status Offense Reform Efforts, Vera Institute of Justice. July, 2018. "This report helps stakeholders analyze how policies and practices may be negatively or differently impacting girls and address disparities that are missed when systems assessment and reform do not include a targeted gender lens."

Thursday, July 26 2018:

Wednesday, July 25 2018:

  • Unequal Treatment: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Miami-Dade Criminal Justice, ACLU Florida Greater Miami. July, 2018. (This report finds that from arrest to sentencing, racial disparities exist at each decision point in the Miami-Dade County’s criminal justice system.)

Monday, July 23 2018:

  • Reckless Indifference: Deadly Heat in Texas Prisons, Human Rights Clinic at the University of Texas School of Law. March, 2015. (This report highlights the extreme heat conditions in Texas Department of Criminal Justice facilities, the treatment of heat-sensitive individuals, and the failed grievance system employed by the TDCJ.)

Wednesday, July 18 2018:

  • Silent Injustice: Solitary Confinement in Virginia, ACLU Virginia. May, 2018. "This report discusses the negative impacts of solitary confinement as practiced in Virginia."

Tuesday, July 17 2018:

  • Out of Prison & Out of Work: Unemployment among formerly incarcerated people, Prison Policy Initiative. July, 2018. (This report calculates that 27% of formerly incarcerated people are looking for a job, but can't find one.)

Monday, July 9 2018:

  • The Impact of Early Representation: An Analysis of the San Francisco Public Defender's Pre-Trial Release Unit, California Policy Lab. June, 2018. (In October 2017, the San Francisco Public Defender's Office piloted the Pre-Trial Release Unit (PRU) which doubled the likelihood of release at arraignment - from 14% to 28% - for arrestees who received arrest-responsive interventions from the PRU.)
  • Parole Revocation in Connecticut: opportunities to reduce incarceration, Samuel Jacobs Criminal Justice Clinic. September, 2017. (The Connecticut Board of Pardons and Paroles revoked parole and imposed a prison sanction in 100% of the hearings observed by the Samuel Jacobs Criminal Justice Clinic in November of 2015.)

Monday, June 25 2018:

  • Texas Custodial Death Report Police, jail, and prison deaths 2005-2015, Texas Justice Initiative. July, 2016. (This report examines who is dying in the Texas criminal justice system and how they are dying.)
  • Officer-involved Shootings and Custodial Deaths in Texas Texas Justice Initiative. June, 2018. (Overall, most deaths that occur in Texas law enforcement custody are due to natural causes, but that nearly half of all deaths of inmates housed alone in a jail cell are suicides.)

Monday, June 18 2018:

  • The New Dynamics of Mass Incarceration Vera Institute of Justice. June, 2018. "Contemporary decarceration exists alongside continuous growth, stagnation, and jurisdictional shifts between prisons and jails, akin to a shell game."

Thursday, June 14 2018:

Tuesday, June 12 2018:

  • The Mercy Lottery: A Review of the Obama Administration’s Clemency Initiative, NYU Law School. January, 2018. (This report analyzes President Obama’s clemency initiative and tells the stories of individual petitioners who were either denied clemency or whose petitions were never granted, despite being ideal candidates by the Initiative’s own terms.)

Friday, June 8 2018:

  • The Company Store: A Deeper Look at Prison Commissaries, Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2018. (Incarcerated people spend an average of $947 per person annually through commissaries - mostly to meet basic needs - which is well over the typical amount they can earn at a prison job.)
  • States of Women's Incarceration: The Global Context 2018, Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2018. "This report updates how U.S. women fare in the world's carceral landscape, comparing incarceration rates for women of each U.S. state with the equivalent rates for countries around the world."
  • States of Incarceration: The Global Context 2018, Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2018. "Compared to the rest of the world, every U.S. state relies too heavily on prisons and jails to respond to crime."
  • Open Roads and Overflowing Jails: Addressing High Rates of Rural Pretrial Incarceration, Right On Crime. May, 2018. (This report examines the contributors to rural pretrial incarceration and makes evidence-based recommendations to improve public safety while reducing the number of defendants held pretrial.)

Tuesday, June 5 2018:

  • Driving on Empty: Payment Plan Reforms Don’t Fix Virginia’s Court Debt Crisis, Legal Aid Justice Center. January, 2018. (After Virginia implemented significant changes to rules governing payment plans for court debt, roughly one in six licensed drivers in Virginia still has their driver’s license suspended, due at least in part to unpaid court debt.)

Monday, June 4 2018:

Thursday, May 31 2018:

  • You Get What You Measure: New Performance Indicators Needed to Gauge Progress of Criminal Justice Reform, Harvard Kennedy School. May, 2018. (This report argues that we need new performance measures that shed light on correctional population composition and recidivism by risk in order to gauge the effectiveness of reform efforts.)

Tuesday, May 29 2018:

  • Rethinking Restrictive Housing Lessons from Five U.S. Jail and Prison Systems, VERA Institute of Justice. May, 2018. (This report examines the use of restrictive housing in five states, documenting important trends in practice, policy, and outcomes.)
  • People in Prison in 2017 Vera Institute of Justice. May, 2018. "The total U.S. prison population dropped below 1.5 million for the first time since 2004. Despite the overall declines, 20 states increased their prison population, leaving 10 states with all-time-high numbers of people in prison."

Wednesday, May 23 2018:

Tuesday, May 22 2018:

Monday, May 21 2018:

  • Life imprisonment: A Policy Briefing, Penal Reform International and University of Nottingham. May, 2018. (The number of people serving formal life sentences has risen by nearly 84 percent in 14 years.)

Thursday, May 17 2018:

  • Global Prison Trends 2018 Penal Reform International. May, 2018. (This report analyzes trends in criminal justice and the use of imprisonment, showing that while overall crime rates around the world have declined, the number of people in prison on any given day is rising.)
  • From Bondage to Bail Bonds: Putting a Price on Freedom in New Orleans, The Data Center. May, 2018. (This report examines the extent to which money bail in New Orleans is a descendant of slavery and subsequent practices of racial exploitation.)
  • Workers With Criminal Records Society for Human Resource Management and the Charles Koch Institute. May, 2018. (74 percent of managers and 84 percent of HR professionals nationwide said they were willing or open to hiring individuals with a criminal record.)
  • Because She’s Powerful: The Political Isolation and Resistance of Women with Incarcerated Loved Ones., ESSIE Justice Group. May, 2018. (Mass incarceration is a direct cause of significant to extreme psychological distress and trauma, and a serious obstacle to the financial health and economic agency of women with incarcerated loved ones.)

Thursday, May 10 2018:

Monday, May 7 2018:

  • An Unjust Burden: The Disparate Treatment of Black Americans in the Criminal Justice System, Vera Institute of Justice. May, 2018. (This brief presents an overview of the ways in which America’s history of racism & oppression continues to manifest in the criminal justice system, & a summary of research demonstrating how the system perpetuates the disparate treatment of black people.)

Thursday, May 3 2018:

  • Aging Out: Using Compassionate Release to Address the Growth of Aging and Infirm Prison Populations, Vera Institute of Justice. December, 2017. "This report examines the challenges states face in using compassionate release mechanisms to reduce these populations and related costs."

Wednesday, May 2 2018:

  • Cruel and Usual: A National Prisoner Survey of Prison Food and Health Care Quality, Incarcerated Workers Organizing Committee. April, 2018. (This report examines survey responses from incarcerated people on unsanitary prison conditions, poor food quality, and inadequate health care treatment.)

Tuesday, May 1 2018:

  • Detention of Juveniles in Illinois Recommendations to Right-Size Detention through Reforms and Fiscal Incentives to Develop Community-Based Alternatives., Juvenile Justice Initiative. April, 2018. "This report includes a series of recommendations to "right-size" juvenile detention in Illinois."

Friday, April 27 2018:

Tuesday, April 24 2018:

  • The Prison Industrial Complex Mapping Private Sector Players, Urban Justice Center. April, 2018. "This report exposes over 3,100 corporations that profit from the devastating mass incarceration of our nation’s marginalized communities."
  • An Unsupported Population The Treatment of Women in Texas' Criminal Justice System, Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. April, 2018. (This report explores the unique issues facing women impacted by the criminal justice system, including challenges within Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) facilities.)

Monday, April 23 2018:

  • Report to the United Nations on Racial Disparities in the U.S. Criminal Justice System The Sentencing Project. April, 2018. "This report chronicles the racial disparity that permeates every stage of the United States criminal justice system, from arrest to trial to sentencing to post prison experiences."
  • 65 Million The Case for Reforming Criminal Background Checks for Employment, The National Employment Law Project. March, 2011. (Too often, employers, staffing firms, and screening firms disregard civil rights and consumer protections, categorically banning people with criminal records from employment.)

Thursday, April 19 2018:

  • The Evolving Landscape of Crime and Incarceration Greenberg Quinlan Rosner Research. April, 2018. (This report shows that a 67 percent majority agrees that “building more jails and prisons to keep more people in jail does not reduce crime,” including 61 percent of rural Americans.)
  • 2017 Federal Sentencing Statistics United States Sentencing Commission. April, 2018. "These reports examine federal sentencing statistics from each judicial district, the districts within each judicial circuit, and the districts within each state."

Tuesday, April 17 2018:

  • Mass Incarceration: A Major Cause of Hunger, Bread for the World Institute. February, 2018. (This paper explains how mass incarceration increases food insecurity.)
  • Urban crime rates and the changing face of immigration: Evidence across four decades, Robert Adelman, Lesley Williams Reid, Gail Markle, Saskia Weiss, and Charles Jaret. 2017. (This article finds that immigration is consistently linked to decreases in violent (e.g., murder) and property (e.g., burglary) crime between 1970 and 2010.)

Monday, April 16 2018:

  • Injuries associated with bunk beds that occur in jail Randall T. Lodera and Jocelyn Cole Young. October, 2017. "Jails account for 29% of all bunk bed injuries resulting in an ED visit in the USA (for people age 10 and over). Addressing this problem will require a multidisciplinary approach involving medicine, material engineering, and criminal justice."
  • An Overview of Offender Reentry National Institute of Justice. 2018. "The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the offender reentry literature, offender outcomes, and the reentry initiatives that may work to improve public safety."

Friday, April 6 2018:

  • 50-State Report on Public Safety The Council of State Governments. March, 2018. (This report brings together data from all 50 states on crime, recidivism, corrections trends, and key findings from research on what works to guide the design of new public safety efforts.)
  • Integrated Health Care and Criminal Justice Data Viewing the Intersection of Public Safety, Public Health, and Public Policy Through a New Lens: Lessons from Camden, NJ, Harvard Kennedy School. April, 2018. (This study suggests that we should shift from reacting to immediate health & crime crises as distinct events to focusing on holistic approaches that result in better individual outcomes, increased public safety, and reduced system costs.)

Wednesday, April 4 2018:

  • Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2018, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2018. (Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie answers the essential questions of how many people are locked up, where, and why.)
  • Winnable criminal justice reforms: A Prison Policy Initiative briefing on promising state reform issues for 2018, Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2017. (This briefing outlines a number of criminal justice policy reforms lawmakers can implement to reduce mass incarceration in 2018.)
  • What "Stop-and-Frisk" Really Means: Discrimination & Use of Force, Prison Policy Initiative. August, 2017. "This report analyzes the racially disparate use of force in police stops in New York City in 2011."
  • Youth Confinement: The Whole Pie, Prison Policy Initiative. February, 2018. "This report provides an introductory snapshot of what happens when justice-involved youth are held by the state: where they are held, under what conditions, and for what offenses."

Wednesday, March 28 2018:

  • Keeping Kids and Parents Together: A Healthier Approach to Sentencing in Louisiana, Human Impact Partners. March, 2018. "In this report, we evaluate the health and equity impacts of Primary Caretaker legislation in the state of Louisiana. If passed, this legislation would expand the ability to set community-based sentences for parents."

Tuesday, March 27 2018:

  • The Scale of Misdemeanor Justice Megan Stevenson & Sandra Mayson. March, 2018. (There are 13.2 million misdemeanor cases filed in the United States each year, but contrary to conventional wisdom, this number is not rising. There are, however, profound racial disparities in the misdemeanor arrest rate for most offense types.)

Monday, March 26 2018:

  • Don't Stop Now: California leads the nation in using public higher education to address mass incarceration. Will we continue?, Corrections to College California. March, 2018. "This publication highlights California’s successful efforts to build public higher education access for thousands of incarcerated and formerly incarcerated students, both in custody and on college campuses throughout the state."

Thursday, March 22 2018:

  • Confronting Criminal Justice Debt: A Guide for Policy Reform, Criminal Justice Policy Program at Harvard Law School. September, 2016. "By disproportionately burdening poor people with financial sanctions, and by jailing people who lack the means to pay, many jurisdictions have created a two-tiered system of criminal justice."
  • Cuyahoga County Bail Task Force: Report and Recommendations, Cuyahoga County Bail Task Force. March, 2018. (Money bail should not be used to simply detain defendants. Rather than relying on bond schedules, courts should assess each defendant’s risk of non-appearance and danger to the community using a uniform risk assessment tool.)
  • Presumed Innocent for a Price: The Impact of Cash Bail Across Eight New York Counties, New York Civil Liberties Union. March, 2018. (This report shows that over a five year period, tens of thousands of New Yorkers were jailed without having had their day in court simply because they could not pay bail.)
  • Advancing Bail Reform in Maryland: Progress and Possibilities, Baltimore City and Prince George’s County Branches of the NAACP. February, 2018. "This report argues that Maryland policymakers should continue to strengthening the alternatives to bail and pretrial detention."
  • Youth Transfer: The Importance of Individualized Factor Review, Campaign for Youth Justice. March, 2018. (This brief discusses the importance of weighing individual factors when judges and prosecutors consider the transfer of youth to the adult system, as well as recent state-level reforms addressing youth transfer.)

Tuesday, March 20 2018:

  • The Detention and Forced Medical Treatment of Pregnant Women: A Human Rights Perspective, American Constitution Society. March, 2018. (This report argues that laws authorizing the detention and forced medical treatment of pregnant women suspected of drug or alcohol abuse violate human rights standards and are a mistaken legal response to address individual and public health issues.)
  • "She Doesn't Deserve to be Treated Like This": Prisons as Sites of Reproductive Injustice, Rachel Roth, The Feminist Press, 2017 (updated). January, 2017. "This essay explores prisons as sites of reproductive injustice by focusing on barriers to abortion and safe childbirth."

Thursday, March 15 2018:

  • Recidivism Reconsidered: Preserving the Community Justice Mission of Community Corrections, Harvard Kennedy School. March, 2018. (This report argues that when recidivism is used as the sole measure of effectiveness, it misleads policymakers & the public, encourages inappropriate comparisons of dissimilar populations, & focuses policy on negative rather than positive outcomes.)
  • The Juvenile Record Myth Joy Radice. March, 2018. (This report illuminates the variety of ways states treat juvenile records — revealing that state confidentiality, sealing, and expungement provisions often provide far less protection than those terms suggest.)

Monday, March 12 2018:

  • Plea Bargaining: From Patent Unfairness to Transparent Justice, Mirko Bagaric, Julie N. Clarke, and William Rininger. March, 2018. (This article proposes reforms to the plea bargaining process (by shifting discretion and power from prosecutors into the hands of - impartial - sentencing judges) that will demonstrably and profoundly reshape the framework for plea negotiations.)

Thursday, March 8 2018:

Monday, March 5 2018:

  • Louisiana’s 2017 Criminal Justice Reforms: The most incarcerated state changes course, The Pew Charitable Trusts. March, 2018. (On June 15, 2017, Louisiana Governor John Bel Edwards (D) signed the most comprehensive justice reform package in state history, projected to reduce prison & community supervision populations, and save taxpayers $262 million dollars over a 10 year period.)
  • Parents as Partners: Family Connection and Youth Incarceration, Children and Family Justice Center. February, 2018. (This report shows that family and community-based responses to youth offending result in better public safety outcomes than more punitive measures such as incarceration.)

Friday, March 2 2018:

  • The State of Justice Reform 2017 Vera Institute of Justice. March, 2018. (This report identifies the major trends & developments in the justice system during 2017, and looks ahead to how this new policy landscape will inform criminal justice reform work in 2018.)
  • An Analysis of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Case Dispositions and Sentencing Outcomes for Criminal Cases Presented to and Processed by the Office of the San Francisco District Attorney, John MacDonald & Steven Raphael. December, 2017. (This study finds substantial racial & ethnic disparities in criminal justice outcomes that disfavor Black people in particular. These disparities are primarily due to case characteristics related to arrest charges, pre-trial detention, & criminal history.)

Tuesday, February 27 2018:

  • Divided Justice: Trends in Black and White Jail Incarceration, 1990-2013, Vera Institute of Justice. February, 2018. (This report looks at incarceration trends from 1990 to 2013, finding that although significant racial disparities still exist between black & white jail incarceration rates, rates for black people are declining while rates for white people are rising.)

Thursday, February 22 2018:

  • A Pound of Flesh The Criminalization of Private Debt, American Civil Liberties Union. February, 2018. "Arrests stemming from private debt are devastating communities across the country, and amount to a silent financial crisis that, due to longstanding racial & economic inequalities, is disproportionately affecting people of color & low-income communities."
  • “Set up to Fail”: The Impact of Offender-Funded Private Probation on the Poor, Human Rights Watch. February, 2018. "This report examines the use and impact of privatized probation services for misdemeanor offenses in four US states, and provides recommendations to protect against the abuses of criminal justice debt."

Tuesday, February 20 2018:

  • Keeping Kids and Parents Together A Healthier Approach to Sentencing in Tennessee, Human Impact Partner & Free Hearts. February, 2018. "This report finds that House Bill 825 and Senate Bill 919 would have a positive health impact on children, parents, and communities, especially those that are the hardest hit by incarceration."
  • 1844 No More New Jersey Institute for Social Justice. December, 2017. "Rather than strengthen our democracy, New Jersey’s decision to deny the right to vote to people with criminal convictions deprives its most vulnerable communities of valuable voices needed to affect systemic change."
  • Realignment and Recidivism in California Public Policy Institute of California. 2015. "California’s historic public safety realignment has had a modest effect on the state’s persistently high recidivism rates, varying across groups of offenders and counties."

Tuesday, February 13 2018:

  • Civil Asset Forfeiture: Forfeiting Your Rights, Southern Poverty Law Center. January, 2018. (This report finds that civil asset forfeiture snares mostly low-level offenders and many individuals who are never charged with a crime in the first place into an unequal system that undercuts due process and property rights.)

Monday, February 12 2018:

  • Social Media Monitoring in Boston: Free Speech in the Crosshairs, ACLU Massachusetts. February, 2018. (From 2014-16 the Boston Police Dept. used a social media surveillance system to gather data irrelevant to law enforcement concerns. It treated ordinary citizens as justifiable targets of surveillance, without deterring or solving serious crimes.)
  • Investing Justice Resources to Address Community Needs [PDF] Urban Institute. February, 2018. (This report provides an overview of a Colorado based program designed to coordinate the flow of resources to community-led organizations providing direct services to formerly incarcerated people navigating the reentry process.)

Monday, February 5 2018:

  • Paroling people who committed serious crimes: What is the actual risk?, Citizens Alliance on Prisons & Public Spending. December, 2014. (People who commit homicides or sex offenses have extremely low re-offense rates. This report argues that parole decisions should take into account this reality & aim to better repare people for release, not incarcerate them needlessly.)

Friday, February 2 2018:

  • Too big to succeed: The impact of the growth of community corrections and what should be done about it, Columbia University Justice Lab. January, 2018. (This report discusses the consequences of the tremendous growth in probation and parole supervision in the United States over the past several decades, and argues that the number of people under supervision needs to be cut in half.)
  • Less is More in New York: An Examination of the Impact of State Parole Violations on Prison and Jail Populations, Columbia University Justice Lab. January, 2018. (This research brief examines the decline in the number of people in New York's state prisons and local jails, including Rikers Island, and the simultaneous rise in the number of people incarcerated for state parole violations.)

Monday, January 29 2018:

  • The Effects of Pre-Trial Detention on Conviction, Future Crime, and Employment: Evidence from Randomly Assigned Judges, Will Dobbie, Jacob Goldin, and Crystal S. Yang. September, 2017. (Pre-trial detention significantly increases the probability of conviction, primarily through increases in guilty pleas. Pre-trial detention has no net effect on future crime, but decreases employment & the receipt of certain government benefits.)

Wednesday, January 24 2018:

  • Raising the Bar: Reducing Conflicts of Interest and Increasing Transparency in District Attorney Campaign Fundraising, Columbia Law School Center for the Advancement of Public Integrity. January, 2018. (This reports provides recommendations on fundraising policies and procedures that are designed to address conflicts of interest and unconscious bias, that may arise when campaign contributors also have business with a district attorney's office.)
  • Estimating the Effects of Law Enforcement and Public Health Interventions Intended to Reduce Gun Violence in Baltimore Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. January, 2018. "Although surges in arrests for illegal drug distribution may have a very short-term (1-2 months) violence-reducing effect in an area, there appear to be violence-generating effects up to a year after these drug arrest surges."
  • Forensic Patients in State Psychiatric Hospitals: 1999-2016, National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors. September, 2017. "The results from this study indicate that, over a little less than two decades, states have seen an increase in the number of forensic patients who are present in their state hospitals."
  • Breaking Down Barriers Experiments into Policies That Might Incentivize Employers to Hire Ex-Offenders, RAND Corporation. 2015. (This report argues that employers would be more likely to consider hiring ex-offenders if hiring agencies provided replacement workers, if ex-offenders provided proof of positive work performance histories, and if increased tax credits were available.)

Monday, January 22 2018:

  • Cruel & Usual Punishment: Excessive Use of Force at the Estelle Unit, [PDF] Prison Justice League. February, 2015. (This report reveals countless instances of Estelle correctional officers using excessive force on prisoners, causing serious bodily injuries. It is a pattern apparently well-known to prison officials, but ignored.)
  • A Texas Sized Failure: Sexual Assaults in Texas Prisons, Prison Justice League & the Texas Association Against Sexual Assault. November, 2016. "Regardless of claims that PREA standards are being implemented in Texas prisons, reports from prisoners themselves indicate that sexual assaults in Texas correctional facilities remain a serious problem."
  • A "Rigged System": How the Texas Grievance System Fails Prisoners and the Public, Prison Justice League. June, 2017. (Prisoners in the Texas Department of Criminal Justice lack confidence in the available grievance system to adequately address their complaints, noting a range of issues such as delays in receiving a response and concerns about oversight.)
  • Designed to Fail: The President's Deference to the Department of Justice in Advancing Criminal Justice Reform, Rachel E. Barkow and Mark Osler. June, 2017. "This Article offers institutional changes that would help future presidents make the system less punitive and reduce prison populations."
  • Advancing Sensible Justice in Tennessee Beacon Center of Tennessee. January, 2018. (More than 130,000 Tennesseans are behind bars or working through the criminal justice system. This report calls for a sharp change in the state's criminal justice system in order to reduce costs, increase public safety, and prevent recidivism.)
  • Pretrial Detention Reform: Recommendations to the Chief Justice, Judicial Branch of California Pretrial Detention Reform Workgroup. October, 2017. (California's pretrial detention system unnecessarily compromises victim & public safety because it bases a person's liberty on financial resources, not their likelihood of future criminal behavior, exacerbating socioeconomic disparities & racial bias.)
  • One War. Two Races. Bias Reigns in Florida's War on Drugs, Herald Tribune. January, 2018. "Blacks represent 17 percent of Florida’s population but have accounted for 46 percent of the state’s felony drug convictions since 2004."

Thursday, January 11 2018:

  • Court Fines and Fees: Criminalizing Poverty in North Carolina, North Carolina Poverty Research Fund. January, 2018. (In recent decades, the North Carolina General Assembly has levied a costly array of fees on low income Tar Heels and their families, creating massive hardships for those caught in webs of criminal justice debt.)

Wednesday, January 10 2018:

  • The Gender Divide: Tracking women's state prison growth, Prison Policy Initiative. January, 2018. "This report sheds more light on women in the era of mass incarceration by tracking prison population trends since 1978 for all 50 states."

Monday, January 8 2018:

  • Crime in 2017: Updated Analysis, Brennan Center for Justice. December, 2017. (This report finds that murder rates in major American cities are estimated to decline slightly through the end of 2017.)
  • Access to Health Care and Criminal Behavior: Short-Run Evidence from the ACA Medicaid Expansions, Jacob Vogler. September, 2017. (This research article indicates that state Medicaid expansions have resulted in significant decreases in annual crime by 3.2 percent.)
  • Substance Abuse Treatment Centers and Local Crime Bondurant, Samuel R.; Lindo, Jason M.; and Swensen, Isaac D.. September, 2016. (This report finds that substance-abuse-treatment facilities reduce both violent and financially motivated crimes in an area, and that the effects are particularly pronounced for relatively serious crimes.)
  • Police Employment, Officers Per Capita Rates for U.S. Cities Governing. October, 2016. "In 2016, police departments serving cities with populations exceeding 25,000 employed an average of 16.8 officers and 21.4 total personnel for every 10,000 residents."

Wednesday, January 3 2018:

  • 2017 Police Violence Report Mapping Police Violence. December, 2017. "Compiling information from media reports, obituaries, public records, and databases like Fatal Encounters and the WashingtonPost, this report represents the most comprehensive accounting of deadly police violence in 2017."

Tuesday, December 19 2017:

  • The Death Penalty in 2017: Year End Report, Death Penalty Information Center. December, 2017. "Executions and death sentences remained near historically low levels in 2017, as public support for the death penalty fell to its lowest level in 45 years."

Monday, December 18 2017:

  • Empire State of Incarceration Vera Institute of Justice. December, 2017. (This report analyzes county-level factors that lead people to jail in New York state, providing a deeper understanding of the drivers of local incarceration.)

Thursday, December 14 2017:

  • Yakima County, Washington Pretrial Justice System Improvements: Pre- and Post- Implementation Analysis, Smart Pretrial Demonstration Initiative. November, 2017. "Jurisdiction can reduce pretrial detention & improve racial/ethnic equity by replacing high use of secured money bail with non-financial release conditions guided by actuarial-risk-based decision making, with no harm to public safety or court appearance."
  • Second Chance Reforms in 2017: Roundup of new expungement and restoration laws, Collateral Consequences Resource Center. December, 2017. "In 2017, 23 states enacted laws aimed at reducing barriers faced by people with criminal records in the workplace and elsewhere."

Wednesday, December 13 2017:

  • OPIOIDS: Treating an Illness, Ending a War, The Sentencing Project. December, 2017. "This report examines the sources of the opioid crisis, surveys health and justice policy responses at the federal and state levels, and draws on lessons from past drug crises to provide guidance on how to proceed."
  • “Not in it for Justice”: How California’s Pretrial Detention and Bail System Unfairly Punishes Poor People, Human Rights Watch. April, 2017. "Nearly every offense in California is bail-eligible, yet many defendants cannot afford to pay. In California, the majority of county jail prisoners have not been sentenced, but are serving time because they are unable to pay for pretrial release."
  • "Don't Look Around": A Window into Inhumane Conditions for Youth at NORCOR, Disability Rights Oregon. December, 2017. "A lack of oversight and accountability has allowed Northern Oregon Regional Correctional Facility (NORCOR) to neglect the basic mental health and social development needs of kids in custody."

Tuesday, December 12 2017:

  • “Money Bail”: Making Ohio a More Dangerous Place to Live, The Buckeye Institute. 2015. "Ohio should address the demonstrated shortcomings of the cash bail system by expanding the judiciary’s access to proven risk-assessment tools that can provide a fairer, more efficient way to keep our communities safe and secure."

Thursday, December 7 2017:

  • Policing the Houseless 2.0 Million Dollar Hoods. December, 2017. "This report documents that LAPD arrests of houseless persons continued to climb during the first six months of 2017 and that just five charge categories accounted for the majority of houseless arrests."
  • The Price for Freedom: Bail in the City of L.A., Million Dollar Hoods. December, 2017. (The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), using the Los Angeles County Superior Court’s misdemeanor and felony bail schedules, levied over $19 billion in money bail on persons they arrested between 2012 and 2016.)

Wednesday, December 6 2017:

  • Jails in Indian Country, 2016 Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2017. "An estimated 2,540 inmates were held in 80 Indian country jails at midyear 2016, a 1.2% increase from the 2,510 inmates held in 76 facilities at midyear 2015."

Tuesday, December 5 2017:

  • Disrupting the Cycle: Reimagining the Prosecutor’s Role in Reentry, NYU Center on the Administration of Criminal Law. November, 2017. (Prosecutors have traditionally focused on their “front-end” role, but by defining their role as ending at case disposition, prosecutors miss an important opportunity to have a greater impact on public safety.)
  • Prison Health Care: Costs and Quality, [PDF] The Pew Charitable Trust. October, 2017. (This report paint a comprehensive picture of how states fund and deliver prison health care, how they compare with one another, and some reasons for differences.)
  • Born Suspect: Stop-and-Frisk Abuses & the Continued Fight to End Racial Profiling in America, NAACP. 2015. "This report is an analysis of the fight to end racial profiling in New York and the potential for nationwide implementation these efforts in every jurisdiction across the country."
  • Influences of Truth-in-Sentencing Reforms on Changes in States’ Sentencing Practices and Prison Populations William J. Sabol ; Katherine Rosich ; Kamala Mallik Kane ; David Kirk ; Glenn Dubin. July, 2002. (The federal Truth In Sentencing grant program had very limited influence on state decisions to adopt truth in sentencing policies.)

Monday, November 20 2017:

  • Florida Criminal Justice Reform: Understanding the Challenges and Opportunities, The Project on Accountable Justice. November, 2017. (This report is an effort to help Florida’s citizens and policy makers understand the nature of some of the problems found in the criminal justice system, notably resulting in dangerous prisons. It also suggests opportunities for reform.)
  • Racial Disparity in Federal Criminal Sentences University of Michigan Law School. 2014. (Blacks defendants receive federal sentences that are almost 10 percent longer than those of comparable whites arrested for the same crimes. Most of this disparity can be explained by prosecutors’ initial charging decisions.)
  • Demographic Differences in Sentencing: An Update to the 2012 Booker Report, United States Sentencing Commission. 2015. (Black male offenders continue to receive longer federal sentences than similarly situated White male offenders.)

Thursday, November 9 2017:

  • An Overdose Death Is Not Murder: Why Drug-Induced Homicide Laws Are Counterproductive and Inhumane, Drug Policy Alliance. November, 2017. (This report argues that drug-induced homicide laws exacerbate the very problem they seek to remediate by discouraging people who use drugs from seeking help and assistance.)
  • Reforming Criminal Justice: Bridging the Gap Between Scholarship and Reform, Academy for Justice. October, 2017. (This report covers dozens of topics within the areas of criminalization, policing, pretrial and trial processes, punishment, incarceration, and release.)

Thursday, November 2 2017:

  • Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2017, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2017. (Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie answers the essential questions of how many people are locked up, where, and why.)
  • The State of Pretrial Justice in America Pretrial Justice Institute. November, 2017. (This report uses basic indicators to document and grade current pretrial practice in all fifty states.)
  • Women's Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2017, Prison Policy Initiative. October, 2017. "This report provides a first-of-its-kind detailed view of the 219,000 women incarcerated in the United States, and how they fit into the even larger picture of correctional control."
  • The Intersection of Juvenile Courts and Exclusionary School Discipline [PDF] National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges. October, 2017. (This report provides real-world strategies to reduce the number of youth who unnecessarily come into contact with law enforcement and the juvenile justice system.)

Monday, October 30 2017:

  • Punishment Is Not a “Service”: The Injustice of Pretrial Conditions in Cook County, Chicago Community Bond Fund. October, 2017. "The overwhelming experience of people supported by CCBF shows that pretrial conditions expand and compound the harms of incarceration by denying people access to their jobs, housing, social supports, and even medical care."
  • 50,000 children: The Geography of America's Dysfunctional & Racially Disparate Youth Incarceration Complex, Youth First. October, 2017. "While the US Department of Justice reports that youth incarceration rates have decreased 50% between 1999 and 2013, too many youth are still locked up, and racial disparities among committed youth have widened."

Friday, October 27 2017:

  • Reducing Substance Use Disorders and Related Offending A Continuum of Evidence-Informed Practices in the Criminal Justice System, Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority. April, 2017. "By integrating evidence-informed practices, criminal justice agencies and communities can save lives, decrease costs to the criminal justice system, healthcare systems, and taxpayers."
  • Ban the Box and Racial Discrimination Urban Institute. February, 2017. "When information about a person’s criminal history is not present, employers may make hiring decisions based on their perception of the likelihood that the applicant has a criminal history."
  • Addressing the Intersections of Juvenile Justice Involvement and Youth Homelessness Principles for Change, Coalition for Juvenile Justice. February, 2017. "The Principles in this document provide a roadmap for communities to help young people avoid experiencing juvenile justice system involvement and/or youth homelessness."

Wednesday, October 25 2017:

  • Final Implementation Findings from the Responsible Fatherhood Reentry Projects Urban Institute. April, 2017. "Fathers recently released from correctional institutions have significant service needs and can face considerable barriers to meeting those needs as they reintegrate back to their communities."
  • The Use and Impact of Correctional Programming for Inmates on Pre- and Post-Release Outcomes National Institute of Justice. June, 2017. "This paper reviews the available evidence on the impact of institutional programming on pre- and post-release outcomes for prisoners."
  • The Case for Paid Apprenticeships Behind Bars Center for American Progress. April, 2017. "This brief argues that greater access to paid prison apprenticeship programs could effectively improve inmates’ post-release outcomes, particularly for a group of individuals who already face significant barriers to labor market entry."
  • Trends in State Courts Fines, Fees, and Bail Practices--Challenges and Opportunities, National Center for State Courts. July, 2017. "Low-income offenders in many towns and cities are faced with paying fines and fees they simply cannot afford, often leading to even more fees and late charges."
  • Mentoring as a Component of Reentry Practical Considerations from the Field, Council of State Governments Justice Center. June, 2017. "This publication from the National Reentry Resource Center offers five broad, field-based practical considerations for incorporating mentoring into reentry programs for adults."
  • Reducing Recidivism: States Deliver Results, Council of State Governments Justice Council. June, 2017. "This brief from the National Reentry Resource Center profiles seven states in which recidivism has significantly decreased over the last decade according to several different measures."
  • Making People's Transition from Prison and Jail to the Community Safe and Successful A Snapshot of National Progress in Reentry, Council of State Governments Justice Center. June, 2017. "This brief from the National Reentry Resource Center highlights advancements made in state and local governments' approaches to reentry and reducing recidivism since the passage of the Second Chance Act in 2008."
  • Forgiving and Forgetting in American Justice A 50-State Guide to Expungement and Restoration of Rights, Collateral Consequences Resource Center. October, 2017. "This report catalogs and analyzes the various provisions for relief from the collateral consequences of conviction that are now available in each state."
  • Criminal Justice Debt Costs and Consequences, The Fortune Society. October, 2017. "In the United States today, people owe local, state, and federal governments billions of dollars in unpaid debt related to contact with the criminal justice system."
  • One Strike to Second Chances Using Criminal Backgrounds in Admission Decisions for Assisted Housing, Housing Policy Debate. April, 2017. "Many public housing authorities have not updated their admission policies for using criminal backgrounds and still adhere to the one-strike philosophy."
  • Ban the Box and Beyond Ensuring Individuals with a Criminal Record Have Access to the Labor Market, Center for American Progress. July, 2017. "Fair chance hiring policies, including ban the box, can ensure that employers evaluate candidates not on their criminal history but instead on their ability to do their jobs successfully."
  • Nevada's Statewide Approach to Reducing Recidivism and Improving Outcomes for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System Council of State Government Justice Center. September, 2017. "As a result of participating in Improving Outcomes for Youth: A Statewide Juvenile Justice Initiative (IOYouth), Nevada passed legislation that supports the adoption and implementation of key changes to the state's juvenile justice system"
  • Improving Access to Career Pathways for Philadelphia’s Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice System Involved Youth Juvenile Law Center. August, 2017. "Juvenile Law Center wrote this report to facilitate the expansion of access to career pathway supports for system-involved youth in Philadelphia by analyzing the barriers these youth encounter and offering policy recommendations for reform."
  • Building Communities, Changing Lives The NYC Justice Corps Community Benefit Projects, Prisoner Reentry Institute. June, 2017. "When justice system-involved young adults seek an opportunity to change, too often they expe- rience continued stigmatization, including barriers to education, employment, and housing."

Wednesday, October 18 2017:

  • Targeted Fines and Fees Against Communities of Color U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. September, 2017. (Unchecked discretion or stringent requirements to impose fines or fees can lead to discrimination and inequitable access to justice when not exercised in accordance with … the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses of the U.S. Constitution.)
  • The Geography of Incarceration in a Gateway City: The Cost and Consequences of High Incarceration Rate Neighborhoods in Worcester, MassINC. September, 2017. (The analysis explores the cost and consequences of high incarceration rates in Worcester neighborhoods, offering vital information for policymakers crafting comprehensive criminal justice reform legislation.)

Thursday, October 12 2017:

  • Native Disparities in Youth Incarceration The Sentencing Project. October, 2017. "Native youth were three times as likely to be incarcerated as white youth, according to data collected in October 2015."
  • Latino Disparities in Youth Incarceration The Sentencing Project. October, 2017. "Latino youth are 65 percent more likely to be detained or committed than their white peers, according to data collected in October 2015."

Wednesday, October 11 2017:

  • Economic Impacts of Cash Bail on the City of Philadelphia City of Philadelphia Office of the Controller. October, 2017. (The City of Philadelphia, by eliminating the cash bail system, could save over $75 million annually and provide a viable alternative to jail for a significant number of those arrested in Philadelphia in a given year.)
  • A Place to Call Home: A Vision for Safe, Supportive and Affordable Housing for People with Justice System Involvement, Prisoner Reentry Institute. October, 2017. (This document makes the case for providing digni ed housing that meets the needs of those with criminal justice histories, and providing it as quickly as possible upon reentry.)
  • Native American Youth and the Juvenile Justice System National Council on Crime and Delinquency. March, 2008. (Juvenile Justice disparities between Native American youth and White youth are alarmingly high and in need of remediation.)
  • Raising the Bar: State Trends in Keeping Youth Out of Adult Courts (2015-2017), Campaign for Youth Justice. October, 2017. (Between 2015 & 2017, nine states and the District of Columbia have passed laws to limit or remove youth from adult facilities. In Oregon and New York, lawmakers passed bills in 2017 to categorically ban incarcerating youth with adults in the coming year.)

Tuesday, October 10 2017:

  • The Crisis of Criminalization: A Call for a Comprehensive Philanthropic Response, Barnard Center for Research on Women. September, 2017. (This report is an urgent call for a comprehensive philanthropic response to the growing crisis of criminalization.)

Wednesday, October 4 2017:

  • Opening Doors: How to develop reentry programs using examples from public housing authorities, Vera Institute of Justice. September, 2017. "This guide is designed to support PHAs and other agencies that are beginning to develop new housing strategies and programming to meet the needs of formerly incarcerated people."
  • Reflections on New National Data on LGBQ/GNCT Youth in the Justice System Harvard Kennedy School. September, 2017. (12-13% of boys in the justice system identify as gay, bisexual, questioning, gender nonconforming, or transgender (GBQ/GNCT), while 40% of girls identify as LBQ/GNCT. And, of these LGBQ/GNCT youth, 85% nationally are of color.)

Friday, September 29 2017:

  • The Long Road Home: Decreasing Barriers to Public Housing for People with Criminal Records, Human Impact Partners. May, 2016. (This report assesses the health and equity impacts of public housing admissions screening policies that exclude people with a criminal history from public housing, using the Oakland Housing Authority (OHA) in Oakland, California as a case study.)
  • Report to the New York City Housing Authority: Applying and Lifting Permanent Exclusions for Criminal Conduct, Vera Institute of Justice. February, 2017. "The New York Housing Authority has a commitment to maintain the safety of its residents, but must also recognize the important role of families and housing for people involved with the criminal justice system when considering permanent exclusions."
  • Remote Access: Using Video Technology to Treat Substance Users on Probation and Parole in South Dakota, Vera Institute of Justice. October, 2016. "The state worked with local providers to pilot a teleconferencing program aimed at connecting people to community-based services without the cost and barrier of transportation or other access issues."
  • Bridging the Divide: Improving Parole Outcomes for Native Americans in South Dakota, Vera Institute of Justice. October, 2016. "This brief describes the issues that tribal communities face and how they are working together with the state government to provide effective services for Native American people on parole."
  • Public Housing for People with Criminal Histories Vera Institute of Justice. September, 2015. "Cities such as New York City, Oakland, and Chicago have implemented reforms in tenant-selection criteria that ensure a person’s application for housing is not negatively impacted by his or her criminal record."
  • Creating a Culture of Safety: Sentinel Event Reviews for Suicide and Self-Harm in Correctional Facilities, Vera Institute of Justice. December, 2016. "Investigating the feasibility of using a sentinel events approach to review and learn from errors in the criminal justice system such as wrongful convictions, eyewitness misidentifications, or incidents of suicide and self-harm in custody."
  • Partnering with Community Sexual Assault Response Teams: A Guide for Local Community Confinement and Juvenile Detention Facilities, Vera Institute of Justice. March, 2016. "Partnerships with SARTs can help facilities implement coordinated, victim-centered response policies and procedures that meet key requirements of the PREA standards."
  • How Safe are Americans with Disabilities?: The Facts About Violent Crime and Their Implications, Vera Institute of Justice. April, 2017. "This brief provides basic information on disability in the United States. It explores what is known about violent victimization of people with disabilities and the factors that contribute to their higher risk of experiencing violent crime."
  • Tribal Cime Data Collection Activities, 2017 Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2017. "At midyear 2015, an estimated 2,510 inmates were confined in 76 Indian country jails. This was a 5.5% increase from the 2,380 inmates confined at midyear 2014 in 79 facilities."
  • PREA Data Collection Activities, 2017 Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2017. "Rates of youth-on-youth sexual assault in female-only juvenile facilities (5.3%) were more than three times greater than those in male-only facilities (1.5%)."
  • Treatment Instead of Prison HIA (Case Story) Human Impact Partners. November, 2012. "Expanding alternatives to incarceration would reduce the prison population, reduce crime, lower recidivism, and strengthen families by keeping up to 1,600 parents a year out of prison each year."
  • Racial Disparity in Marijuana Policing in New Orleans Vera Institute of Justice. July, 2016. "This report illuminates through quantitative analysis the persistent racial disparities in marijuana policing from 2010 - 2015 and discusses the impacts of statutory and policy reforms the city has implemented to date."
  • Bridging the Gap: Improving the Health of Justice-Involved People through Information Technology, Vera Institute of Justice. March, 2015. "Aims to address the problems of disconnected justice and health systems and to develop solutions by describing barriers, benefits, and best practices for connecting community providers and correctional facilities using health information technology (HITs)"
  • Past Due: Examining the Costs and Consequences of Charging for Justice in New Orleans, Vera Institute of Justice. January, 2017. "Past Due, and its accompanying technical report, reveal the costs and other consequences of a system that tries to extract money from low-income people and then jails them when they can't pay."
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis and Justice Policy Toolkit Vera Institute of Justice. December, 2014. "In recent years, policymakers and the public have been asking whether justice policies pass the “cost-benefit test.” Two questions drive this discussion: First, what works to reduce crime? And second, are those programs and policies worth the cost?"
  • Turning on the TAP: How Returning Access to Tuition Assistance for Incarcerated People Improves the Health of New Yorkers, Human Impact Partners. May, 2015. "Expanding access to college education for people in New York prisons would benefit the overall health and well-being of the communities that formerly incarcerated people return to, as well as the individuals who receive the education, and their families."
  • School Discipline and Restorative Justice (Case Story) Human Impact Partners. September, 2014. "If properly implemented, restorative justice could reduce suspensions in the six schools by 20% to 40%. Restorative justice would also lower dropout rates, which in turn would lead to fewer students who end up poor or in prison."
  • Expanding Access to Postsecondary Education in Prison: Fact Sheet for Corrections Leaders, Vera Institute of Justice. January, 2017. "Incarcerated people who participate in prison education programs are 43 percent less likely to recidivate than those who do not."
  • Future Now: A Process and Intermediate Outcomes Evaluation of the NYC GED Preparatory Program, Vera Institute of Justice. November, 2015. "Future Now is a GED preparatory program housed at Bronx Community College offering programs tailored to meet each student’s personal and educational needs, prepare them for college, and support students through their first year of enrollment."
  • Keeping Kids and Parents Together: A Healthier Approach to Sentencing in Massachusetts, Human Impact Partners. September, 2017. "Increasing judges' discretion to authorize alternatives to incarceration that include treatment instead of prison or jail where appropriate can keep families intact."
  • Coming Home: An Evaluation of the New York City Housing Authority’s Family Reentry Pilot Program, Vera Institute of Justice. November, 2016. "The study revealed that participants reuniting with their families both received support and supported others as they took on familial roles, especially as caregivers for elderly parents."
  • It Take a Village: Diversion for Police and Families, Vera Institute of Justice. June, 2016. "This brief explores the creative, collaborative, and community-focused work being done in Nevada, Connecticut, Nebraska, Michigan, Illinois, and Oregon to find productive responses to youth “acting out.”"
  • Expanding the Reach of Victim Services: Maximizing the Potential of VOCA Funding for Underserved Survivors, Vera Institute of Justice. August, 2016. "Too often, victims of crime who are from underserved backgrounds are left out of victim services. With this new infusion of funds, the field can grow to better provide for marginalized people."
  • Family Unity, Family Health: An Inquiry on Federal Immigration Policy (Case Story), Human Impact Partners. June, 2013. "If deportations continue at 2012 levels, tens of thousands of U.S.-citizen children will suffer from poorer health, more behavioral problems, diminished educational achievement, increased poverty, and food insufficiency that may lead to hunger."
  • 23 Hours in the Box: Solitary Confinement in New Jersey Immigration Detention, New Jersey Advocates for Immigrant Detainees. June, 2015. "The passage of a bill like NJ S 2588 would mark a dramatic and humane improvement over the current disciplinary system."
  • Locked in the Past: Montana's Jails in Crisis, ACLU of Montana. February, 2015. "Many county detention centers in Montana have severe conditions issues and are underfunded, inadequately staffed, and largely ignored by county commissioners, county law enforcement departments, and the public."
  • Jail in New York City: Evidence-Based Opportunities for Reform, Center for Court Innovation. March, 2017. "The report models the impact of several potential reform scenarios based on risk score including the possible cost savings to the city from downsizing the jail system."
  • Greater Oklahoma City Chamber Criminal Justice Reform Task Force: Report and Recommendations, Vera Institute of Justice. December, 2016. "The Oklahoma County pretrial justice system needs greater collaboration and oversight to ensure that the jail—the county’s most restrictive and most costly criminal justice resource—is being used judiciously."
  • The Human Toll of Jail Fact Sheet Vera Institute of Justice. February, 2016. "Today, about 14.5 percent of men and 31 percent of women in jails have a serious mental illness, compared to 3.2 and 4.9 percent respectively in the general population."
  • Behind the Eleventh Door: Solitary Confinement of Individuals with Mental Illness in Oregon's State Penitentiary Behavioral Health Unit, Disability Rights Oregon. May, 2015. (This report looks at case studies from the Behavioral Health Unit (BHU) of the Oregon State Penitentiary (OSP) to determine the detrimental effects on mentally ill patients in solitary confinement.)
  • Selected Issues in Mental Health and Corrections: A Collection and Summary of Research, Disability Rights Nebraska. 2014. "Although only 7% of inmates were in solitary confinement, they accounted for 53% of acts of self-harm."
  • A Crisis in Search of Data: The Revolving Door of Serious Mental Illness in Super Utilization, Treatment Advocacy Center. April, 2017. "National or state-level data that quantify the role and cost of individuals with serious mental illness on law enforcement, corrections, emergency medical or homelessness services do not exist. "
  • Emptying the 'New Asylums': A Beds Capacity Model to Reduce Mental Illness Behind Bars, Treatment Advocacy Center. January, 2017. "In Texas, reducing the average hospital stay from 189 days to 186 days would reduce forensic bed waits from an average of two months to three days."
  • Overlooked in the Undercounted: The Role of Mental Illness in Fatal Law Enforcement Encounters, Treatment Advocacy Center. December, 2015. "The risk of being killed while being approached or stopped by law enforcement in the community is 16 times higher for individuals with untreated serious mental illness than for other civilians."
  • Police Perspectives Guidebook Series Vera Institute of Justice. February, 2016. "To improve relations between police and the communities they serve, this three-part guide series—written for police, by police—highlights practical, field-informed approaches to building trust with multiracial and multi-ethnic communities."
  • New York City's Pretrial Supervised Release Program: An Alternative to Bail, Vera Institute of Justice. April, 2017. "The supervised release program (SR) in NYC is an example of a new approach to handling cases pretrial. SR gives judges the option to release some defendants who would otherwise be detained due to their inability to make bail."
  • Common Ground: How all of Oregon Contributes to Criminal Justice Reform, Vera Institute of Justice. November, 2016. "This brief describes how the state of Oregon worked together with its local community and government partners to address its growing prison population."
  • Illusion of Justice: Human Rights Abuses in US Terrorism Prosecutions, Human Rights Watch and Columbia Law School. July, 2014. "This report documents the significant human cost of certain counterterrorism practices, such as aggressive sting operations and unnecessarily restrictive conditions of confinement."
  • Excessive Revocations in Wisconsin: The Health Impacts of Locking People Up without a New Conviction, Human Impact Partners. December, 2016. "Revocation -- being incarcerated for breaking the rules of a supervision arrangement (like parole, probation, or extended supervision) -- feeds the mass incarceration cycle in the United States."
  • Parole Perspectives in Maryland: A Survey of People Who Returned to Prison from Parole and Community, Justice Policy Institute. May, 2015. "A new analysis from the Justice Policy Institute (JPI) shows the connection between efforts to reduce prison populations, connect people to work, and address the challenges of Baltimore’s distressed communities"
  • The Health Impacts of Prop 47: A Case Story, Human Impact Partners. September, 2014. (A health impact analysis study of the public health and equity benefits of reclassifying six low-level crimes of drug possession and petty theft from felonies to misdemeanors in California.)
  • A Prosecutor's Guide for Advancing Racial Equity Vera Institute of Justice. March, 2015. "Despite efforts to be fair and equitable, prosecutors may unintentionally contribute to the overrepresentation of minorities in the nation’s courtrooms, prisons, and jails."
  • Reducing Youth Arrests Keeps Kids Healthy and Successful: A Health Analysis of Youth Arrest in Michigan, Human Impact Partners. June, 2017. "We evaluate the health and equity impacts of youth arrest (for kids under the age of 17) in Michigan, with a focus on the city of Detroit, and Wayne and Washtenaw Counties."
  • Juvenile InJustice: Charging Youth as Adults is Ineffective, Biased, and Harmful, Human Impact Partners. February, 2017. "This practice undermines the purpose of the juvenile court system, pursues punishment rather than rehabilitation, and conflicts with what we know from developmental science[...]and reinforce the racial inequities that characterize the justice system."
  • Juvenille Justice Reform in Connecticut: How Collaboration and Commitment Have Improved Public Safety and Outcomes for Youth, Justice Policy Institute. February, 2013. "Juvenile Justice Reform in Connecticut highlights the past two decades of Connecticut’s successful efforts to improve responses to youth who engage in delinquent behavior and to reduce the number of youth placed into residential facilities"
  • Rising Up, Speaking Out: Youth Transforming Los Angeles County's Juvenille Justice System, Children's Defense Fund - California. January, 2015. "Five young people [...] share their own unique experiences inside probation camps and amplify key recommendations from an important UCLA focus group study on how to improve conditions inside Los Angeles County's camps."

Wednesday, September 27 2017:

  • Drug Use, Dependence, And Abuse Among State Prisoners And Jail Inmates, 2007-2009 Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2017. "More than half of state prisoners and two-thirds of sentenced jail inmates met the criteria for drug dependence or abuse...In comparison, approximately 5% of the total general population age 18 or older met the criteria"
  • Hidden Consequences: The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Dependent Children, National Institute of Justice. May, 2017. "It is critical that correctional practitioners develop strong partnerships with law enforcement, public schools, and child welfare agencies to understand the unique dynamics of the family in question and try to ensure a safety net for the child"
  • Trends in U.S. Corrections Sentencing Project. June, 2017. (This fact sheet, updated June 2017, provides a compilation of key developments in the criminal justice system over the past several decades.)
  • The Cost of Crimmigration: Exploring the Intersection Between Criminal Justice and Immigration, Justice Policy Institute. June, 2017. "While costing counties and cities more, immigration enforcement also undermines public safety as residents fear interacting with local law enforcement, and policing resources are deployed away from more effective crime prevention and enforcement"
  • Criminal Background Checks and Access to Jobs: A Case Study of Washington, DC, Urban Institute. June, 2017. "Examining local regulations and DC's labor market reveals that justice-involved people-- whether formally incarcerated or not-- face significant challenges finding work in the city."
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 2017. "In 2015, among students ages 12-18, there were about 841,100 nonfatal victimizations at school and 545,100 nonfatal victimizations away from school."
  • Improving Approaches to Serving Young Adults in the Justice System Justice Policy Institute. December, 2016. "Over the past year, a number of different advocates, policymakers, practitioners, funders and directly impacted individuals and families have sought to flesh out what a more effective approach to serving 18 to 24-year-olds"

Tuesday, September 26 2017:

  • The impacts of incarceration on crime Open Philanthropy Project. September, 2017. "The best estimate of the impact of additional incarceration on crime in the United States today is zero. And, while that estimate is not certain, there is as much reason overall to believe that incarceration increases crime as decreases it."

Thursday, September 21 2017:

Monday, September 18 2017:

  • Against the Odds: Experimenting with Alternative Forms of Bail in New York City’s Criminal Courts, Vera Institute of Justice. September, 2017. "If New York City courts opted more frequently for alternative forms of bail, they could potentially reduce the use of pretrial detention without compromising other important considerations of compliance with court appearances and public safety."

Friday, September 15 2017:

Thursday, September 14 2017:

Wednesday, September 6 2017:

Tuesday, August 29 2017:

  • Less Is More: How Reducing Probation Populations Can Improve Outcomes, [PDF] Harvard Kennedy School. August, 2017. (The decline in the number of people on probation supervision in the U.S. should not only be sustained but significantly increased, with a goal of reducing the number of people under probation supervision by 50 percent over 10 years.)

Monday, August 21 2017:

  • Incarceration Rates and Traits of Sexual Minorities in the United States: National Inmate Survey, 2011-2012, [PDF] Meyer et al. February, 2017. "The incarceration rate of self-identified lesbian, gay, or bisexual persons was 1882 per 100 000, more than 3 times that of the US adult population."
  • Who Does Civil Asset Forfeiture Target Most?: A Review of the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department’s Forfeiture Activities for Fiscal Year 2016, [PDF] Nevada Policy Research Institute. August, 2017. "Forfeitures disproportionately target neighborhoods with relatively high levels of minorities and low-income residents."
  • It Matters If You're Black or White: Racial Disparities in the Handling of Complaints against North Charleston Police Officers, [PDF] NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc.. July, 2017. "Although 60 percent of the citizen complaints against NCPD officers were filed by Black residents, their complaints were much less likely to be sustained by NCPD than complaints filed by White residents."
  • Community-Based Responses to Justice-Involved Young Adults [PDF] Harvard Kennedy School & National Institute of Justice. 2015. (This report outlines a number of thoughtful recommendations aimed at making our justice system more developmentally appropriate in its response to young adults.)

Tuesday, August 15 2017:

Thursday, August 10 2017:

  • Just Kids: When Misbehaving Is a Crime, [Website] Vera Institute of Justice. August, 2017. "As policymakers and practitioners across the country look to reduce mass incarceration, status offenses demand attention as early and improper points of entry into the juvenile justice system, and potentially the criminal justice system more broadly."

Tuesday, August 8 2017:

  • Juvenile Life Without Parole: An Overview, [Website] The Sentencing Project. August, 2017. "The United States stands alone as the only nation that sentences people to life without parole for crimes committed before turning 18. This briefing paper reviews the Supreme Court precedents that limited the use of JLWOP and the challenges that remain."

Monday, August 7 2017:

  • Testing The Impact of Criminal Jury Instructions on Verdicts: A Conceptual Replication, [PDF] Columbia Law Review. March, 2017. "Mock jurors who were instructed “not to search for doubt” but instead “to search for the truth” convicted at a significantly higher rate than mock jurors who were properly instructed on reasonable doubt."

Friday, August 4 2017:

Tuesday, August 1 2017:

  • Assessing the Impact of Georgia’s Sentencing Reforms [PDF] Urban Institute. July, 2017. (This brief examines the impact of H.B. 1176 on commitments to prison, sentence lengths, and time served in the state of Georgia.)
  • Summary of School Safety Statistics [PDF] National Institute of Justice. July, 2017. "On the national level, crime at K-12 schools in the U.S., including violent crime, decreased from 1992 to 2013. Though violent crime against students increased from 2010 to 2013, the violent crime rate in 2013 was still lower than in 1992."

Thursday, July 27 2017:

  • Freedom To Thrive: Reimagining safety & security in our communities, [PDF] The Center for Popular Democracy, Law for Black Lives, and the Black Youth Project 100. June, 2017. "This report examines racial disparities, policing landscapes, and budgets in twelve jurisdictions across the country, comparing the city and county spending priorities with those of community organizations and their members."

Wednesday, July 26 2017:

Monday, July 24 2017:

  • The Prison Paradox: More Incarceration Will Not Make Us Safer, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. July, 2017. "The impact of incarceration on crime is limited and has been diminishing for several years. Increased incarceration has no effect on violent crime and may actually lead to higher crime rates when incarceration is concentrated in certain communities."
  • Measuring Public Safety: Responsibly Interpreting Statistics on Violent Crime, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. July, 2017. "With a few exceptions that require targeted attention, violent crime rates are lower today than they have been at any point over the past four decades."

Tuesday, July 18 2017:

Monday, July 17 2017:

  • Unequal & Unfair: New Jersey’s War on Marijuana Users, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union of New Jersey. May, 2017. "New Jersey is making more arrests for marijuana possession than ever before."
  • Racial Disparities in Military Justice [PDF] Protect Our Defenders. May, 2017. "For every year reported and across all service branches, black service members were substantially more likely than white service members to face military justice or disciplinary action."
  • Travis County Jail in 2015: Data points to racism and longer confinement of African Americans, [PDF] Grassroots Leadership. July, 2017. "Booking data from the Travis County Jail in 2015 reveals signi cant and persistent discrepancies in the number of days spent in the County jail by people of color, particularly Blacks, as compared to Whites."
  • Orange County Jails [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union of Southern California. June, 2017. "Failing to remedy poor conditions of confinement and hold deputies accountable for misconduct, the Orange County Sheriff’s Department has implicitly endangered the constitutional rights of incarcerated individuals."
  • Review of the Federal Bureau of Prisons’ Use of Restrictive Housing for Inmates with Mental Illness, [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. July, 2017. "BOP Policies Do Not Adequately Address the Confinement of Inmates with Mental Illness in RHUs, and the BOP Does Not Sufficiently Track or Monitor Such Inmates"

Thursday, July 13 2017:

  • Crime Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009-2015 - Statistical Tables [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2017. "In 2015, the rate of violent victimization against persons with disabilities (29.5 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older) was 2.5 times higher than the rate for persons without disabilities (11.8 per 1,000)."
  • A Matter of Time: The Causes and Consequences of Rising Time Served in America's Prisons, [PDF] Urban Institute. July, 2017. (• A growing share of the U.S. prison population has been incarcerated for 10 or more years – and in at least 11 states the number of people in prison for a decade or longer has more than doubled since 2000.)
  • False Hope: How Parole Systems Fail Youth Serving Extreme Sentences, [PDF] ACLU. November, 2016. "Parole boards today are both ill-equipped to provide mean- ingful individualized review and resistant to releasing people who, even if they were children at the time, committed a serious offense."

Monday, July 10 2017:

  • Girlhood Interrupted: The Erasure of Black Girls’ Childhood, [PDF] Georgetown Law Center on Poverty and Inequality. June, 2017. (Adults view black girls as less innocent and more adult-like than their white peers, especially in the age range of 5-14)

Friday, July 7 2017:

  • The Lack of a Relationship between Drug Imprisonment and Drug Problems [PDF] The Pew Charitable Trusts. June, 2017. "There is no statistically significant relationship between state drug offender imprisonment rates and three measures of state drug problems: rates of illicit drug use, drug overdose deaths, and drug arrests."
  • Racism & Felony Disenfranchisement: An Intertwined History, [PDF] Brennan Center for Justice. May, 2017. "One in every 13 voting-age African Americans cannot vote, a disenfranchisement rate more than four times greater than that of all other Americans."
  • A Federal Agenda to Reduce Mass Incarceration [PDF] Brennan Center for Justice. May, 2017. "Federal funding drives state policy, and helped create our current crisis of mass incarceration. And the federal government sets the national tone, which is critical to increasing public support and national momentum for change."
  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2013-2014 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2017. "At fiscal yearend 2014, about 400,000 offenders were under some form of federal correctional control."
  • Public Opinion on Criminal Justice Reform in Massachusetts [PDF] MassInc. June, 2017. (A new MassINC poll shows most people support reforms to both the front and back ends of the system to reduce repeat offending and refocus the system on prevention and rehabilitation.)
  • Raise the Age: 17-Year-Olds in the Criminal Justice System, [PDF] Texas Appleseed. April, 2017. "Texas is one of only seven states in which 17-year olds accused of committing crimes are automatically shuffled into the adult criminal justice system rather than the juvenile justice system, regardless of the crime."

Thursday, July 6 2017:

  • Criminal Background Checks and Access to Jobs: A Case Study of Washington, DC, [PDF] Urban Institute. June, 2017. "Examining local regulations and DC’s labor market reveals that justice-involved people—whether formerly incarcerated or not—face significant challenges finding work in in the city."
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2016, [PDF] National Center for Education Statistics. May, 2017. (This annual report, a joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics, presents data on crime and safety at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, and principals.)
  • U.S. Prison Population Trends 1999-2015: Modest Reductions with Significant Variation, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. May, 2017. (While the majority of states have at least modestly reduced their prison populations in recent years, 16 states have achieved double-digit rates of decline and the federal system has downsized at almost twice the national rate.)
  • Hate Crime Victimization, 2004-2015 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2017. "In 2015, the rate of violent hate crime victimization was 0.7 hate crimes per 1,000 persons age 12 or older."
  • Examining Racial Disparities in Criminal Case Outcomes among Indigent Defendants in San Francisco, [PDF] The Quattrone Center & The University of Pennsylvania Law School. May, 2017. "Our analysis revealed that Black, White and Latinx indigent defendants in San Francisco have substantially different experiences during the criminal adjudication process."

Wednesday, July 5 2017:

  • Militarization and police violence: The case of the 1033 program, [PDF] Casey Delehanty, Gardner-Webb University. 2015. "We find a positive and statistically significant relationship between 1033 transfers and fatalities from officer-involved shootings across all models."
  • Bail Reform in California [PDF] UCLA Luskin School of Public Affairs. May, 2017. (This report examines California's system of commercial surety bail, recommending that it be replaced with risk assessment tools and non-bail release to improve predictive accuracy, race neutrality, and other outcomes such as fiscal impact.)
  • The Devil in the Details: Bail Bond Contracts in California, [PDF] UCLA School of Law. May, 2017. "After analyzing the fine print in more than 100 contract documents online corresponding to 10 sureties, we identified 20 problems with bail bond contracts that violate common notions of fairness and justice."

Tuesday, June 27 2017:

  • Criminal, Victim, or Worker?: The Effects of New York's Human Trafficking Intervention Courts on Adults Charged with Prostitution-Related Offenses, [PDF] Red Umbrella Project. October, 2014. (Decreasing the incarceration of people charged with prostitution is a good step forward, but as long as people who are in the sex trades are "rescued" through arrest, they will continue to be re-victimized by the police and the courts.)

Thursday, June 22 2017:

  • Indicators of Mental Health Problems Reported by Prisoners & Jail Inmates: 2011-12, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2017. "About 1 in 7 state and federal prisoners (14%) and 1 in 4 jail inmates (26%) reported experiences that met the threshold for serious psychological distress (SPD) in the 30 days prior to a survey that was conducted between February 2011 and May 2012."

Monday, June 19 2017:

  • Unlocking solitary confinement: Ending Extreme Isolation in Nevada State Prisons, [PDF] The ACLU of Nevada, Solitary Watch, Nevada Disability Advocacy & Law Center. February, 2017. "In this report, we found that solitary confinement is, in fact, widely used in the state of Nevada, often for prolonged periods of time, and that many of the people held there are denied basic human needs like daily exercise and sufficient medical care."
  • Geographic Variation in the Cumulative Risk of Imprisonment and Parental Imprisonment in the United States, [PDF] University of California & Cornell University. 2016. (This article reports estimates of the cumulative risk of imprisonment and parental imprisonment for demographic groups in four regions and four states. Findings indicate that there is substantial racial inequality in levels of risk.)

Thursday, June 15 2017:

  • Sense of self and responsibility: a review of learning from the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Prison Reform Fellowships – Part 5, Institute for Criminal Policy Research, Birkbeck, University of London. June, 2017. "This report profiles interventions which encourage imprisoned people to develop a positive sense of self and a sense of responsibility for their own lives and towards others."
  • Peer relations: Review of learning from the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Prison Reform Fellowships – Part 4, Institute for Criminal Policy Research, Birkbeck, University of London. June, 2017. (This briefing examines the importance of positive peer relations for promoting desistance and providing moral and practical support to people in prison and on release.)
  • Federal Prisons at a Crossroads The Sentencing Project. June, 2017. "The number of people incarcerated in federal prisons has declined substantially in recent years. But recently enacted policy changes at the Department of Justice (DOJ) and certain Congressional proposals appear poised to reverse this progress."

Wednesday, June 14 2017:

  • America's Toxic Prisons: The Environmental Injustices of Mass Incarceration, [Website] Earth Island Journal and Truthout. June, 2017. "The toxic impact of prisons extends far beyond any individual prison, or any specific region in the United States. Mass incarceration in the US impacts the health of prisoners, prison-adjacent communities, and local ecosystems from coast to coast."
  • Back to Business: How Hiring Formerly Incarcerated Job Seekers Benefits Your Company, [PDF] The Trone Private Sector and Education Advisory Council to the American Civil Liberties Union. June, 2017. "Research by economists confirms that hiring people with records is simply smart business. Researchers have found that “employees with a criminal background are in fact a better pool for employers.”"

Tuesday, June 13 2017:

  • Out of Sight: The Growth of Jails in Rural America, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. June, 2017. "America’s 3,283 local jails are the “front door” to mass incarceration, but for too long have grown outside of public view. Our latest analysis reveals an unexpected finding: there has been a dramatic shift in the geography of incarceration."

Friday, June 9 2017:

  • Leading with Conviction: The Transformative Role of Formerly Incarcerated Leaders in Reducing Mass Incarceration, [PDF] Columbia Law School. May, 2017. "This report documents the roles of 48 formerly incarcerated leaders engaged in work related to reducing incarceration and rebuilding communities."
  • Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses in County Jails: A Survey of Jail Staff’s Perspectives, [PDF] Public Citizen’s Health Research Group and The Treatment Advocacy Center. July, 2016. (This report uses data from 230 sheriff’s departments in 39 states to examine how correctional staffs understand and deal with inmates struggling with serious mental illnesses.)
  • Forfeiting the American Dream: How Civil Asset Forfeiture Exacerbates Hardship for Low-income Communities and Communities of Color, [PDF] Center for American Progress. April, 2016. "The abuse of civil asset forfeiture falls hardest on those who are least able to weather the economic shock of losing a home, car, or financial resources—namely, low-income individuals and people of color."
  • Pretrial Release in California [PDF] Public Policy Institute of California. May, 2015. "This report uses newly available data to provide information about pretrial release in California and to give policymakers a better understanding of the defendants who tend to be released and the form of release they secure."

Wednesday, June 7 2017:

  • Language from police body camera footage shows racial disparities in officer respect, [PDF] Stanford University. June, 2017. "Officers speak with consistently less respect toward black versus white community members, even after controlling for the race of the officer, the severity of the infraction, the location of the stop, and the outcome of the stop."

Monday, June 5 2017:

  • Supervision in the Community: Probation and Parole, [PDF] Michelle S. Phelps and Caitlin Curry, University of Minnesota. April, 2017. "In the United States, the number of adults on probation and parole supervision increased from one million in 1980 to a peak of nearly 5.1 million in 2007, more than double the number of inmates in local, state, and federal jails and prisons."

Friday, June 2 2017:

  • Drawing Blood from Stones: Legal Debt and Social Inequality in the Contemporary United States, [PDF] Alexes Harris, Heather Evans, and Katherine Beckett, University of Washington. May, 2010. "[F]indings suggest that monetary sanctions create long-term legal debt and significantly extend punishment's effects over time."

Thursday, June 1 2017:

  • Using Time to Reduce Crime: Federal Prisoner Survey Results Show Ways to Reduce Recidivism, [PDF] Families Against Mandatory Minimums. May, 2017. "An estimated 45 percent of federal prisoners have mental health and behavioral problems...Two-thirds of prisoners who responded to our survey said they had not received mental or behavioral health counseling while in federal prison."
  • Era of Mass Expansion: Why State Officials Should Fight Jail Growth, [Website] Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2017. "In most states over the last three decades, the number of people in jails has outpaced population growth by 2, 3 or even 4 times. In 12 states, the jail population has grown more than 3 times faster than the general population."
  • Evaluating the Role of Race in Criminal Justice Adjudications in Delaware [PDF] John M. MacDonald and Ellen A. Donnelly, University of Pennsylvania. September, 2016. "African American-White disparities in incarceration sentences are largely explained by differences in most serious of arrest charge, type of arrest charge, detention between arrest and final disposition, and county location."

Friday, May 26 2017:

  • The Price of Prisons: Examining State Spending Trends, 2010-2015, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. May, 2017. "Since 2010, 23 states have reduced the size of their prison populations. Vera’s research found that 13 of these states have saved considerably in taxpayer money — $1.6 billion — at the same time."

Friday, May 19 2017:

  • Getting Tough on Spending: An Examination of Correctional Expenditure in Massachusetts, [PDF] MassINC and the Massachusetts Criminal Justice Reform Coalition. May, 2017. "DOC [Department of Corrections] and county facilities combined, the state budget allocation per inmate rose 34 percent between FY 2011 and FY 2016. Over this period, education aid per student increased by only 11 percent."
  • When did prisons become acceptable mental healthcare facilities? [PDF] Stanford Law School Three Strikes Project. May, 2017. "While the overall state prison population has decreased dramatically, the number of prisoners with mental illness continues to climb and is expected grow in the years ahead."

Monday, May 15 2017:

  • The Economic Burden of Incarceration in the U.S. Institute for Advancing Justice Research and Innovation. October, 2016. "This study estimates the annual economic burden of incarceration in the United States [by including] important social aggregate burden of one trillion dollars."
  • Selling Off Our Freedom: How insurance corporations have taken over our bail system, [PDF] Color of Change and the American Civil Liberties Union. May, 2017. "Fewer than 10 insurance companies are behind a significant majority of bonds issued by as many as 25,000 bail bond agents."

Thursday, May 4 2017:

  • Capital Punishment, 2014-2015 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 2017. "Two states accounted for 80% of the executions [in 2016]: Georgia executed nine inmates, and Texas executed seven."
  • Paying More for Being Poor: Bias and Disparity in California's Traffic Court System, [PDF] Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights of the San Francisco Bay Area. May, 2017. "The available county-level data shows that African-American people in particular are four to sixteen times more likely to be booked on arrests related to failure to pay an infraction ticket."

Wednesday, May 3 2017:

  • Still Life: America's Increasing Use of Life and Long-Term Sentences, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. May, 2017. "Nearly half (48.3%) of life and virtual life-sentenced individuals are African American, equal to one in five black prisoners overall. As of 2016, 1 in every 9 people in prison was serving a life sentence."
  • Making Families Pay: The Harmful, Unlawful, and Costly Practice of Charging Juvenile Administrative Fees in California, [Website] Stephanie Campos-Bui, Jeffrey Selbin, Hamza Jaka, Tim Kline, Ahmed Lavalais, Alynia Phillips, Abby Ridley-Kerr, University of California Berkeley School of Law. March, 2017. "[W]e did not find a single county in which fee practices were both fair and cost-effective. Counties either improperly charge low-income families and net little revenue, or they fairly assess families’ inability to pay and net even less."

Monday, May 1 2017:

  • Preventable Tragedies: How to Reduce Mental-Health Related Deaths in Texas Jails, [PDF] The University of Texas School of Law Civil Rights Clinic. November, 2016. "In Texas, state health officials estimate that 30 percent of jail inmates have one or more serious mental illnesses."
  • To Protect and Serve: Trends in State-Level Policing Reform, 2015-2016, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. April, 2017. "Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Utah and Washington have enacted laws that either limit the use of certain types of force, such as chokeholds, or mandate or strengthen police training on the legal boundaries of justifiable force."

Friday, April 28 2017:

  • Gender and Trauma, Somatic Interventions for Girls in Juvenile Justice: Implications for Policy and Practice, [PDF] Rebecca Epstein and Thalia González, Georgetown Law Center on Poverty and Inequality. April, 2017. "Trauma-informed, gender-responsive, and culturally competent somatic interventions can serve as a critical component of physical and mental health approaches for system-involved girls."

Wednesday, April 26 2017:

  • Designed to Break You: Human Rights Violations on Texas' Death Row, [PDF] Human Rights Clinic at the University of Texas School of Law. 2015. "Every individual on Texas’ death row thus spends approximately 23 hours a day in complete isolation for the entire duration of their sentence, which, on average, lasts more than a decade."
  • The Voting Rights of Ex-Felons and Election Outcomes in the United States [PDF] Tilman Klumpp, Hugo Mialon, Michael Williams. March, 2017. "The changes in felony disenfranchisement laws examined are evidence of a growing consensus that lifelong voting bans are not only ethically problematic, but also stand in the way of efforts to reduce recidivism."

Tuesday, April 25 2017:

  • The steep cost of medical co-pays in prison puts health at risk [Website] Wendy Sawyer, Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2017. "In Michigan, it would take over a week to earn enough for a single $5 co-pay, making it the free world equivalent of over $300. In 13 states co-pays are equivalent to charging minimum wage workers more than $200."
  • How much do incarcerated people earn in each state? [Website] Wendy Sawyer, Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2017. "[P]risons appear to be paying incarcerated people less today than they were in 2001. The average of the minimum daily wages paid to incarcerated workers for non-industry prison jobs is now 87 cents, down from 93 cents reported in 2001."
  • Lethally Deficient: Direct Appeals in Texas Death Penalty Cases, [PDF] Texas Defender Service. 2016. "Review by the U.S. Supreme Court was not sought in 34.6% of the cases surveyed, meaning that defense lawyers waived the first opportunity for federal review in more than a third of Texas death penalty cases decided on direct appeal between 2009 and 2015."
  • Locked Up and Locked Down: Segregation of Inmates with Mental Illness, [PDF] Anna Guy, Amplifying Voices of Inmates with Disabilities Prison Project. September, 2016. "[Protection and Advocacy Agencies] have received countless reports of abuse and neglect of inmates in segregation, including prolonged isolation, deplorable conditions, inadequate care, increased self-harm and suicide attempts, and even death."
  • “If They Hand You a Paper, You Sign It“: A Call to End the Sterilization of Women in Prison, [PDF] Rachel Roth and Sara L. Ainsworth, Hastings Women's Law Journal. January, 2015. "[A] number of states allow the sterilization of incarcerated women—flouting important policy norms—and that medical providers and their professional organizations play key roles in sanctioning and carrying out these procedures."
  • Obstructing Justice: Prisons as Barriers to Medical Care for Pregnant Women, [PDF] Rachel Roth, UCLA Women's Law Journal. August, 2010. "Jail and prison staff appear unprepared for pregnancy-related emergencies, and their dismissive attitudes toward pregnant women who say they need medical attention only increase the likelihood of delaying and denying care."

Wednesday, April 19 2017:

  • A Wealth of Inequalities: Mass Incarceration, Employment, and Racial Disparities in U.S. Household Wealth, 1996 to 2011, [PDF] Bryan L. Sykes, University of Washington and Michelle Maroto, University of Alberta. October, 2016. "[A] non-Hispanic white household with an institutionalized member would actually hold more in assets than an otherwise similar black or Hispanic household without an institutionalized member."
  • The Dose-Response of Time Served in Prison on Mortality: New York State, 1989-2003, [Website] Evelyn J. Patterson, University of Vanderbilt. March, 2013. "After controlling for a variety of demographic and offense-related factors...each year in prison increased the odds of death by 15.6% in this 1989 to 1993 parole increased odds of death of 78% for somebody who spent 5 years in prison."
  • “She Doesn’t Deserve to be Treated Like This”: Prisons as Sites of Reproductive Injustice, [PDF] Rachel Roth, Center for Women Policy Studies. July, 2012. "[T]he well-established nature of women’s rights has not stopped prison and jail personnel from trying to deny women abortion care, or at least obstruct women’s access to abortion."

Tuesday, April 18 2017:

Thursday, April 13 2017:

  • Bullies in Blue: Origins and Consequences of School Policing, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union. April, 2017. "[A]t at its origins, school policing enforced social control over Black and Latino youth who could no longer be kept out of neighborhoods and schools through explicitly discriminatory laws."

Tuesday, March 21 2017:

  • Breaking Down the Walls: Lessons Learned From Successful State Campaigns to Close Youth Prisons, [PDF] Youth First Initiative. March, 2017. "No state has completely dismantled the youth prison model that has been the signature feature of juvenile justice since the early 1800s. Yet, successful campaigns have resulted in the closure of dozens of youth prisons in all regions of the country."

Friday, March 17 2017:

  • Women Injustice: Gender and the Pathway to Jail in New York City, [PDF] John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Prisoner Reentry Institute. 2015. "Only 12% to 15% of the average daily population of women at Rikers have been sentenced to jail, as most are detained on pending cases."

Thursday, March 16 2017:

  • Prison: Evidence of its use and over-use from around the world [PDF] Institute for Criminal Policy Research. March, 2017. "Whether you would end up in prison is also affected by who you are. For example, Roma people make up around 40% of Hungary’s prison population, despite representing only 6% of the national population."
  • Ohio's Statehouse-to-Prison Pipeline: 131st General Assembly (2015-2016), [PDF] ACLU of Ohio. March, 2017. "These laws often use incarceration to address public health issues like addiction, mental health, and poverty, which only serves to exacerbate those problems." (The ACLU of Ohio reviewed all 1,004 bills introduced during the 2015-2016 legislative session and found nearly one in 10 included language to lock more people up longer.)

Monday, March 13 2017:

  • How Do People in High-Crime, Low-Income Communities View the Police? [PDF] Urban Institute. February, 2017. "27.8% of respondents agreed/strongly agreed that police almost always behave according to the law. Approximately one-third agreed or strongly agreed that police stand up for values that are important to them and often arrest people for no good reason."

Wednesday, March 8 2017:

  • Multi-Site Family Study on Incarceration, Parenting, and Partnering [PDF] Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. March, 2016. "Fathers with younger children rated their parental warmth and their relationship quality with their children more highly than did fathers of older children, and they also engaged in more activities with their children."
  • Driving While Black: A Report on Racial Profiling in Metro Nashville Police Department Traffic Stops, [PDF] Gideon's Army. October, 2016. "Between 2011-2015, MNPD (Metro Nashville Police Department) stopped an average of 1,122 per 1,000 black drivers: more black drivers than were living in Davidson County."
  • Exonerations in 2016: The National Registry of Exonerations, [PDF] The National Registry of Exonerations, University of Michigan Law School. March, 2017. "A record 94 exonerations in 2016 were cases in which no crime actually occurred."
  • Race and Wrongful Convictions in the United States National Registry of Exonerations, University of Michigan Law School. March, 2017. "Innocent black murder suspects, especially those who are falsely convicted...are additional victims of murders committed by others. Those who have been exonerated spent on average more than 14 years in prison before they were released."
  • Raising The Age: Shifting to a Safer and More Effective Juvenile Justice System, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. March, 2017. "Over the past ten years, half of the states that had previously excluded all 16- and/or 17-year-olds from juvenile court based solely on their age have changed their laws."

Tuesday, March 7 2017:

  • Accounting for Violence: How to Increase Safety and Break Our Failed Reliance on Mass Incarceration, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. February, 2017. "[J]ust as it would be wrong to excuse people’s actions simply because they were previously victimized, it is also wrong to ignore someone’s victimization because the person previously broke a law or committed harm in the past."
  • A New Normal: Helping the Criminal Justice System Address Opioid Overdoses, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. February, 2017. "[O]ver the last decade communities and public officials have increasingly called for an approach to drug use that employs harm reduction principles, making the issue a public health concern rather than one to be managed by the criminal justice system."

Friday, March 3 2017:

  • World Pre-trial/Remand Imprisonment List: Third Edition, [PDF] Institute for Criminal Policy Research. 2015. "Close to three million [people are] held in pre-trial detention and other forms of remand imprisonment throughout the world."

Thursday, March 2 2017:

  • Connecticut Employer Survey Practices and Attitudes: The Hiring of Formerly-Incarcerated Persons and Recommendations for Driving Better Outcomes, [PDF] Malta Justice Initiative Inc.. December, 2016. "4 in 10 respondents have no experience in hiring ex-offenders and a quarter say their company has a policy against it. Very few (3%) are actively hiring individuals with a criminal record."

Wednesday, March 1 2017:

  • Voting Rights of Former Felons ACLU of Nebraska. June, 2016. "Disturbingly, a decade after our ex-felon voting rights law was adopted, only half of all counties provided correct and accurate information."
  • Felony Disenfranchisement in the Commonwealth of Kentucky [PDF] League of Women Voters of Kentucky. February, 2017. "[O]ne of every four African American adults in Kentucky cannot vote. This rate (26.2%) is more than triple the national African American disenfranchisement rate (7.44%)."

Tuesday, February 28 2017:

  • Neither here nor there: Incarceration and family instability, [PDF] Kristin Turney, University of California, Irvine. January, 2014. "[F]indings suggest that, regardless of level of relationship commitment, maintaining relationships while one partner is behind bars is difficult."

Wednesday, February 8 2017:

  • Following the Money of Mass Incarceration [Website] Prison Policy Initiative. January, 2017. "In this first-of-its-kind report, we find that the system of mass incarceration costs the government and families of justice-involved people at least $182 billion every year."
  • Punishing Poverty: The high cost of probation fees in Massachusetts, [Website] Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2016. "Despite evidence that many probationers come from the poorest areas of the state, and the court's ability to waive probation fees, the state manages to collect $20 million per year in fees."
  • Reinstating Common Sense: How driver's license suspensions for drug offenses unrelated to driving are falling out of favor, [Website] Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2016. "Our criminal justice system should not set people up to fail. Yet that is exactly what mandatory driver's license suspensions do: they introduce new legal, economic, and social barriers for people who are in the midst of reentry."

Monday, February 6 2017:

  • Sentencing Outcomes in U.S. District Courts: Can Offenders’ Educational Attainment Guard Against Prevalent Criminal Stereotypes?, [PDF] Travis W. Franklin, Sam Houston State University. February, 2017. "[C]ourt actors may be less concerned (or not at all concerned) with factors typically linked to perceptions of dangerousness (e.g., race, ethnicity, age, sex, detention status) when dealing with offenders of higher educational status."

Thursday, February 2 2017:

  • Mass incarceration and children’s outcomes: Criminal Justice Policy is Education Policy, [PDF] Economic Policy Institute. December, 2016. "It is more common for children of incarcerated parents to drop out of school than it is for children of nonincarcerated parents, controlling for race, IQ, home quality, poverty status, and mother’s education."

Tuesday, January 31 2017:

  • Delaying a Second Chance: The Declining Prospects for Parole on Life Sentences, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. January, 2017. "By placing upward pressure on prison sentences for people with less serious convictions, excessive prison terms for lifers have contributed to a major cause of mass incarceration."

Thursday, January 26 2017:

  • Building Trust and Legitimacy Within Community Corrections [PDF] Harvard Kennedy School Program in Criminal Justice. December, 2016. "A shift from incarceration to community corrections could present numerous opportunities for reform of the criminal justice system as well as significant challenges."
  • Shackled to Debt: Criminal Justice Financial Obligations and the Barriers to Re-entry They Create, [PDF] Harvard Kennedy School Program in Criminal Justice. January, 2017. "[T]his form of sanction can, if left unchecked, have long-term effects that significantly harm the efforts of formerly incarcerated people to rehabilitate and reintegrate..."
  • Community-Based Responses to Justice-Involved Young Adults [PDF] Harvard Kennedy School Program in Criminal Justice. September, 2015. "[T]oday’s neurobiological and developmental research suggests that young people ages 18-24 are more developmentally akin to juveniles than fully mature adults."

Monday, January 23 2017:

  • Pretrial Justice: How Much Does It Cost, [Website] Pretrial Justice Institute. January, 2017. "The evidence shows that current pretrial practices--especially those that use money bail and over-use jail beds for lower risk people--are needlessly expensive and doesn’t produce positive results."

Tuesday, January 17 2017:

  • Declining Drug Enforcement After Proposition 47 Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. January, 2017. "The county data suggests [that] Proposition 47 reduced inconsistencies in the classification of drug possession offenses as felonies or misdemeanors."

Friday, January 13 2017:

  • The Death Penalty in Five Florida Counties: Disproportionately Used Against Persons with Significant Mental Impairments, [Website] Fair Punishment Project. January, 2017. "These findings have raised a legitimate question as to whether Florida's capital punishment scheme-even one with a unanimous jury requirement- is capable of limiting application of the death penalty to the most culpable offenders."
  • One Year Later: Race Relations and the Emanuel 9 Shooting, [PDF] University of South Carolina Institute for Public Service and Policy Research. June, 2016. "Among blacks, 30.9% favored the death penalty, while 64.7% believed he should receive life without parole; among whites, 64.2% supported the death penalty if found guilty in this case and 29.7% felt he should be given life without parole."
  • Severe Mental Illness and the Death Penalty [PDF] American Bar Association. December, 2016. "...[N]one of the current legal mechanisms afford adequate protection against the death penalty to those diagnosed with serious mental disorders or disabilities."

Thursday, January 12 2017:

  • Caged In: Solitary Confinement's Devastating Harm on Prisoners with Physical Disabilities, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union. January, 2017. "In Florida, only 44 of 792 grievances by prisoners with disabilities were resolved from 2013 to 2015."
  • Behind the Badge: How Police View Their Jobs, Key Issues, and Recent Fatal Encounters Between Blacks and Police, [PDF] Pew Research Center. January, 2017. "27% of all white officers but 69% of their black colleagues say the protests that followed fatal encounters between police and black citizens have been motivated at least to some extent by a genuine desire to hold police accountable."

Thursday, January 5 2017:

  • Crime Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009-2014 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2016. "40% of violence against persons with disabilities was committed by persons the victim knew well or who were casual acquaintances."
  • Florida: An Outlier in Denying Voting Rights, [PDF] Brennan Center for Justice. December, 2016. "With roots tracing back to Reconstruction and the Jim Crow period, racial discrimination has stifled the right to vote in Florida for hundreds of years."

Wednesday, December 14 2016:

  • Repurposing: New Beginnings for Closed Prisons, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. December, 2016. "Since 2011, at least 22 states have closed or announced closures for 92 state prisons and juvenile facilities, resulting in the elimination of over 48,000 state prison beds and an estimated cost savings of over $333 million."
  • Helping Moms, Dads, & Kids To Come Home: Eliminating Barriers to Housing for People with Criminal Records, [Website] Legal Action Center. December, 2016. "America’s “revolving-door” approach to mass incarceration is inextricably linked to the problem of homelessness."
  • Beyond Bars: Keeping Young People Safe at Home and Out of Youth Prisons, [PDF] The National Collaboration for Youth. December, 2016. "The youth prison is the signature feature of nearly every state juvenile justice system even though it is harmful, ineffective and expensive."
  • Stemming The Rising Tide: Racial & Ethnic Disparities in Youth Incarceration & Strategies for Change, [PDF] W. Haywood Burns Institute. May, 2016. "Youth are being incarcerated for longer periods of time, with Black and Latino youth having the longest stays out of home."

Tuesday, December 13 2016:

Monday, December 12 2016:

  • Health and Prisoner Reentry: How Physical, Mental, and Substance Abuse Conditions Shape the Process of Reintegration, [PDF] Urban Institute. February, 2008. "Nearly all returning prisoners—8 in 10 men and 9 in 10 women—had chronic health conditions requiring treatment or management."
  • How Many Americans Are Unnecessarily Incarcerated? [PDF] Brennan Center for Justice. December, 2016. "Nearly 40 percent of the U.S. prison population — 576,000 people — are behind bars with no compelling public safety reason."
  • Beyond Second Chances: Returning Citizens' Re-Entry Struggles and Successes In The District of Columbia, [PDF] Council for Court Excellence. December, 2016. "The population of D.C. Code offenders is starkly homogeneous. Although slightly fewer than half of all D.C. residents are black, more than 96 percent of D.C. Code offenders incarcerated at BOP facilities are black."
  • How Tough on Crime Became Tough on Kids: Prosecuting Teenage Drug Charges in Adult Courts, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. December, 2016. "The ability of states to send teenagers into the adult system on nonviolent offenses, a relic of the war on drugs, threatens the futures of those teenagers who are arrested on drug charges, regardless of whether or not they are convicted."

Tuesday, December 6 2016:

  • Aiming to Reduce Time-In-Cell: Reports from Correctional Systems on the Numbers of Prisoners in Restricted Housing, [PDF] The Arthur Liman Public Interest Program at Yale Law School and the Association of State Correctional Administrators. November, 2016. "[T]he new 2016 Report found that 67,442 prisoners were held, in the fall of 2015, in prison cells for 22 hours or more for 15 continuous days or more."

Thursday, November 17 2016:

  • Highlights from the U.S. PIAAC Survey of Incarcerated Adults: Their Skills, Work Experience, Education, and Training, [PDF] National Center for Education Statistics. November, 2016. "Around two-thirds of the survey’s respondents reported that they were working prior to their incarceration: about half of them were employed full-time, with another 16 percent working part-time."

Monday, November 14 2016:

  • The Geography of Incarceration: [PDF] Boston Indicators Project, MassINC, and the Massachusetts Criminal Justice Reform Coalition. November, 2016. "Many people of color live in Boston neighborhoods with such highly concentrated rates of incarceration that nearly every street—in some cases every other building— contains a resident who has been incarcerated."

Tuesday, November 1 2016:

  • Ban The Box In Employment: A Grassroots History, [PDF] All Of Us or None (Legal Services for Prisoners With Children). October, 2016. "Today, between all of the states and localities that have Ban the Box, over 185 million Americans now live in areas that have adopted fair chance hiring policies."
  • Violent Crime Arrests of Youth in California: Expected to Decline Through 2020, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. October, 2016. "Based on the declining rates of youth arrest over the last several decades, California can expected continued decline and historically low rates of violent felony arrest of youth through 2020."
  • The Prosecution of Youth As Adults in California: A 2015 Update, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, National Center for Youth Law, W. Haywood Burns Institute. 2015. "The race and location of youth—rather than the seriousness of the offense—impacted the likelihood they were direct filed in adult criminal court and subjected to the adult system."

Friday, October 28 2016:

  • Governments' Management of Private Prisons: [PDF] Abt Associates. September, 2003. "This report examines state and federal governments’ practices of contracting with private firms to manage prisons, including prisons owned by state and federal governments and those owned by private firms."

Thursday, October 27 2016:

  • Correcting Food Policy in Washington Prisons: How the DOC Makes Healthy Food Choices Impossible for Incarcerated People & What Can Be Done, Prison Voice Washington. October, 2016. "When the Department of Corrections turned over responsibility for food services to Correctional Industries (CI) substituted 95% industrialized, plastic-wrapped, sugar-filled "food products" for locally prepared healthy food."
  • Moving Beyond Money: A Primer on Bail Reform, [PDF] Criminal Justice Policy Program, Harvard Law School. October, 2016. "When pretrial detention depends on whether someone can afford to pay a cash bond, two otherwise similar pretrial defendants will face vastly different outcomes based merely on their wealth."

Monday, October 24 2016:

  • Responsible Prison Project: Reshaping The Texas Prison System for Greater Public Safety, [Website] Aaron Flaherty, David Graham, Michael Smith, William D Jones, and Vondre Cash. October, 2016. "It has often been said that those who are closest to a problem are closest to its solution. That is no less true for those who are in prison."
  • The Future of Youth Justice: A Community-Based Alternative to the Youth Prison Model, [PDF] Patrick McCarthy, Vincent Schiraldi, and Miriam Shark. October, 2016. "Closing these failed institutions requires a clear-headed, common-sense, bipartisan policy approach, and a commitment to replace these facilities with effective alternatives that are already available."

Wednesday, October 19 2016:

  • Buying Influence: How Private Prison Companies Expand Their Control of America’s Criminal Justice System, [PDF] In The Public Interest. October, 2016. "In 2014, out of the 30 governors, lieutenant governors, controllers, attorney generals, and legislators that received individual contributions of $5,000 or greater from the corrections industry, 27 won their races."

Tuesday, October 18 2016:

  • Use of Electronic Offender-Tracking Devices Expands Sharply [PDF] The Pew Charitable Trusts. September, 2016. "In 2015, manufacturers reported that about 88,000 GPS units were being used for supervision of accused and convicted offenders, a thirtyfold increase from the roughly 2,900 reported a decade earlier."

Thursday, October 13 2016:

  • Every 25 Seconds: The Human Toll of Criminalizing Drug Use in the United States, Human Rights Watch and the ACLU. October, 2016. "More than one of every nine arrests by state law enforcement is for drug possession, amounting to more than 1.25 million arrests each year."

Wednesday, October 12 2016:

  • 2010 Inmate Releases: Three Year Post Release Follow-up, [PDF] State of New York Department of Corrections and Community Supervision. June, 2014. "43% of the offenders released by the Parole Board during 2010 were returned for rule violations within three years and 8% returned for new felonies."

Tuesday, October 11 2016:

  • We are not disposable: The Toxic Impacts of Prisons and Jails, [PDF] Californians United for a Responsible Budget. October, 2016. "Pollution and environmental degradation created by prisons and jails exacerbate public health risks for not only incarcerated people but also for the local communities where detention facilities are sited."
  • Crime in 2016: A Preliminary Analysis [PDF] Brennan Center for Justice. September, 2016. "The data analyzed for this report suggest that most Americans will continue to experience low rates of crime."
  • 6 Million Lost Voters: State-Level Estimates of Felony Disenfranchisement, 2016, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. October, 2016. "Approximately 2.5 percent of the total U.S. voting age population – 1 of every 40 adults – is disenfranchised due to a current or previous felony conviction."
  • Defendant Remorse, Need for Affect, and Juror Sentencing Decisions [Website] Emily Corwin, Louisiana State Univeristy; Professor Robert Cramer, Sam Houston State University; Desiree Griffin, Southern Virginia Mental Health Institute; Professor Stanley Brodsky, University of Alabama. 2015. "Incongruent verbal and nonverbal behavior, as well as mock juror willingness to approach emotional situations (i.e., high need for affect resulted in more lenient sentences for defendants."

Monday, October 3 2016:

  • Demilitarizing America's Police: A Constitutional Analysis, [PDF] The Constitution Project. August, 2016. "The use of military equipment and tactics by law enforcement has clear--and serious--constitutional implications."
  • Righting Wrongs: The Five-Year Groundswell of State Bans on Life Without Parole For Children, [PDF] The Campaign for the Fair Sentencing of Youth. September, 2016. "In just five years--from 2011 to 2016--the number of states that ban death-in-prison sentences for children has more than tripled."

Friday, September 30 2016:

  • Police Violence and Citizen Crime Reporting in the Black Community [PDF] Professor Matthew Desmond, Harvard University; Professor Andrew Papachristos, Yale University; Professor David Kirk, University of Oxford. September, 2016. "This study shows that publicized cases of police violence against unarmed black men have a clear and significant impact on citizen crime reporting."

Wednesday, September 21 2016:

  • Juvenile Life Without Parole in Wayne County: Time to Join the National Consensus, [PDF] Fair Punishment Project. July, 2016. "Wayne County makes up only 18% of the state's population, yet it accounts for at least 40% of the individuals serving these [juvenile life without parole] sentences in Michigan."

Friday, September 9 2016:

  • Right to Counsel in Utah: An Assessment of Trial-Level Indigent Defense Services, Sixth Amendment Center. October, 2015. "Utah’s trial courts do not uniformly provide counsel to indigent defendants at all critical stages of criminal cases as required by the U.S. Supreme Court[.]"

Wednesday, September 7 2016:

Friday, September 2 2016:

  • Charging the Poor: Criminal Justice Debt & Modern-Day Debtors' Prisons, Texas A&M University - School of Law. December, 2015. "[M]y Article proposes eliminating egregious sanctions, providing courts flexibility to base fines on earning levels, and establishing procedures to enforce restrictions against incarcerating those who are truly unable to pay their criminal justice debt."
  • Transforming Prisons, Restoring Lives: Final Recommendations of the Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections, Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections. January, 2016. "Sentencing reform and other policy changes will reduce our reliance on prison and cut costs as we reconsider which people truly need to be behind bars and for how long."
  • Debtors' Prison for Kids? The High Cost of Fines and Fees in the Juvenile Justice System, Juvenile Law Center. August, 2015. "Youth who can’t pay for alternative programs may enter the juvenile justice system when a wealthier peer would not."

Friday, August 26 2016:

  • Profit-Driven Prosecution and the Competitive Bidding Process J. Reuben Clark Law School, Brigham Young University. August, 2016. "This Article sheds light on the problems caused by introducing an overtly economic calculation (how cheaply and how profitably the prosecutorial function may be fulfilled) into the criminal adjudicative process."
  • The Downstream Consequences of Misdemeanor Pretrial Detention University of Pennsylvania Law School. July, 2016. "We find that detained defendants are 25% more likely than similarly situated releasees to plead guilty, 43% more likely to be sentenced to jail, and receive jail sentences that are more than twice as long on average."
  • Distortion of Justice: How the Inability to Pay Bail Affects Case Outcomes, University of Pennsylvania Law School. May, 2016. "While previous research has shown correlations between pretrial detention and unfavorable case outcomes, this paper is the first to use a quasi-experimental research design to show that the relationship is causal."
  • Community Cages: Profitizing community corrections and alternatives to incarceration, American Friends Service Committee. August, 2016. "The profitization of community corrections poses a serious threat to the movement to end mass incarceration."

Tuesday, August 23 2016:

  • Defining Violence: Reducing Incarceration and Rethinking America's Approach to Violence, Justice Policy Institute. August, 2016. "[This report] explores how something is defined as a violent or nonviolent crime, how that classification affects how the justice system treats a person, and how all that relates to the use of incarceration."

Monday, August 22 2016:

  • Local Justice Reinvestment: Strategies, Outcomes, and Keys to Success, Urban Institute. August, 2016. "Over the past six years, 17 local jurisdictions across the country have worked diligently to implement [Justice Reinvestment Initiative], and it appears these efforts have generally paid off."
  • Unjust: How the broken criminal justice system fails LGBT people of color, Center for American Progress, Movement Advancement Project... August, 2016. "This report focuses on LGBT people of color and their interactions with the criminal justice system."

Thursday, August 18 2016:

  • Roadblock to Economic Independence: How Driver's License Suspension Policies in Indiana Impede Self-Sufficiency, Burden State Government..., Health and Human Rights Clinic, Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law. February, 2016. "Beside the cost to individuals, driver’s license suspensions significantly impact employers, government resources, and public safety."
  • Overlooked: Women and Jails in an Era of Reform, Vera Institute of Justice. August, 2016. "At this critical moment in jail and local justice system reform, Vera has taken stock of the existing research on women in jail to begin to reframe the conversation to include them."

Wednesday, August 17 2016:

  • A New Era for Expungement Law Reform? Recent Developments at the State and Federal Levels, Temple University, Beasley School of Law. August, 2016. "This article evaluates the recent flurry of state-level legislation relating to expungement remedies for publicly available criminal record information, including both conviction and arrest records."

Tuesday, August 16 2016:

Friday, August 12 2016:

  • Review of the Federal Bureau of Prisons’ Monitoring of Contract Prisons U.S. Department of Justice. August, 2016. "We found that, in most key areas, contract prisons incurred more safety and security incidents per capita than comparable BOP institutions and that the BOP needs to improve how it monitors contract prisons in several areas."
  • Racial Profiling in Hiring: A Critique of New, National Employment Law Project. August, 2016. "Ban-the-box is working, both by increasing employment opportunities for people with records and by changing employer attitudes toward hiring people with records."

Wednesday, August 10 2016:

  • Investigation of the Baltimore City Police Department U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division. August, 2016. "[T]he Department of Justice concludes that there is reasonable cause to believe that BPD engages in a pattern or practice of conduct that violates the Constitution or federal law."

Tuesday, August 9 2016:

  • New Orleans: Who's in Jail and Why?, Vera Institute of Justice. August, 2016. "This report aims to advance an important public conversation about how we are using our jail and how it impacts safety in our city."
  • Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses in County Jails: A Survey of Jail Staff’s Perspectives, Public Citizen’s Health Research Group, The Treatment Advocacy Center. July, 2016. "The purpose of our survey was to understand the perspectives of county jail sheriffs, deputies, and other staff with respect to individuals with serious mental illnesses in jails."
  • Justifiable Homicides by Law Enforcement Officers: What is the Role of Mental Illness?, Treatment Advocacy Center, National Sheriff's Association. September, 2013. "The transfer of responsibility for persons with mental illness from mental health professionals to law enforcement officers has brought with it major problems for the latter."
  • Crime Survivors Speak: The First-Ever National Survey of Victims' Views on Safety and Justice, Alliance for Safety and Justice. August, 2016. "Perhaps to the surprise of some, victims overwhelmingly prefer criminal justice approaches that prioritize rehabilitation over punishment and strongly prefer investments in crime prevention and treatment to more spending on prisons and jails."

Wednesday, August 3 2016:

  • Police Body Worn Cameras: A Policy Scorecard, The Leadership Conference, Upturn. August, 2015. "This scorecard evaluates the body-worn camera policies currently in place in major police departments across the country."

Monday, August 1 2016:

  • Global burden of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis in prisoners and detainees, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre. July, 2016. "The most effective way of controlling these infections in prisoners and the broader community is to reduce the incarceration of people who inject drugs."
  • Report to the Congress: Career Offender Sentencing Enhancements, United States Sentencing Commission. August, 2016. "The career offender directive should be amended to differentiate between career offenders with different types of criminal records, and is best focused on those offenders who have committed at least one 'crime of violence.'"
  • National Survey of Prison Health Care: Selected Findings, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. July, 2016. "This report presents selected findings on the provision of health care services in U.S. state prisons."

Friday, July 22 2016:

  • Is Justice Really Blind? Race and Reversal in US Courts, Journal of Legal Studies. July, 2016. "[B]lack federal judges are consistently overturned on appeal more often than similar white judges."

Thursday, July 21 2016:

  • Disabled Behind Bars: The Mass Incarceration of People With Disabilities in America's Jails and Prisons, Center for American Progress. July, 2016. "This report highlights steps policymakers can take to combat inappropriate and unjust incarceration and criminalization of people with disabilities, as well as steps to ensure appropriate and humane treatment of people with disabilities[.]"
  • The Science of Justice: Race, Arrests, and Police Use of Force, Center for Policing Equity. July, 2016. "[T]he analyses of 12 law enforcement departments from geographically and demographically diverse locations revealed that racial disparities in police use of force persist even when controlling for racial distribution of local arrest rates."

Wednesday, July 20 2016:

  • Making the Grade: Developing Quality Postsecondary Education Programs in Prison, Vera Institute of Justice. July, 2016. "[T]his report compiles lessons from the field, offering implementation guidance to programs seeking to develop, expand, or enhance postsecondary educational programming in corrections settings."

Monday, July 18 2016:

  • Making Hard Time Harder: Programmatic Accommodations for Inmates with Disabilities Under the Americans with Disabilities Act, AVID Prison Project. July, 2016. "This report...aims to highlight the difficulties that inmates with disabilities face as they seek to access programs and services in state prison systems."
  • Indefensible: A Decade of Mass Incarceration of Migrants Prosecuted for Crossing the Border, Grassroots Leadership, Justice Strategies. July, 2016. "The criminal prosecution of migrants crossing our southern border has had profound impacts on the federal courts and federal prisons over the last decade."

Monday, July 11 2016:

Tuesday, July 5 2016:

  • Justice by Geography: Do politics influence the prosecution of youth as adults?, Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. June, 2016. "Granting prosecutors the sole discretion to determine whether a youth is tried in adult court contributes to a system of extreme disparities."
  • The Prosecution of Youth as Adults: A county-level analysis of prosecutorial direct file in California and its disparate impact on youth of color, Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, W. Haywood Burn's Institute, National Center for Youth Law. June, 2016. "This report...presents county rates of direct file compared to the youth population and rates of youth arrests, and highlights racial and ethnic disparities."

Thursday, June 30 2016:

  • Overview of Federal Criminal Cases: Fiscal Year 2015, United States Sentencing Commission. June, 2016. "The 71,003 individual original cases reported to the Commission in fiscal year 2015 represent a decrease of 4,833 (6.4%) cases from fiscal year 2014."
  • America's Top Five Deadliest Prosecutors: How Overzealous Personalities Drive the Death Penalty, The Fair Punishment Project. June, 2016. "There are more than 3,100 counties, 2,400 head prosecutors, and thousands of line prosecutors in America -- yet only a tiny handful of prosecutors are responsible for a vastly disproportionate number of death sentences."

Monday, June 27 2016:

  • The Gavel Gap: Who Sits in Judgment on State Courts?, American Constitution Society for Law and Policy. June, 2016. "We find that courts are not representative of the people whom they serve -- that is, a gap exists between the bench and the citizens."

Friday, June 24 2016:

  • Raising Cain: The Role of Serious Mental Illness in Family Homicides, Treatment Advocacy Center. June, 2016. "[T]his is the first study of the role of serious mental illness in all family homicides."
  • Police Integrity Lost: A Study of Law Enforcement Officers Arrested, U.S. Department of Justice. April, 2016. "This study is a quantitative content analysis of archived news articles and court records reporting on the arrest(s) of law enforcement officers in the United States from 2005-2011."

Wednesday, June 22 2016:

  • Isolated in Essex: Punishing immigrants through solitary confinement, New Jersey Advocates for Immigrant Detainees, American Friends Service Committee, and New York University School of Law Immigrants Rights Clinic. June, 2016. "This report completes the picture by presenting an analysis of previously unavailable data regarding the use of disciplinary solitary confinement ("disciplinary segregation") against immigrant detainees in Essex County Correctional Facility[.]"
  • Recidivism of Offenders Placed on Federal Community Supervision in 2005: Patterns from 2005 to 2010, Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2016. "Overall, 35% of these offenders were arrested within 3 years and 43% were arrested within 5 years of placement on community supervision."

Monday, June 20 2016:

  • Ban the Box, Criminal Records, and Statistical Discrimination: A Field Experiment, Amanda Agan and Sonja Starr. June, 2016. "Our results confirm that criminal records are a major barrier to employment, but they also support the concern that BTB policies encourage statistical discrimination on the basis of race."

Thursday, June 16 2016:

  • States of Incarceration: The Global Context 2016, Prison Policy Initiative. 2016. "[P]lacing each state in a global context reveals that incarceration policy in every region of this country is out of step with the rest of the world."

Tuesday, June 14 2016:

  • Marijuana Legalization in Colorado: Early Findings, Colorado Department of Public Safety. March, 2016. "The total number of marijuana arrests decreased by 46% between 2012 and 2014, from 12,894 to 7,004."

Friday, June 10 2016:

  • Update: Changes in State Imprisonment Brennan Center for Justice. June, 2016. "[This fact sheet] analyzes data from all 50 states on imprisonment and crime from 2006 (as bipartisan criminal justice reforms generally began around 2007) through 2014 (the most recent year of data)."
  • The Color of Justice: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in State Prisons, The Sentencing Project. June, 2016. "This report documents the rates of incarceration for whites, African Americans, and Hispanics, providing racial and ethnic composition as well as rates of disparity for each state."

Monday, June 6 2016:

Thursday, June 2 2016:

  • Correctional Control: Incarceration and supervision by state, Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2016. "For the first time, this report aggregates data on all of the kinds of correctional control: federal prisons, state prisons, local jails, juvenile incarceration, civil commitment, Indian Country jails, parole and, lastly but importantly, probation."

Wednesday, June 1 2016:

  • Increases in police use of force in the presence of body-worn cameras are driven by officer discretion: a protocol-based subgroup analysis of ten randomized experiments, Journal of Experimental Criminology. May, 2017. "The core of the analysis presented below is to understand what role police discretion plays in the emergent area of police BWCs."
  • Youth in Residential Placement, 2013 U.S. Department of Justice. May, 2016. "This survey details the characteristics of youth held for delinquency and status offenses in public and private residential facilities in every state."

Tuesday, May 31 2016:

  • Degrees of Freedom: Expanding College Opportunities for Currently and Formerly Incarcerated Californians, Renewing Communities Initiative. February, 2015. "Our colleges and criminal justice agencies must break out of their silos and share a commitment to high-quality education for all students whether they are learning in prison, jail, or the community."

Friday, May 27 2016:

  • Justice in Review: New Trends in State Sentencing and Corrections 2014-2015, Vera Institute of Justice. May, 2016. "In 2014 and 2015, 46 states enacted at least 201 bills, executive orders and ballot initiatives to reform at least one aspect of their sentencing and corrections systems."

Thursday, May 26 2016:

  • Corrections Statistics by State [Website] National Institute of Corrections. February, 2015. "This unique compilation of data provides a visual representation of key statistics for each state as well as a comparison of each state in relation to other states."

Wednesday, May 25 2016:

  • Study of the TDCJ Offender Visitation Policies Texas Department of Criminal Justice. August, 2014. "A temporary online survey was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 to obtain feedback from the public regarding their past visitation experience."

Monday, May 23 2016:

  • By the Numbers: Parole Release and Revocation Across 50 States, Robina Institute. April, 2016. "The Data Profiles in this report are designed to provide a statistical snapshot of the relationships and movements between prison and parole supervision populations in each state."

Thursday, May 19 2016:

  • Is Downsizing Prisons Dangerous? The Effect of California’s Realignment Act on Public Safety, Criminology and Public Policy. May, 2016. "Significant reductions in the size of prison populations are possible without endangering public safety."
  • Protecting Written Family Communication in Jails: A 50-State Survey, Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2016. "[W]e find a strong correlation between the states that have strong language protecting letter writing and the states in which no jails are experimenting with banning letters."
  • Assessing the Impact of South Dakota's Sentencing Reforms Urban Institute. May, 2016. "South Dakota’s presumptive probation policy and felony reclassifications played a significant role in averting South Dakota’s prison population growth."

Wednesday, May 18 2016:

  • A Price Too High: US Families Torn Apart by Deportations for Drug Offenses, Human Rights Watch. June, 2015. "[T]he US is deporting a significant number of both permanent residents and undocumented individuals with strong family and community ties to the US, often for minor or old drug offenses."
  • The Heavy Costs of High Bail: Evidence from Judge Randomization, Columbia Law School. May, 2016. "Our estimates suggest that the assignment of money bail causes a 6 percentage point rise in the likelihood of pleading guilty, and a 4 percentage point rise in recidivism."
  • Breaking Promises: Violations of the Massachusetts Pregnancy Standards & Anti-Shackling Law, The Prison Birth Project and Prisoners' Legal Services of Massachusetts. May, 2016. "Far too often Massachusetts prisons and jails violate the law in both policy and practice, undermining the public will and subjecting pregnant women to illegal, unsafe, and degrading treatment."

Tuesday, May 10 2016:

  • Detaining the Poor: How money bail perpetuates an endless cycle of poverty and jail time, Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2016. "A majority of people unable to meet bail fall within the poorest third of the national income distribution."

Thursday, May 5 2016:

  • Mothers at the Gate: How a Powerful Family Movement is Transforming the Juvenile Justice System, Institute for Policy Studies. May, 2016. "[A] movement of family members — particularly mothers — is developing around the country, a movement that aims to challenge both the conditions in which their loved ones are held and the fact of mass incarceration itself."
  • Chicago Prisoners' Experiences Returning Home Urban Institute. December, 2004. "We present key findings on a range of reentry challenges and describe the factors related to postrelease success or failure[.]"

Friday, April 29 2016:

Wednesday, April 27 2016:

  • Unlicensed & Untapped: Removing Barriers to State Occupational Licenses for People with Records, National Employment Law Project. April, 2016. "[H]aving a conviction record, particularly for people of color, is a major barrier to participation in the labor market."
  • Economic Perspectives on Incarceration and the Criminal Justice System White House Council of Economic Advisers. April, 2016. "[E]conomics can provide a valuable lens for evaluating the costs and benefits of criminal justice policy."
  • San Francisco Justice Reinvestment Initiative: Racial and ethnic disparities analysis for the reentry council, The W. Haywood Burns Institute for Juvenile Justice Fairness & Equity. June, 2015. "Black adults are 7.1 times as likely as White adults to be arrested, 11 times as likely to be booked into County Jail, and 10.3 times as likely to be convicted of a crime in San Francisco."

Tuesday, April 26 2016:

  • A Shared Sentence: the devastating toll of parental incarceration on kids, families and communities, The Annie E. Casey Foundation. April, 2016. "Nationally, the number of kids who have had a parent in jail or prison at some point in their childhood hovers around 5.1 million - a conservative estimate."
  • Health Disparities in Drug- and Alcohol-Use Disorders: A 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Youths After Detention, American Journal of Public Health. December, 2015. "Drug abuse appears to have greater consequences for racial/ethnic minorities, especially African Americans, than for non-Hispanic Whites."

Thursday, April 21 2016:

  • Crime in 2015: A Final Analysis, Brennan Center for Justice. April, 2016. "The data analyzed in this update support the initial report’s conclusion that Americans continue to experience low crime rates."
  • Assessing Inmate Cause of Death: Deaths in Custody Reporting Program and National Death Index, Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2016. "The U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) has collected data annually on inmates who died in state prison and local jail and the circumstances surrounding these deaths since...2000."
  • Roadblocks to Reform: District Attorneys, Elections, and the Criminal Justice System Status Quo, ACLU of Oregon. April, 2016. "DAs are arguably the most powerful people in the criminal justice system, but voters don’t seem to know who DAs are or all that they do[.]"

Tuesday, April 12 2016:

  • Stopped, Fined, Arrested: Racial Bias in Policing and Traffic Courts in California, Back on the Road California. April, 2016. "[T]here are dramatic racial and socioeconomic disparities in driver’s license suspensions and arrests related to unpaid traffic fines and fees."

Monday, April 11 2016:

  • Children, Parents, and Incarceration: Descriptive Overview of Data from Alameda and San Francisco County Jails, Alameda County Children of Incarcerated Parents Partnership; San Francisco Children of Incarcerated Parents Partnership. March, 2016. "The survey was structured to gather information to inform program and policy decisions in consideration of the children’s well-being when their parents become incarcerated in local jails."

Tuesday, April 5 2016:

  • Get To Work or Go To Jail: Workplace Rights Under Threat, UCLA Labor Center. April, 2016. "The work-or-jail threat adds the weight of the criminal justice system to employers’ power, and turns the lack of good jobs into the basis for further policing, prosecution, and incarceration."

Friday, April 1 2016:

Thursday, March 31 2016:

Wednesday, March 30 2016:

  • Paying the Price: Failure to Deliver HIV Services in Lousiana Parish Jails, Human Rights Watch. 2016. "The state of Louisiana is 'ground zero' for the dual epidemics of HIV and incarceration."
  • Prosecutorial Oversight: A National Dialogue in the Wake of Connick v. Thompson, Innocence Project. March, 2016. "There are almost no adequate systems in place to keep prosecutorial error and misconduct in check and, in fact, prosecutors are rarely held accountable even for intentional misconduct."

Monday, March 28 2016:

  • Rehabilitating Corrections in California: The Health Impacts of Proposition 47, Human Impact Partners. September, 2014. "The key to achieving the full benefits of sentencing reform is funding and implementation of the treatment, prevention, and recovery services called for in the initiative."

Thursday, March 24 2016:

  • “Do You See How Much I’m Suffering Here?” Abuse against Transgender Women in US Immigration Detention, Human Rights Watch. March, 2016. "[T]his report details the abuses that transgender women suffer in immigration detention and the US government’s inadequate efforts to address them."
  • Punishment Rate Measures Prison Use Relative to Crime The Pew Charitable Trusts. March, 2016. "A more nuanced assessment of punishment than the ratio of inmates to residents is that of inmates to crime- what The Pew Charitable Trusts calls the 'punishment rate.'"
  • A National Picture of Prison Downsizing Strategies The RAND Corporation. February, 2016. "After decades of unprecedented correctional expenditures and prison population growth, many states faced fiscal pressures on their corrections budgets as the country entered a deep recession in 2008."
  • Race, Wealth and Incarceration: Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Race and Social Problems. March, 2016. "[T]he likelihood of future incarceration still was higher for blacks at every level of wealth compared to the white likelihood[.]"
  • The Effects of Changing State Theft Penalties The Pew Charitable Trusts. February, 2016. "The Pew Charitable Trusts examined crime trends in the 23 states that raised their felony theft thresholds between 2001 and 2011[.]"
  • Pretrial Incarcerated Women: An Analysis of Women in Bristol County Jail, Massachusetts, Wellesley Centers for Women. March, 2016. "This brief policy report examines these women’s demographic and criminal justice characteristics and, focusing particularly on their race and ethnicity, examines the relationships between them."

Monday, March 21 2016:

Friday, March 18 2016:

  • Administrative Segregation in U.S. Prisons National Institute of Justice. March, 2016. "Across the political spectrum, there is growing concern about the efficacy and utility of administrative segregation practices[.]"

Wednesday, March 16 2016:

  • Is Proposition 47 to Blame for California's 2015 Increase in Urban Crime? Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. March, 2016. "There are no obvious effects associated with Proposition 47 that would be expected if the reform had a significant and consistent impact on crime."
  • Adult Sex Offender Management Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. July, 2015. "This brief has focused on the effectiveness of a number of prominent sex offender management strategies, including specialized supervision, COSA, polygraph, GPS, civil commitment, SORN, and residence restrictions."

Tuesday, March 15 2016:

  • Evaluation of the Los Angeles Gang Reduction and Youth Development Program: Year 4 Evaluation Report, Urban Institute. September, 2015. "The analyses presented in this report address GRYD’s efforts to impact gang violence at the individual, family, and community levels, paralleling the GRYD program components targeting each of these levels."
  • Children with Incarcerated Parents - Considering Children's Outcomes in the Context of Family Experiences, University of Minnesota. June, 2013. "Given the potential long-term consequences of parental incarceration for child and adult health, targeted, evidence-informed prevention and intervention efforts are sorely needed."
  • Juvenile Court Statistics 2013 National Center for Juvenile Justice. July, 2015. "Juvenile Court Statistics 2013 describes delinquency cases handled between 1985 and 2013 and petitioned status offense cases handled between 1995 and 2013 by U.S. courts with juvenile jurisdiction."
  • Juvenile Transfer Laws: An Effective Deterrent to Delinquency?, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. June, 2010. "This Bulletin provides an overview of research on the deterrent effects of transferring youth from juvenile to criminal courts[.]"

Monday, March 14 2016:

  • Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2016, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2016. (The American criminal justice system holds more than 2.3 million people in thousands of facilities, and we go deeper to provide further detail on where and why.)

Thursday, March 10 2016:

  • Criminal (In)justice: A Cost Analysis of Wrongful Convictions, Errors, and Failed Prosecutions in California's Criminal Justice System, The Chief Justice Earl Warren Institute on Law and Social Policy, Berkeley School of Law. March, 2016. "Criminal (In)justice examines 692 adult felony criminal cases where California missed the mark in public safety by failing to prosecute the right person or by pursuing a flawed or unsustainable conviction."
  • Recidivism Among Federal Offenders: A Comprehensive Overview, United States Sentencing Commission. March, 2016. "This report provides a broad overview of key findings from the United States Sentencing Commission’s study of recidivism of federal offenders."

Wednesday, March 9 2016:

  • InCorrect Care: A Prison Profiteer Turns Care into Confinement, Grassroots Leadership. February, 2016. "This report’s in-depth analysis of GEO Group, GEO Care and now Correct Care Solutions’ involvement in operating mental health hospitals and civil commitment centers exposes serious concerns."
  • Stakeholders' Views on the Movement to Reduce Youth Incarceration National Council on Crime and Delinquency. April, 2014. "From June 2012 through June 2013, NCCD asked juvenile justice stakeholders to describe how youth incarceration was reduced in their jurisdictions."

Tuesday, March 8 2016:

Friday, March 4 2016:

  • A New Role for Technology? Implementing Video Visitation in Prison, Vera Institute of Justice. February, 2016. "This report examines the current landscape of video visitation in prisons nationwide and offers a detailed case study of an early adopter, Washington State."

Thursday, March 3 2016:

  • Under Custody Report: Profile of Incarcerated Offender Population Under Custody on January 1, 2012, State of New York Department of Corrections and Community Supervision. January, 2012. "This report...presents information on offenders held under Department of Corrections and Community Supervision (DOCCS) custody on January 1, 2012."
  • Under Custody Report: Profile of Inmate Population Under Custody on January 1, 2013, State of New York Department of Corrections and Community Supervision. January, 2013. "This report...presents information on inmates and incarcerated parolees held under Department of Corrections and Community Supervision (DOCCS) custody on January 1, 2013."
  • Under Custody Report: Profile of Under Custody Population As of January 1, 2014, State of New York Department of Corrections and Community Supervision. January, 2014. "This report...profiles under custody offenders' demographic and criminal history characteristics."

Wednesday, March 2 2016:

  • Fatal Neglect: How ICE Ignores Deaths in Detention, ACLU; Detention Watch Network; National Immigrant Justice Center. February, 2016. "This report examines egregious violations of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement's (ICE) own medical care standards that played a significant role in eight in-custody deaths from 2010 to 2012."

Tuesday, March 1 2016:

  • What Do We Know About the Association Between Firearm Legislation and Firearm-Related Injuries?, Epidemiologic Reviews. February, 2016. "Evidence from 130 studies in 10 countries suggests that in certain nations the simultaneous implementation of laws targeting multiple firearms restrictions is associated with reductions in firearm deaths."

Monday, February 29 2016:

  • Jobs After Jail: Ending the prison to poverty pipeline, Alliance for a Just Society. February, 2016. "For the 70 million adults with a serious misdemeanor or felony arrest or conviction record and the hundreds of thousands more each year released from prison, their record can be a life sentence of poverty and low wages."

Friday, February 26 2016:

  • The Truth About Juvenile False Confessions American Bar Association. February, 2016. "People, including judges and juries, are very reluctant to believe that a confession might be false - and the result, too often, can be a wrongful conviction."

Thursday, February 25 2016:

Wednesday, February 24 2016:

Tuesday, February 23 2016:

  • Snapshot of Indigent Defense Representation in Michigan’s Adult Criminal Courts, Michigan Indigent Defense Commission. February, 2016. "The first survey of indigent defense court systems is just one part of an extensive, multipronged data gathering strategy that the MIDC will use to initiate comprehensive system change."

Monday, February 22 2016:

  • Inside the Box: The Real Costs of Solitary Confinement in New Mexico's Prisons and Jails, The New Mexico Center on Law and Poverty; The ACLU of New Mexico. October, 2013. "New Mexico urgently needs to reform the practice of solitary confinement in its prisons and jails."

Thursday, February 18 2016:

  • Is Downsizing Prisons Dangerous? The Effect of California’s Realignment Act on Public Safety, Criminology and Public Policy. February, 2016. "Significant reductions in the size of prison populations are possible without endangering public safety."
  • National Survey Key Findings - Federal Sentencing & Prisons The Pew Charitable Trusts. February, 2016. "Voters are ready and willing to reform the criminal justice system in ways that reduce the size and cost of the federal prison system, while improving outcomes."
  • Key findings from statewide surveys in Florida, North Carolina, Nevada, Kentucky, Missouri, and Wisconsin, Justice Action Network; The Tarrance Group. February, 2016. "[T]here is broad consensus that the federal criminal justice system jails too many non-violent criminals and spends too much on jailing nonviolent offenders."

Wednesday, February 17 2016:

Tuesday, February 16 2016:

  • Special Committee on Re-entry New York State Bar Association. January, 2016. "The cost of re-incarceration and the cost to victims of recidivism are far greater than the cost of providing the programs described in this report."

Friday, February 12 2016:

  • Police Body-Worn Camera Policies Brennan Center for Justice. January, 2016. "To help foster and inform this discussion, we have pulled together body camera policies from many police departments that have made them publicly available, as well as model policies from several organizations."
  • The State of Sentencing 2015 Developments in Policy and Practice, The Sentencing Project. February, 2016. "The policy reforms outlined in this document highlight changes in sentencing, community supervision, collateral consequences, and juvenile justice policies."

Thursday, February 4 2016:

  • World Prison Population List (eleventh edition), International Centre for Prison Studies. February, 2015. "This eleventh edition of the World Prison Population List gives details of the number of prisoners held in 223 prison systems in independent countries and dependent territories."
  • First-Episode Incarceration: Creating a Recovery-Informed Framework for Integrated Mental Health and Criminal Justice Responses, Vera Institute of Justice. January, 2016. (This report outlines a new integrated framework that encourages the mental health and criminal justice fields to collaborate on developing programs based on early intervention.)
  • Sexual Offender Laws and Prevention of Sexual Violence or Recidivism American Journal of Public Health. 2010. (Evidence on the effectiveness of sex offender laws suggests that they may not prevent recidivism or sexual violence and result in more harm than good.)
  • Sex Offender Registration and Notification Limited Effects in New Jersey, National Institute of Justice. April, 2009. "Convicted offenders and their offense types in this study were similar before and after Megan’s Law was passed."
  • Exonerations in 2015 The National Registry of Exonerations. February, 2016. "2015 set a record for exonerations in the United States - 149 that we know of so far, in 29 states, the District of Columbia, federal courts and Guam."
  • A Legislated Study of Raising the Age of Juvenile Jurisdiction in Louisiana The Future of 17-Year-Olds in the Louisiana Justice System, Institute for Public Health and Justice. February, 2016. "Lousiana should strongly consider raising the age of juvenile court jurisdiction to include 17-year-old offenders."

Friday, January 29 2016:

  • Report and Recommendations Concerning the Use of Restrictive Housing U.S. Department of Justice. January, 2016. "At its worst, and when applied without regard to basic standards of decency, restrictive housing can cause serious, long-lasting harm. It is the responsibility of all governments to ensure that this practice is used only as necessary."
  • Sexual Victimization Reported by Juvenile Correctional Authorities, 2007-12 Bureau of Justice Statistics. January, 2016. "In 2012, juvenile correctional administrators reported 865 allegations of sexual victimization in state juvenile systems and 613 in local or private facilities and Indian country facilities."
  • You've Got Mail: The promise of cyber communication in prisons and the need for regulation, Prison Policy Initiative. January, 2016. (There are many benefits to electronic messaging in correctional facilities, but our analysis finds that the technology is primed to be just another opportunity for for-profit companies to exploit families and subvert regulations of phone calls.)
  • Locked Up & Shipped Away: Interstate Prisoner Transfers and the Private Prison Industry Winter 2016 Update, [PDF] Grassroots Leadership. January, 2016. (Since the 2013 release of Locked Up and Shipped Away, the same four states (Vermont, California, Idaho, and Hawaii) continue to house a portion of their prisoners in private prisons out of state. And, a fifth state, Arkansas has also opted to do so.)

Wednesday, January 20 2016:

  • Preliminary Semiannual Uniform Crime Report, January-June, 2015, Federal Bureau of Investigation. January, 2016. (Preliminary figures indicate that law enforcement agencies throughout the nation showed an overall increase of 1.7 percent in the number of violent crimes brought to their attention for the first 6 months of 2015 when compared with the same time in 2014.)

Friday, January 8 2016:

  • Public Research Universities: Changes in State Funding, American Academy of Arts & Sciences. 2015. "In general, state spending on corrections has grown much faster than education spending over the last three decades. In eleven states, corrections has now surpassed higher education as a percentage of funding."
  • Rates of Sexual Victimization in Prison for Inmates With and Without Mental Disorders, Psychiatric services. 2007. "Approximately one in 12 male inmates with a mental disorder reported at least one incident of sexual victimization by another inmate over a six-month period, compared with one in 33 male inmates without a mental disorder."

Thursday, January 7 2016:

  • The Correctional Policy Project: Iowa Prison Population Forecast FY 2015-FY 2025, [PDF] Iowa Department of Human Rights. January, 2015. "Long term projections suggest Iowa's prison population may be expected to increase from 8,188 inmates on June 30, 2015 to about 10,058 inmates on June 30, 2025, or by about 23% over the ten-year period."
  • Tracking Enforcement Rates in New York City 2003-2014 [PDF] Misdemeanor Justice Project at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. December, 2015. "This third report from the Misdemeanor Justice Project documents the changing patterns in felony arrests, misdemeanor arrests, criminal summonses, and stop, question and frisk activities in New York City from 2003-2014."

Tuesday, January 5 2016:

  • Growing Up Locked Down ACLU of Nebraska. January, 2016. "Before they are old enough to get a driver’s license, enlist in the armed forces, or vote, some children in Nebraska are held in solitary confinement for days, weeks--and even months."

Monday, January 4 2016:

  • Developmental Estimates of Subnational Crime Rates Based on the National Crime Victimization Survey, Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2015. "Developmental Estimates of Subnational Crime Rates Based on the National Crime Victimization Survey presents rates of violent and property crime victimization for the 50 states and select metropolitan statistical areas."
  • Correctional Populations In The United States, 2014 Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2015. "The correctional population has declined by an annual average of 1.0% since 2007."
  • Selective Policing: Racially Disparate Enforcement of Low-Level Offenses in New Jersey, [PDF] ACLU of New Jersey. December, 2015. "Racial disparities between Black and White arrests exist in every city studied."

Tuesday, December 22 2015:

  • The Burden of Criminal Justice Debt in Alabama: 2014 Participant Self-Report Survey, [PDF] UAB TASC Jefferson County's Community Corrections Program. 2014. "The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success of this approach and the impact of these policies in Alabama. With the general knowledge that increased court costs have not produced projected revenue, we sought to understand why."
  • The Family And Recidivism [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. September, 2012. "Among the inmates surveyed, 84 percent reported that their families were supportive during their incarceration."
  • Sentencing in California: Moving Toward a Smarter, More Cost-Effective Approach, California Budget & Policy Center. December, 2015. "Despite these positive steps, California’s sentencing laws continue to overly rely on incarceration as the consequence for committing a felony or a misdemeanor, rather than promoting community-based interventions."
  • The Conditioning Effects of Race and Gender on the Court Outcomes of Delinquent and, [PDF] Justice Quarterly. November, 2015. (The main inverse effect for status, probation violation, contempt, misdemeanor property, felony property, felony person, drugs, and other offenses with detention, was conditioned by whether the youth was Black.)

Thursday, December 17 2015:

  • Parental Incarceration, Termination of Parental Rights and Adoption: A Case Study of the Intersection Between the Child Welfare and Criminal Justice Systems, [PDF] Justice Policy Journal. 2010. "We found that less than a fifth of all parents, and only two percent with a history of incarceration, attended the dependency court hearings in which their children were detained, reunification requirements imposed, or parental rights terminated."
  • Federal Sentencing Disparity: 2005-2012, Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2015. "Federal Sentencing Disparity, 2005-2012, examines patterns of federal sentencing disparity among white and black offenders, by sentence received, and looks at judicial variation in sentencing since Booker vs. United States, regardless of race."
  • A Profile of Youth in the Los Angeles County Delinquency Prevention Project [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. December, 2015. (This report outlines how the Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services used an actuarial screening assessment to classify youth in the child welfare system by their likelihood of subsequent juvenile justice involvement.)

Wednesday, December 16 2015:

Tuesday, December 15 2015:

  • Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings PLoS ONE. July, 2015. "We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days."
  • In Our Own Backyard: Confronting Growth and Disparities in American Jails, Vera Institute of Justice. December, 2015. "Rather, mid-sized and small counties--which account for the vast majority of jails--have largely driven growth, with local jail populations increasing since 1970 by 4.1 times in mid-sized counties and 6.9 times in small counties."

Monday, December 14 2015:

  • Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. September, 2014. "In 2013, an estimated 24.6 million Americans aged 12 or older---9.4 percent of the population---had used an illicit drug in the past month."
  • Overwhelming, Broad, and Extensive Support Across Party, Ideology and Demographics for Criminal Justice Reform in New Louisiana Survey Findings, [PDF] Justice Action Network. November, 2015. "82.6% of Louisiana likely voters support justice reform, including 26.8% who believe the system needs a complete overhaul and 29% who think it needs major reform."
  • Declines in Youth Commitments and Facilities in the 21st Century [PDF] Sentencing Project. December, 2015. "Between 2001 and 2013, the number of juveniles committed to juvenile facilities after an adjudication of delinquency (or, as was the case for 413 juveniles, conviction in criminal court) fell from 76,262 to 35,659."

Friday, December 11 2015:

  • Trends in Unwanted Online Experiences and Sexting: Final Report, [PDF] Crimes Against Children Research Center. February, 2014. "Unwanted sexual solicitations continued in decline -- from 19% in 2000 to 13% in 2005 and 9% in 2010."
  • Online Victimization: A Report on the Nation's Youth, [PDF] Crimes Against Children Research Center. June, 2000. "Approximately one in five received a sexual solicitation or approach over the Internet in the last year."
  • Breaking the Silence: Civil and Human Rights Violations Resulting from Medical Neglect and Abuse of Women of Color in Los Angeles County Jails, [PDF] Dignity and Power Now. August, 2015. "This Report by Dignity and Power Now ("DPN") documents how jail and prison officials violated the rights of seven women of color, and highlights the mental health consequences of the medical neglect and abuse these women suffered."
  • Locked Out: Improving Educational and Vocational Outcomes for Incarcerated Youth, [PDF] Council of State Governments Justice Center. November, 2015. "At least one in three incarcerated youth is identified as needing or already receiving special education services--a rate nearly four times higher than youth attending school in the community."

Wednesday, December 9 2015:

  • Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2015, Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2015. (The U.S. locks up more than 2.3 million people in prisons, jails, and other facilities on any given day.)
  • Census of Jails: Population Changes, 1999-2013, Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2015. "From 1999 to 2013, the number of inmates in local jails increased by 21%, from 605,943 to 731,570. During this period, the growth in the jail population was not steady, as the jail confined population peaked in 2008 at 785,533 then declined."
  • Probation in California Public Policy Institute of California. December, 2015. "Probation is the most widely used form of correctional supervision in California."

Friday, December 4 2015:

  • How Judicial Elections Impact Criminal Cases Brennan Center for Justice. December, 2015. "The more frequently television ads air during an election, the less likely state supreme court justices are, on average, to rule in favor of criminal defendants."
  • Investigating Prisoner Reentry: The Impact of Conviction Status on the Employment Prospects of Young Men, [PDF] National Institute of Justice. October, 2009. "Across teams, a criminal record reduced the likelihood of a callback or job offer by nearly 50 percent (28% vs 15%)."
  • 'Redemption' in an Era of Widespread Criminal Background Checks [PDF] National Institute of Justice. June, 2009. "Thus, our analysis showed that the younger an offender was when he committed robbery, the longer he had to stay clean to reach the same arrest rate as people his same age in the general population."

Thursday, December 3 2015:

  • Zero Tolerance: How States Comply With PREA's Youthful Inmate Standard, Campaign for Youth Justice. December, 2015. "Despite evidence based research highlighting the harms of placing youth in adult facilities and the long term costs of incarceration to youth and society, 1200 youth are in state prisons on any given day across the country."

Wednesday, December 2 2015:

  • Ending and Defending Against HIV Criminalization: State and Federal Laws and Prosecutions, The Center for HIV Law and Policy. November, 2010. "Thirty-two states and two U.S. territories have HIV-specific criminal statutes and thirty-six states have reported proceedings in which HIV-positive people have been arrested and/or prosecuted for consensual sex, biting, and spitting."

Tuesday, December 1 2015:

  • Crime in 2015: A Preliminary Analysis, [PDF] Brennan Center for Justice. November, 2015. "Crime overall in 2015 is expected to be largely unchanged from last year, decreasing 1.5 percent."

Wednesday, November 25 2015:

  • Prison Price Tag: The High Cost of Wisconsin's Corrections Policies, Wisconsin Budget Project. November, 2015. "Wisconsin state and local governments spend about $1.5 billion on corrections each year, significantly more than the national average given the size of our state."
  • From Silo to System: What Makes a Criminal Justice System Operate Like a System?, [PDF] The Justice Management Institute. April, 2015. "JMI conducted in-depth interviews with and collected quantitative and qualitative data from eight county-based criminal justice systems that have been cited over the years as being "highly effective.""
  • Justice in Katrina's Wake: Changing Course on Incarceration in New Orleans, Vera Institute of Justice. November, 2015. "This report documents the groundbreaking reforms that the City of New Orleans has engaged in to safely decrease its use of detention, from reducing the physical size of its jail to implementing risk-based pretrial release practices."

Thursday, November 19 2015:

  • Predicting Crime through Incarceration: The Impact of Rates of Prison Cycling On Rates of Crime in Communities, [PDF] National Institute of Justice. May, 2014. (The study found strong support for the impact of prison cycling on neighborhood crime rates, i.e., when resident removal rates due to incarceration were high, crime rates decreased; when reentry rates were high in a neighborhood, the crime rate increased.)
  • Suspended Childhood: An Analysis of Exclusionary Discipline of Texas' Pre-K and Elementary School Students, Texas Appleseed. November, 2015. "In the 2013-2014 school year, Texas schools issued 88,310 out-of-school suspensions to young children."
  • Hot Spots Policing George Mason University Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy. 2015. "Hot spots policing covers a range of police responses that all share in common a focus of resources on the locations where crime is highly concentrated."
  • Evaluation of the Shreveport Predictive Policing Experiment RAND Corporation. 2014. "The program did not generate a statistically significant reduction in property crime."
  • Predictive Policing: The Role of Crime Forecasting in Law Enforcement Operations, [PDF] RAND Corporation. 2013. "Predictive policing is the application of analytical techniques--particularly quantitative techniques--to identify likely targets for police intervention and prevent crime or solve past crimes by making statistical predictions."
  • Prison Time Surges for Federal Inmates The Pew Charitable Trusts Public Safety Performance Project. November, 2015. "The average length of time served by federal inmates more than doubled from 1988 to 2012, rising from 17.9 to 37.5 months."
  • States of Women's Incarceration: The Global Context, Prison Policy Initiative. November, 2015. "When compared to jurisdictions across the globe, even the U.S. states with the lowest levels of incarceration are far out of line."

Wednesday, November 18 2015:

  • First Do No Harm: Advancing Public Health in Policing Practices, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. November, 2015. (This report details the cultural divide among system actors that amplify and sustain these problems and offers recommendations on how law enforcement policymakers and practitioners can enhance both public safety and community health.)
  • Police Use of Nonfatal Force, 2002-11 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2015. "Of those who had contact, 1.6% experienced the threat or use of nonfatal force by the police during their most recent contact."
  • Investigation of the Newark Police Department [PDF] United States Department of Justice Civil Rights Division. July, 2014. "Approximately 75% of reports of pedestrian stops by NPD officers failed to articulate sufficient legal basis for the stop, despite the NPD policy requiring such justification."

Tuesday, November 17 2015:

  • Hate Crime Statistics, 2014 Federal Bureau of Investigation. November, 2015. "Of the 5,462 single-bias incidents reported in 2014, 47 percent were racially motivated. Other motivators included sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, gender identity, disability, and gender."
  • State Firearm Legislation and Nonfatal Firearm Injuries [PDF] American Journal of Public Health. August, 2015. "There is significant variation in state-level hospital discharge rates for nonfatal firearm injuries, and stricter state firearm legislation is associated with lower discharge rates for such injuries."

Monday, November 16 2015:

  • Proposition 47 Progress Report: Year One Implementation, [PDF] Stanford Law School Stanford Justice Advocacy Project. October, 2015. "Since the enactment of Proposition 47 on November 14, 2014, the number of people incarcerated in California’s prisons and jails has decreased by approximately 13,000 inmates, helping alleviate crowding conditions in those institutions."
  • Changing Gears: California's Shift to Smart Justice, [PDF] ACLU of California. November, 2015. "By June 2015, almost 160,000 petitions had been filed to reduce a felony to a misdemeanor."

Friday, November 13 2015:

  • Who Gets Time for Federal Drug Offenses? Data Trends and Opportunities for Reform, Urban Institute. November, 2015. (This brief finds that many people in federal prison for drug crimes have minimal or no criminal histories, and most were not convicted of violent or leading roles.)

Thursday, November 12 2015:

  • Does Parole Supervision Work? Research Findings and Policy Opportunities, Urban Institute. March, 2006. (This article begins with an argument for why we should study supervision and concludes with some thoughts about policy opportunities for the field, arguing that the current focus on prisoner reentry provides a timely opportunity to "reinvent" parole.)

Wednesday, November 11 2015:

  • Battle Scars: Military Veterans and the Death Penalty, Death Penalty Information Center. November, 2015. "Although a definitive count has yet to be made, approximately 300 veterans are on death row today, and many others have already been executed."
  • Policing for Profit: The Abuse of Civil Asset Forfeiture, Institute for Justice. November, 2015. "In 1986, the Department of Justice’s Assets Forfeiture Fund took in $93.7 million in revenue from federal forfeitures. By 2014, annual deposits had reached $4.5 billion--a 4,667 percent increase."
  • Citizens Police Data Project [Website] Invisible Institute. 2015. "28,567 allegations of misconduct were filed against Chicago Police Department officers between March 2011 and September 2015."

Tuesday, November 10 2015:

  • Corrections Spending Through the State Budget Since 2007-08: Still High Despite Recent Reforms, California Budget & Policy Center. November, 2015. (While total corrections spending as a share of the state budget is down slightly since 2007-08, spending for adults under state jurisdiction remains stubbornly high.)
  • In Jail & In Debt: Ohio's Pay-to-Stay Fees, ACLU of Ohio. November, 2015. (Ohioans are getting billed up to $66.09 a day to be in jail.)
  • Fees Paid by Jail Inmates: Fee Categories, Revenues, and Management Perspectives in a Sample of U.S. Jails, [PDF] National Institute of Corrections. December, 2005. "Survey responses indicate that 90% of the jails that responded are currently charging jail inmate fees."
  • Juvenile Commitment Rate Drops 53% The Pew Charitable Trusts Public Safety Performance Project. November, 2015. "From 2001 to 2013, the U.S. juvenile commitment rate declined 53 percent, according to data recently released by the Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention."

Thursday, November 5 2015:

  • Quick Facts: Federal Offenders in Prison [PDF] United States Sentencing Commission. January, 2015. "Half of all offenders (50.0%) in the federal prison population were sentenced to more than ten years in prison, while 4.9% were sentenced to 30 years or longer, and 2.5% were sentenced to life in prison."
  • Punishment Without End [PDF] John Jay College of Criminal Justice Research & Evaluation Center. July, 2014. "By year five, the probability of arrest for 16 year olds arrested for burglary was equal to that of 16 year olds not arrested for burglary."

Wednesday, October 28 2015:

  • Drug Offenders In Federal Prisons: Estimates Of Characteristics Based on Linked Data, Bureau of Justice Statistics; Urban Institute. October, 2015. "Almost all (99.5%) drug offenders in federal prison were serving sentences for drug trafficking."
  • How to reduce the federal prison population Urban Institute. October, 2015. "Substantial reductions to the BOP population can be achieved by reforming sentencing law and policy for drug trafficking."
  • Close To Home: Building on Family Support for People Leaving Jail, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. October, 2011. "Among incarcerated people, 84 percent reported that their family members continued to be supportive."
  • Parents Behind Bars: What Happens to Their Children?, Child Trends. October, 2015. "Children do not often figure in discussions of incarceration, but new research finds more than five million U.S. children have had at least one parent in prison at one time or another."

Monday, October 26 2015:

  • Coming Out of Concrete Closets: A report on Black & Pink's National LGBTQ Prisoners Survey, Black & Pink. October, 2015. "Close to two thirds (58%) of respondents' first arrest occurred when they were under the age of 18."
  • Historical Corrections Statistics in the United States, 1850-1984, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 1986. "This work presents summary tables and commentary for published national government reports on corrections statistics for the period of U.S. history from 1850 (the date of the first national reports on the topic) to 1984."
  • Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis, PLoS ONE. October, 2015. "Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges."

Wednesday, October 21 2015:

  • Separation by Bars and Miles: Visitation in state prisons, Prison Policy Initiative. October, 2015. "Less than a third of people in state prisons receive a visit from a loved one in a typical month."

Wednesday, October 14 2015:

  • Gender Injustice: System-Level Juvenile Justice Reforms for Girls, [PDF] The National Crittenton Foundation; National Women's Law Center. September, 2015. "Despite decades of attention, the proportion of girls in the juvenile justice system has increased and their challenges have remained remarkably consistent, resulting in deeply rooted systemic gender injustice."

Friday, October 9 2015:

Tuesday, October 6 2015:

Thursday, October 1 2015:

  • No Hope: Re-Examining Lifetime Sentences for Juvenile Offenders, [PDF] The Phillips Black Project. September, 2015. "Nine states have abolished JLWOP after Miller, bringing the current number of jurisdictions completely banning the sentence to fifteen."

Wednesday, September 30 2015:

  • Crime in the United States - 2014 Federal Bureau of Investigation. September, 2015. "The violent crime rate declined 1.0 percent compared to the 2013 rate, and the property crime rate declined 5.0 percent."
  • Public Safety Realignment: Impacts So Far, Public Policy Institute of California. September, 2015. "Realignment did not increase violent crime, but auto thefts rose. Research so far shows no dramatic change in recidivism rates."
  • Exploring the Potential for Pretrial Innovation in Massachusetts [PDF] MassINC. September, 2015. "Since 2008, the state’s pretrial population has grown by nearly 13 percent, while arrests have declined by 10 percent and the number of commitments annually to state prisons and county houses of correction has fallen by 22 percent."

Thursday, September 24 2015:

  • Debtors' Prisons in New Hampshire ACLU of New Hampshire. September, 2015. (In 2013 New Hampshire judges jailed people who were unable to pay fines and without conducting a meaningful ability-to-pay hearing in an estimated 148 cases.)

Wednesday, September 23 2015:

  • World Female Imprisonment List: Third Edition, [PDF] World Prison Brief; Institute for Criminal Policy Research. September, 2015. "This report shows that 700,000 women and girls are held in penal institutions throughout the world, either as pre-trial detainees/remand prisoners or having been convicted and sentenced."

Tuesday, September 22 2015:

  • Race-Of-Victim Discrepancies in Homicides and Executions, Louisiana 1976-2015, [PDF] Loyola University of New Orleans Journal of Public Interest Law. August, 2015. "Black male victims comprise 61% of homicide victims in present day Louisiana, yet their killers have been executed in only 3 cases out of 12,949 homicides since Gregg v Georgia reinstated the death penalty in 1976."
  • Stop and Frisk in Chicago ACLU of Illinois. March, 2015. "Black Chicagoans were subjected to 72% of all stops, yet constitute just 32% of the city’s population."
  • It's Not Just Ferguson: Missouri Supreme Court Should Consolidate the Municipal Court System, [PDF] Arch City Defenders. July, 2014. (This paper examines six municipalities in St. Louis County and offers a series of reforms, including the consolidation of St. Louis County's 81 municipal courts into a single regional court system.)

Friday, September 18 2015:

  • Voting While Incarcerated: A Tool Kit for Voting Rights Advocates, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union. September, 2005. (At midyear 2004, there were close to 714,000 people detained in our nation’s jails, and the majority were eligible to register and vote.)

Thursday, September 17 2015:

  • Prisoners in 2014 Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2015. "The number of prisoners held by state and federal correctional authorities on December 31, 2014 (1,561,500) decreased by 15,400 (down 1%) from yearend 2013."

Tuesday, September 15 2015:

  • Who Pays? The True Cost of Incarceration on Families, [PDF] Ella Baker Center for Human Rights; Forward Together; Research Action Design. September, 2015. "Forty-eight percent of families in our survey overall were unable to afford the costs associated with a conviction, while among poor families (making less than $15,000 per year), 58% were unable to afford these costs."
  • Violent Death in Delinquent Youth After Detention [PDF] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. September, 2015. "The vast majority of deaths among delinquent youth were homicides from gunshot wounds."

Friday, September 4 2015:

  • Criminal Victimization, 2014 Bureau of Justice Statistics. August, 2015. "No significant change occurred in the rate of violent crime from 2013 (23.2 victimizations per 1,000) to 2014 (20.1 per 1,000)."

Thursday, September 3 2015:

  • Time-In-Cell: The ASCA-Liman 2014 National Survey of Administrative Segregation in Prison, [PDF] The Liman Program, Yale Law School. August, 2015. "If that number is illustrative of the whole, some 80,000 to 100,000 people were, in 2014, in segregation."

Friday, August 28 2015:

  • Overview of Federal Criminal Cases Fiscal Year 2014 [PDF] United States Sentencing Commission. August, 2015. "Cases involving drugs, immigration, firearms, or fraud accounted for 81.5 percent of all cases reported to the Commission."
  • Federal Drug Sentencing Laws Bring High Cost, Low Return: Penalty increases enacted in 1980s and 1990s have not reduced drug use or recidivism, Pew Charitable Trusts Public Safety Performance Project. August, 2015. "From 1980 to 2011 (the latest year for which comparable statistics are available), the average prison sentence imposed on drug offenders increased 36 percent."

Thursday, August 27 2015:

  • Realignment and Crime in 2014: California's Violent Crime in Decline, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. August, 2015. "Contrary to alarms raised about potential increases in crime, consistent reports examining offenses at the county level over time show Realignment and crime do not have a causal relationship."

Tuesday, August 25 2015:

  • Disproportionate Impact of K-12 School Suspension and Expulsion on Black Students in Southern States, [PDF] University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education. August, 2015. "In 132 Southern school districts, Blacks were disproportionately suspended at rates five times or higher than their representation in the student population."
  • Breaking Schools' Rules: A Statewide Study of How School Discipline Relates to Students' Success and Juvenile Justice Involvement, [PDF] The Council of State Governments Justice Center. July, 2011. "Nearly six in ten public school students studied were suspended or expelled at least once between their seventh- and twelfth-grade school years."

Monday, August 24 2015:

  • Correctional Health Care: Addressing the Needs of Elderly, Chronically Ill, and Terminally Ill Inmates, [PDF] National Institute of Corrections. 2004. "While 50 may seem young to be classified as elderly in the free world, several important factors seem to speed the aging process for those in prison."

Thursday, August 20 2015:

  • Louisiana's Debtors Prisons: An Appeal to Justice, [PDF] ACLU of Louisiana. August, 2015. "The ACLU of Louisiana (“ACLU”) investigated the imposition and collection of fines, fees and court costs or other legal financial obligations (LFOs) in twelve parishes and two cities from across Louisiana."

Wednesday, August 19 2015:

  • Fishkill Correctional Facility: 2012, [PDF] Correctional Association of New York. December, 2013. "Despite these positive aspects, the Visiting Committee was disturbed to observe so many people at Fishkill who were so physically and/or cognitively impaired that there no longer seemed to be any justifiable reason to keep them in prison."
  • Unlocking Potential: Results of a National Survey of Postsecondary Education in State Prisons, Institute for Higher Education Policy. May, 2011. "Approximately 71,000 persons (roughly 6 percent of the total incarcerated population in responding states) are enrolled in vocational or academic postsecondary education programs in prisons for the 2009-10 academic year."
  • Mass Probation: Toward a More Robust Theory of State Variation in Punishment, [PDF] University of Minnesota. July, 2017. "As a consequence, imprisonment rates became less reflective of states' overall supervision rates."

Monday, August 17 2015:

  • Shadow Report of The Sentencing Project to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination: Regarding Racial Disparities in the United States Criminal Justice System, Sentencing Project. July, 2014. (Our report documents continuing disparities in incarceration, the imposition of juvenile life without parole, the death penalty, and felony disenfranchisement.)
  • Recidivism of Adult Sexual Offenders [PDF] Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. July, 2015. "The researchers found a sexual recidivism rate of 5.3 percent for the entire sample of sex offenders, based on an arrest during the 3-year followup period."
  • Poverty and Opportunity Profile: Americans with Criminal Records, Sentencing Project; Half in Ten. December, 2014. "As a result, between 70 million and 100 million--or as many as one in three Americans--have some type of criminal record."
  • Slow to Act: State Responses to 2012 Supreme Court Mandate on Life Without Parole, Sentencing Project. June, 2014. (While the Court struck down laws in 28 states that mandated life without parole, only 13 of those states have passed new sentencing laws.)
  • Blackstrikes: A Study of the Racially Disparate Use of Preemptory Challenges by the Caddo Parish District Attorney's Office, [PDF] Reprieve Australia. August, 2015. "In short, over the course of a ten year period, Caddo parish prosecutors exercised peremptory challenges against black prospective jurors at more than three times the rate at which they exercised peremptory challenges against white prospective jurors."
  • A Stubborn Legacy: The Overwhelming Importance of Race in Jury Selection in 173 Post-Batson North Carolina Capital Trials, Michigan State University College of Law. 2012. "Over the twenty-year period we examined, prosecutors struck eligible black venire members at about 2.5 times the rate they struck eligible venire members who were not black."
  • Juvenile Life Without Parole: An Overview, Sentencing Project. April, 2014. (Still, the United States stands alone as the only nation that sentences people to life without parole for crimes committed before turning 18.)

Friday, August 14 2015:

  • A Decade of Bail Research in New York City [PDF] New York City Criminal Justice Agency, Inc.. August, 2012. "Defendants who are detained pretrial are more likely to be convicted, if convicted they are more likely to be sentenced to incarceration, and if incarcerated, their sentences are likely to be longer."
  • Virginia Criminal Sentencing Commission: 2014 Annual Report, [PDF] Virginia Criminal Sentencing Commission. December, 2014. "During FY2014, judges continued to agree with the sentencing guidelines recommendations in approximately 78% of the cases."
  • The Florida Department of Juvenile Justice Disposition Matrix: A Validation Study, [PDF] Florida Department of Juvenile Justice. February, 2014. "The recidivism rate of low risk to re-offend youth placed outside of the Disposition Matrix suggestions is 114% higher than the rate for low risk youth placed within the suggestions."
  • Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative: 2013 Annual Results Report Inter-Site Conference Summary, [PDF] The Annie E. Casey Foundation. 2014. "In the aggregate, sites reduced the number of youth detained on an average day by nearly 3,600 compared with pre-JDAI levels, a reduction of 44 percent."

Thursday, August 13 2015:

  • The APPD Randomized Controlled Trial in Low Risk Supervision: The Effect of Low Risk Supervision on Rearrest, [PDF] First Judicial Court of Pennsylvania. October, 2008. "There was no difference in either the rate of any arrest or an arrest for a serious offense between low risk offenders supervised in large caseloads and low risk offenders supervised in standard caseloads."

Wednesday, August 12 2015:

  • Violent Victimization In New And Established Hispanic Areas, 2007-2010 Bureau of Justice Statistics. August, 2014. "From 2007 to 2010, new Hispanic areas had a lower overall rate of violent victimization compared to small Hispanic areas that had relatively little growth in Hispanic populations."
  • PREA Data Collection Activities, 2014 Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 2014. "Administrators of adult correctional facilities reported 8,763 allegations of sexual victimization in 2011, a statistically significant increase over the 8,404 allegations reported in 2010 and 7,855 in 2009."
  • Sexual Victimization In Prisons And Jails Reported By Inmates, 2011-12- Update, Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2014. "In 2011-12, an estimated 4.0% of state and federal prison inmates and 3.2% of jail inmates reported experiencing one or more incidents of sexual victimization by another inmate or facility staff in the past 12 months or since admission to the facility."
  • PREA Data Collection Activities, 2015 Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2015. "Administrators of adult correctional facilities reported 8,763 allegations of sexual victimization in 2011, a statistically significant increase over the 8,404 allegations reported in 2010 and 7,855 in 2009."
  • Nonfatal Domestic Violence, 2003-2012 Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2014. "In 2003-12, domestic violence accounted for 21% of all violent crime."
  • Criminal Victimization, 2013 (Revised) Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2014. "The rate of violent crime declined slightly from 26.1 victimizations per 1,000 persons in 2012 to 23.2 per 1,000 in 2013."
  • Crime Against Persons With Disabilities, 2009-2013 - Statistical Tables, Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 2015. "Presents estimates of nonfatal violent victimization (rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated and simple assault) against persons age 12 or older with disabilities from 2009 to 2013."
  • Capital Punishment, 2012 - Statistical Tables (Revised) Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 2014. "At yearend 2012, 35 states and the Federal Bureau of Prisons held 3,033 inmates under sentence of death, which was 32 fewer than at yearend 2011."
  • Capital Punishment In The United States, 2013 - Statistical Tables Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2014. "At yearend 2013, 35 states and the Federal Bureau of Prisons held 2,979 inmates under sentence of death, which was 32 fewer than at yearend 2012."
  • Justice Expenditure And Employment Extracts, 2011 - Preliminary Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2014. "This series includes national, federal, and state-level estimates of government expenditures and employment for the following justice categories: police protection, all judicial and legal functions (including prosecution, courts, and public defense), and"
  • State Government Indigent Defense Expenditures, FY 2008-2012 - Updated Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2014. "In 2012, state governments spent $2.3 billion nationally on indigent defense."
  • Indigent Defense Services In The United States, FY 2008-2012 - Updated Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2014. "It provides both direct and intergovernmental indigent defense expenditures of state governments for fiscal years 2008 through 2012, and presents some local government expenditures aggregated at the state level."
  • Justice Assistance Grant (JAG) Program, 2014 Bureau of Justice Statistics. August, 2014. "In total, approximately $290.9 million was allocated for the FY 2014 JAG awards."
  • Background Checks For Firearm Transfers, 2012 - Statistical Tables Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2014. "Since the inception of the Brady Act on March 1, 1994, through December 31, 2012, nearly 148 million applications for firearm transfers or permits were subject to background checks. More than 2.4 million applications (1.6%) were denied (table 1)."
  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2012 - Statistical Tables Bureau of Justice Statistics. January, 2015. "Tables and text describe arrests and investigations by law enforcement agency and growth rates by type of offense and federal judicial district."
  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2011-12 Bureau of Justice Statistics. January, 2015. "At yearend 2012, 414,065 persons were under some form of federal correctional control 62% were in confinement and 38% were under supervision in the community. „„"
  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2011 - Statistical Tables Bureau of Justice Statistics. January, 2015. (Information is acquired on all aspects of processing in the federal justice system, including the number of persons investigated, prosecuted, convicted, incarcerated, sentenced to probation, released pretrial, and under parole or other supervision; etc.)
  • Jail Inmates At Midyear 2013 - Statistical Tables (Revised) Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 2014. "After a peak in the number of inmates confined in county and city jails at midyear 2008 (785,533), the jail population was significantly lower by midyear 2013 (731,208)."
  • Tribal Crime Data Collection Activities, 2014 Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2014. "At midyear 2012, a total of 2,364 inmates were confined in 79 Indian country jails--a 5.6% increase from the 2,239 inmates confined at midyear 2011."
  • Arrest-Related Deaths Program: Data Quality Profile, Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2015. "Data from the ARD represent a national accounting of persons who have died during the process of arrest, including homicides by law enforcement personnel and deaths attributed to suicide, intoxication, accidental injury, and natural causes."
  • Arrest-Related Deaths Program Assessment: Technical Report, Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2015. "Provides a technical assessment of the coverage of the Arrest-Related Deaths (ARD) component of the Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP)."
  • Local Police Departments, 2013: Personnel, Policies, And Practices, Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 2015. "About 27% of local police officers were members of a racial or ethnic minority, compared to 15% in 1987. „„"
  • Local Police Departments, 2013: Equipment and Technology, Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2015. "The percentage of local police departments that authorized their officers to use conducted energy weapons such as Tasers increased from 60% in 2007 to 81% in 2013."
  • From Fingerpaint to Fingerprints: The School-to-Prison Pipeline in Utah, The University of Utah S.J. Quinney College of Law. 2014. "There were 1,230 disciplinary actions in 2011-12, the most recent school year for which data is available."
  • Disparities in Discipline: A Look at School Disciplinary Actions for Utah's American Indian Students, The University of Utah S.J. Quinney College of Law. 2014. (In Utah, American Indian students are almost four times (3.8) more likely to receive a school disciplinary action compared to their white counterparts.)
  • Juvenile Prisons: National consensus and alternatives, [PDF] Connecticut Juvenile Justice Alliance. August, 2015. "Over a 12-month period, OCA found at least 532 physical restraints and 134 uses of mechanical restraints at these facilities."

Tuesday, August 11 2015:

Friday, August 7 2015:

  • Independent Correctional Oversight Mechanisms Across the United States: A 50-State Inventory, [PDF] Pace Law Review. September, 2010. (Although this report is thick with examples of entities that perform (or have the authority to perform) some kind of oversight function, it should be clear upon closer examination that formal and comprehensive external oversight is truly rare.)
  • Buying Access: How Corporations Influence Decision Makers at Corrections Conferences, Trainings, and Meetings, [PDF] In the Public Interest. August, 2015. "In 2014, sponsors, vendors, corporate partners, and other non-individual entities contributed at least $3 million to five of the largest professional corrections associations."

Thursday, August 6 2015:

Tuesday, August 4 2015:

  • Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000-2013 - Statistical Tables [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. August, 2015. "Suicide has been the leading cause of death in jails every year since 2000."
  • Justice Expenditure And Employment Extracts, 2012 Bureau of Justice Statistics. February, 2015. (This series includes estimates of government expenditures and employment at the national, federal, state, and local levels for the following justice categories: police protection, all judicial and legal functions, and corrections.)
  • A Review of the Jail Function within State Unified Corrections Systems [PDF] National Institute of Corrections. September, 1997. "This document describes the provision of jail services in the six states that have integrated state-level prison and jail systems. This type of correctional system is often described as a "state unified system.""
  • Profile of Jail Inmates, 1989 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 1991. "Results from the 1989 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails indicate that between 1983 and 1989, while the jail population increased by 76.9%, its composition changed significantly."

Monday, August 3 2015:

  • How Racial Attitudes and Ideology Affect Political Rights for Felons Du Bois Review. May, 2015. "Consistent with much of the literature on attitudes toward ameliorative racial policies, higher levels of racial resentment strongly predict lower support for felons’ political rights among both conservatives and liberals."
  • Native Lives Matter [PDF] Lakota People's Law Project. February, 2015. "Native American men are admitted to prison at four times the rate of white men and Native women at six-fold the rate of white women."
  • Investigation of the St. Louis County Family Court St. Louis, Missouri, Department of Justice. July, 2015. "Black children are almost one-and-a-half times (1.46) more likely than White children to have their cases handled formally, even after introducing control variables such as gender, age, risk factors, and severity of the allegation."

Friday, July 31 2015:

Thursday, July 30 2015:

  • Pretrial Detention and Jail Capacity in California Public Policy Institute of California. July, 2015. "But California’s high rates of pretrial detention have not been associated with lower rates of failure to appear or lower levels of felony rearrests."
  • Stuck in the '70s: The Demographics of California Prosecutors, [PDF] Stanford Criminal Justice Center. July, 2015. "Latinos are almost 39 percent of the population but only nine percent of California prosecutors."

Wednesday, July 29 2015:

Tuesday, July 28 2015:

  • The Impact of an Aging Inmate Population on the Federal Bureau of Prisons [PDF] DOJ Office of the Inspector General. May, 2015. "According to BOP data, inmates age 50 and older were the fastest growing segment of its inmate population, increasing 25 percent from 24,857 in fiscal year (FY) 2009 to 30,962 in FY 2013."
  • Guilty Property: How Law Enforcement Takes $1 Million in Cash from Innocent Philadelphians Every Year -- and Gets Away with It, [PDF] ACLU of Pennsylvania. June, 2015. "Every year, Pennsylvania law enforcement agencies take roughly $14 million in cash, cars, and homes from property owners and never give it back."
  • Created Equal: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the US Criminal Justice System, [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. March, 2009. "African Americans make up 13% of the general US population, yet they constitute 28% of all arrests, 40% of all inmates held in prisons and jails, and 42% of the population on death row."
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2014 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2015. "In 2013, among students ages 12-18, there were about 1,420,900 nonfatal victimizations at school."

Tuesday, July 21 2015:

  • Characteristics of New Commitments 1995 [PDF] New York Department of Correctional Services. 1997. "There were 34,721 total admissions to the New York State Department of Correctional Services in calendar year 1995."
  • Profile of Inmates Undercustody on January 1, 2001 [PDF] New York Department of Correctional Services. 2001. "There were 70,153 inmates undercustody on January 1, 2001, of whom 66,874 (95.3%) were men and 3,279 (4.7%) were women."
  • Profile of Inmate Population Under Custody on January 1, 2004 [PDF] New York Department of Correctional Services. 2004. "There were 65,197 inmates under custody on January 1, 2004, of whom 62,284 (95.5%) were men and 2,913 (4.5%) were women."
  • Jails: Intergovernmental Dimensions of a Local Problem, [PDF] Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. May, 1984. "According to the latest survey of jails, there currently are 3,493 such facilities in the United States, holding more than 212,000 people at any given time, and approximately 7 million over the course of the year."
  • Tribal Crime Data Collection Activities, 2015 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2015. "At midyear 2013, a total of 2,287 inmates were confined in 79 Indian country jails--a 3.3% decrease from the 2,364 inmates confined at midyear 2012."
  • Evaluation of Offenders Released in Fiscal Year 2011 That Completed Rehabilitation Tier Programs, Texas Department of Criminal Justice. April, 2015. "Five of the nine programs tracked showed a lower recidivism rate than the comparison group after the two year follow-up and seven showed a lower recidivism rate after three years."

Wednesday, July 15 2015:

  • Prisons of Poverty: Uncovering the pre-incarceration incomes of the imprisoned, Prison Policy Initiative. July, 2015. "We found that, in 2014 dollars, incarcerated people had a median annual income of $19,185 prior to their incarceration, which is 41% less than non-incarcerated people of similar ages."
  • The Racial Geography of Mass Incarceration Prison Policy Initiative. July, 2015. "Entirely separate from the more commonly discussed problem of racial disparities in who goes to prison, this data addresses a distressing racial and ethnic disparity in where prisons have been built."
  • Safer Return Urban Institute. 2015. "Despite implementation challenges, Safer Return was able to improve reentry outcomes for participants relative to comparisons who did not participate, though not as much as had been hoped for."

Friday, July 10 2015:

  • Justice for All? Women Donors Network. 2015. "95% of elected prosecutors are white. 85% of prosecutors run for election unopposed."
  • The Sexual Abuse to Prison Pipeline: The Girls' Story, [PDF] Human Rights Project for Girls; Georgetown Law Center on Poverty and Inequality; Ms. Foundation for Women. 2015. "And in a perverse twist of justice, many girls who experience sexual abuse are routed into the juvenile justice system because of their victimization."

Wednesday, July 8 2015:

  • Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey, [PDF] National Center for Transgender Equality; National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. 2015. "One-fifth (22%) of respondents who have interacted with police reported harassment by police due to bias, with substantially higher rates (29-38%) reported by respondents of color."

Tuesday, June 30 2015:

  • Was There a "Ferguson Effect" on Crime in St. Louis? [PDF] The Sentencing Project. June, 2015. "Only the timing of the change in property crimes is fully consistent with a Ferguson effect. But temporal consistency is not a sufficient condition to establish substantive proof."

Friday, June 26 2015:

  • Firearms and the incidence of arrest among respondents to domestic violence restraining orders, [PDF] Injury Epidemiology. 2015. "Respondents linked to firearms were older than others and were more likely to have a history of prior arrest. The incidence of arrest was 20.6 % for respondents linked to firearms and 21.1 % for others."
  • Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Jails: Recommendations for Local Practice, [PDF] Brennan Center for Justice. June, 2015. "Overuse of Pre-Trial Detention: Studies consistently find that African American and Hispanic defendants are more than twice as likely to be detained in jail pending trial."

Thursday, June 25 2015:

  • The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty Crime and Delinquency. February, 2009. "From an empirical standpoint, the results from the current analysis are quite clear; mass incarceration has played a major role in increasing poverty rates."

Monday, June 22 2015:

  • Seven Out of Ten? Not Even Close., [PDF] Central Connecticut State University. March, 2015. (On average children with incarcerated parents were about three times as likely as non-children with incarcerated parents to become justice-involved, not nearly six times more likely.)
  • Deadly Force: Police Use of Lethal Force In The United States, [PDF] Amnesty International. June, 2015. (No one knows how many people are killed by police in the US, but estimates range from 400 to 1000 people each year. Yet not one state in the US complies with international human rights standards on the use of lethal force by police.)

Monday, June 15 2015:

  • Jail Inmates at Midyear 2014 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2015. "The jail population remained steady at the 2012 level and was significantly lower than the peak of an estimated 785,500 at midyear 2008."

Friday, June 12 2015:

  • 10,000 fewer Michigan prisoners: Strategies to reach the goal, Citizens Alliance on Prisons and Public Spending. June, 2015. "This report establishes credible estimates of how many prison beds could be saved by adopting each strategy."
  • Do Private Prisons Distort Justice? Evidence on Time Served and Recidivism, University of Wisconsin - Madison. March, 2015. "My final result is that there is no reduction in recidivism for prisoners in private prison despite the additional time they serve, suggesting that either the marginal returns to incarceration are low, or private prisons increase recidivism risk."
  • The Returning Prisoner and the Future of Work [PDF] Northwestern Law Bluhm Legal Clinic's Program for Prisoner Reentry Strategies. November, 2014. (But perhaps correctional employment-related reentry programs fail to demonstrate effectiveness because they lack duration, intensity, or the focus on specific skills that businesses insist are necessary to prepare workers for skilled jobs.)

Friday, June 5 2015:

  • Sex Offender Law and the Geography of Victimization Journal of Empirical Legal Studies. December, 2014. "We find that, all else equal, reported sex offense victimization risk is generally (although not uniformly) lower in neighborhoods where more RSOs live."

Tuesday, June 2 2015:

  • Prosecution and Racial Justice in New York County Technical Report, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. January, 2014. (For all offenses combined, compared to similarly-situated white defendants, black and Latino defendants were more likely to be detained, to receive a custodial plea offer, and to be incarcerated; but they were also more likely to benefit from dismissals.)
  • The Plummeting Arrest Rates of California's Children Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. May, 2015. "But in 2013, with a pre-teen population 40 percent larger, arrests for children under 12 fell to 1,394, and arrests of children under 10 fell to 219 -- leading to a 92 percent drop in arrest rates."
  • The Incarceration of Children & Youth in New Jersey's Adult Prison System: New Jersey Youth Justice Initiative, New Jersey Parents' Caucus. May, 2015. "Youth of color are disproportionately represented among those waived to the adult prison system in New Jersey and make up approximately 90% of youth included in our data set who are incarcerated in the adult system."

Thursday, May 28 2015:

  • Solitary Confinement: Common Misconceptions and Emerging Safe Alternatives, Vera Institute of Justice. May, 2015. "While the precise number of people held in segregated housing on any given day is not known with any certainty, estimates run to more than 80,000 in state and federal prisons--which is surely an undercount."

Wednesday, May 27 2015:

Tuesday, May 26 2015:

  • The Price of Jails: Measuring the Taxpayer Cost of Local Incarceration, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. May, 2015. "But as high as $22.2 billion sounds, it actually underestimates the price of jails, because other government agencies bear a large share of jail costs that are not reflected in jail budgets."
  • Charging Inmates Perpetuates Mass Incarceration [PDF] Brennan Center for Justice. May, 2015. "Every aspect of the criminal justice process has become ripe for charging a fee. In fact, an estimated 10 million people owe more than $50 billion in debt resulting from their involvement in the criminal justice system."

Thursday, May 21 2015:

  • Realignment, Incarceration, and Crime Trends in California Public Policy Institute of California. May, 2015. (Violent crime rates remain unaffected by realignment, and although California’s property crime rate decreased in 2013, it did not drop more than in comparable states--so the auto theft gap that opened up in 2012 has not closed.)
  • Unlocking Human Dignity: A Plan to Transform the U.S. Immigrant Detention System, [PDF] Migration and Refugee Services/United States Conference of Catholic Bishops and The Center for Migration Studies. May, 2015. "The US immigrant detention system grew more than fivefold between 1994 and 2013."

Tuesday, May 12 2015:

  • Callous and Cruel: Use of Force against Inmates with Mental Disabilities in US Jails and Prisons, Human Rights Watch. May, 2015. "This 127-page report details incidents in which correctional staff have deluged prisoners with painful chemical sprays, shocked them with powerful electric stun weapons, and strapped them for days in restraining chairs or beds."
  • Unfinished Business: Deepening the Gains in Texas Juvenile Justice Reform, [PDF] Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. May, 2015. "Reforms are needed to move the Texas Juvenile Justice Department and its 166 local juvenile probation departments in the right direction to keep more young people closer to their home (or in their home), where the data show they will have better outcomes."

Tuesday, May 5 2015:

  • Don't I Need A Lawyer? Pretrial Justice and the Right to Counsel at First Judicial Bail Hearing, [PDF] The Constitution Project. March, 2015. "It describes the far-reaching and well-documented adverse effects of denying counsel at the earliest stages of a criminal prosecution, a situation that presents numerous constitutional concerns."

Thursday, April 30 2015:

Tuesday, April 28 2015:

  • The Summons Report: Trends in the Issuance and Disposition of Summonses in New York City, [PDF] John Jay College of Criminal Justice. April, 2015. "Overall, summonses are on the decline. This decline is driven by lower issuance rates among 16-17-year-olds and 18-20-year-olds, mainly for disorderly conduct."

Monday, April 27 2015:

Thursday, April 23 2015:

  • Prison Crowding: The Long View, with Suggestions, [PDF] Ohio Criminal Sentencing Commission. March, 2011. "That puts the prison system 31% over its rated capacity, with about 12,500 more inmates than the prisons were built to hold."
  • Alternatives to Incarceration in California Public Policy Institute of California. April, 2015. (The evidence suggests that the effectiveness of both incarceration and community-based supervision depends on the rate of incarceration in a community, the offender characteristics, and the response to violations during and after supervision.)
  • Jail Crowding: Understanding Jail Population Dynamics, [PDF] National Institute of Corrections. January, 2002. "Three indicators are available for analysis nationally: serious crime, adult arrests, and county resident population."
  • Re-Examining Juvenile Incarceration: High cost, poor outcomes spark shift to alternatives, Pew Charitable Trusts Public Safety Performance Project. April, 2015. "A growing body of research demonstrates that for many juvenile offenders, lengthy out-of-home placements in secure corrections or other residential facilities fail to produce better outcomes than alternative sanctions."

Wednesday, April 22 2015:

  • Above the Law: An Investigation of Civil Asset Forfeiture in California, Drug Policy Alliance. April, 2015. (Asset forfeiture abuses in California reveal the troubling extent to which law enforcement agencies have violated state and federal law.)

Tuesday, April 21 2015:

  • Emancipate the FLSA: Transform the Harsh Economic Reality of Working Inmates, Journal of Civil Rights & Economic Development. 2015. "The Article calls for the application of the FLSA to all working inmates, leading to judicial uniformity, and the redistribution of wealth from the prisons to the working inmates thereby reducing recidivism."
  • The Opportunity Survey: Criminal Justice Findings, [PDF] The Opportunity Agenda. March, 2015. "Sixty percent of the American public believes that the unequal treatment of people who have served a prison sentence is a serious problem."

Friday, April 17 2015:

  • NC Traffic Stops The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. April, 2015. (Since 2000, the North Carolina Highway Patrol has been collecting data whenever a police officer stops a motorist, and since 2002, all sizable police departments in the state have done so.)
  • Evidence-Based Practice to Reduce Recidivism: Implications for State Judiciaries, [PDF] National Institute of Corrections. August, 2007. "There is today an enormous body of sophisticated research proving that unlike incarceration, which actually increases offender recidivism, properly designed and operated recidivism-reduction programs can significantly reduce offender recidivism."
  • Status Offenses: A National Survey, [PDF] Coalition for Juvenile Justice SOS Project. April, 2015. "In 2011 alone, for example, an estimated 116,200 status offense cases were petitioned to juvenile courts nationwide, with 8,800 of these cases involving secure detention."

Wednesday, April 15 2015:

  • National Gunfire Index [PDF] SST. March, 2015. (All but two of the 28 cities saw reductions in their rates of gunfire.)

Friday, April 10 2015:

  • Not Just a Ferguson Problem: How Traffic Courts Drive Inequality in California, Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights of the San Francisco Bay Area. March, 2015. "As a result, over four million Californians do not have valid driver’s licenses because they cannot afford to pay traffic fines and fees."

Thursday, April 9 2015:

  • U.S. Prison Population Trends: Broad Variation Among States in Recent Years, [PDF] Sentencing Project. March, 2015. "Two-thirds of states (34) have experienced at least a modest decline since 1999, while one-third (16) have had continued rises in their prison populations."
  • Moving Beyond Incarceration for Women in Massachusetts: The Necessity of Bail/Pretrial Reform, [PDF] Wellesley Centers for Women. March, 2015. "Between 2012 and 2014, the number of pretrial women held in the Awaiting Trial Unit (ATU) at MCI-F increased, and overcrowding worsened."

Wednesday, April 8 2015:

Monday, April 6 2015:

  • Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2012: Selected Findings, [PDF] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. March, 2015. "The juvenile offender population dropped 14% from 2010 to 2012, to the lowest number since 1975."

Wednesday, April 1 2015:

  • Death Sentences and Executions 2014 Amnesty International. March, 2015. "The USA continued to be the only country to put people to death in the region, although executions dropped from 39 in 2013 to 35 in 2014 - reflecting a steady decline in the use of the death penalty in the country over the past years."

Thursday, March 26 2015:

  • Reentry and the Ties that Bind: An Examination of Social Ties, Employment, and Recidivism, [PDF] Justice Quarterly. April, 2011. "In fact, the results suggest that good quality social ties may be particularly important for men with histories of frequent unemployment."
  • Seeing Black: Race, Crime, and Visual Processing, [PDF] Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2004. "Black faces looked more criminal to police officers; the more Black, the more criminal."

Tuesday, March 24 2015:

Friday, March 20 2015:

Wednesday, March 18 2015:

  • Staying Connected: Keeping Justice-Involved Youth "Close to Home" in New York City, [PDF] John Jay College of Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation Center. March, 2015. "After the beginning of Close to Home, the situation was reversed. Arrests in New York City fell more (-39%) than in other areas of the State (-24%)."

Friday, March 13 2015:

  • Detrimental for Some? Heterogeneous Effects of Maternal Incarceration on Child Wellbeing, Criminology & Public Policy. January, 2015. "Maternal incarceration is deleterious for children of mothers least likely to experience incarceration but mostly inconsequential for children of mothers more likely to experience incarceration."
  • Trial Defense Guidelines: Representing a Child Client Facing a Possible Life Sentence, [PDF] Campaign for the Fair Sentencing of Youth. March, 2015. "The objective of these guidelines is to set forth a national standard of practice to ensure zealous, constitutionally effective representation for all juveniles facing a possible life sentence."

Thursday, March 12 2015:

  • Inmate Social Ties and the Transition to Society: Does Visitation Reduce Recidivism?, [PDF] Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. June, 2008. "Visitation of many types, including both family and friends, was associated with reduced and delayed onset of recidivism, with spousal visitation producing a more pronounced reduction in recidivism."

Wednesday, March 11 2015:

  • Drivers of Growth in the Federal Prison Population Urban Institute. March, 2015. "The biggest driver of growth in the prison population is in federally sentenced drug offenders, almost all of whom were convicted of drug trafficking."
  • No Escape: Exposure to Toxic Coal Waste at State Correctional Institution Fayette, [PDF] Abolitionist Law Center. September, 2014. "More than 81% of responding prisoners (61/75) reported respiratory, throat, and sinus conditions."
  • 2014 Annual Report [PDF] Denver Office of the Independent Monitor. March, 2015. "In particular, the police uses of force within District 6 during the pilot project were frequently not recorded by body worn cameras."

Tuesday, March 10 2015:

  • A Changing Landscape: Pennsylvania Counties Reevaluate Policies on Immigration Detainers, [PDF] Sheller Center for Social Justice at the Temple University Beasley School of Law. March, 2015. (Pennsylvania counties are moving away from honoring ICE detainers; a number of counties cited that these changes were undertaken in order to comply with the Third Circuit Court of Appeals' decision in Galarza to avoid the possibility of legal liability.)
  • New York City Department of Investigation Report on the Recruiting and Hiring Process for New York City Correction Officers, [PDF] City of New York Department of Investigation. January, 2015. "DOI has now reviewed over 150 applications of recently hired COs. Of these, 54 had significant red flags that should have either precluded their hiring altogether or at least required significant follow up or monitoring."
  • Risk Tells Us Who, But Not What or How: Empirical Assessment of the Complexity of Criminogenic Need to Inform Correctional Programming, Criminology & Public Policy. February, 2015. "The emphasis that is placed on managing offenders based on static risk or a global risk-need score that is primarily driven by static risk detracts attention from the specific criminogenic needs that should be identified."
  • Public Safety - Municipal Courts Better Together. October, 2014. "This means that the municipal courts in the St. Louis region accounted for 46% of all fines and fees collected statewide, despite being home to only 22% of Missourians."

Thursday, March 5 2015:

  • Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department [PDF] Department of Justice Civil Rights Division. March, 2015. "This investigation has revealed a pattern or practice of unlawful conduct within the Ferguson Police Department that violates the First, Fourth, and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution, and federal statutory law."

Wednesday, March 4 2015:

Tuesday, March 3 2015:

  • Federal Bureau of Prisons: Special Housing Unit Review and Assessment, [PDF] CNA. December, 2014. "As of November 2013, approximately 5 percent of the entire Bureau’s prisoner population was being housed in one of these restrictive housing populations with the vast majority in the SHU status."
  • Sex Offender Registries: Fear without Function?, University of Chicago. February, 2011. "The results from all three data sets do not support the hypothesis that sex offender registries are effective tools for increasing public safety."
  • Interim Report of The President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing [PDF] President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing. March, 2015. "The President should support and provide funding for the creation of a National Crime and Justice Task Force to review and evaluate all components of the criminal justice system."

Monday, March 2 2015:

  • A Billion Dollars and Growing: Why Prison Bonding is Tougher on Florida's Taxpayers Than on Crime, [PDF] Collins Center for Public Policy; Florida TaxWatch. April, 2011. "Little known and not well understood by taxpayers, this funding approach has saddled future generations of Floridians with over a billion dollars in debt without appreciably increasing public safety."
  • Boxed Out: Criminal History Screening and College Application Attrition, Center for Community Alternatives. March, 2015. "This means almost two out of every three applicants who check "yes" to the felony conviction question do not complete the application process and are never considered for admission."
  • The Use of Criminal History Records in College Admissions Reconsidered [PDF] Center for Community Alternatives. November, 2010. "A majority (66%) of the responding colleges collect criminal justice information, although not all of them consider it in their admissions process. Private schools and four-year schools are more likely to collect and use such information."

Friday, February 27 2015:

  • A Solitary Failure: The Waste, Cost and Harm of Solitary Confinement, ACLU of Texas. February, 2015. "The Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) confines 4.4 percent of its prison population in solitary confinement."
  • State Criminal Justice Advocacy in a Conservative Environment [PDF] Sentencing Project. February, 2015. "This overview highlights successful advocacy strategies employed in conservative political environments in the states of Indiana, Missouri, and Texas."
  • The State of Sentencing 2014: Developments in Policy and Practice, [PDF] Sentencing Project. February, 2015. "Sentencing: At least 16 states and the District of Columbia authorized legislation to address sentencing policy, including statutory penalties that limit lengths of confinement."

Thursday, February 26 2015:

  • Defunding State Prisons [PDF] Santa Clara University School of Law. December, 2014. "States would, instead, reallocate money spent on prisons to localities to use as they see fit--on enforcement, treatment, or even per-capita prison usage."
  • Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2014 National Report, [PDF] National Center for Juvenile Justice. December, 2014. "In 2011, school crime was common--1 in 8 students were in fights, 1 in 4 had property stolen or damaged."

Wednesday, February 25 2015:

Monday, February 23 2015:

  • An Expanding Strike Zone: Coleman-Bey and the Future of Civil Protections for Prison Inmates, [PDF] Alliance for Justice. February, 2015. "The clear trend of courts is toward restricting inmates' rights to seek civil justice far beyond what was envisioned by the Prison Litigation Reform Act."

Friday, February 20 2015:

  • Adult and Juvenile Correctional Population Projections [PDF] The State of Texas Legislative Budget Board. February, 2015. "Adult state incarcerated populations are projected to remain stable throughout fiscal years 2015 to 2020 and to remain, on average, 0.7 percent below the Texas Department of Criminal Justice’s internal operating capacity."

Thursday, February 19 2015:

Wednesday, February 18 2015:

  • Reproductive Injustice: The State of Reproductive Health Care for Women in New York State Prisons, [PDF] Correctional Association of New York. February, 2015. "Overall, however, we found that reproductive health care for women in New York State prisons is woefully substandard, with women routinely facing poor-quality care and assaults on their basic human dignity and reproductive rights."
  • Black Girls Matter: Pushed Out, Overpoliced, and Underprotected, African American Policy Forum. December, 2014. "Increased levels of law enforcement and security personnel within schools sometimes make girls feel less safe and less likely to attend school."

Thursday, February 12 2015:

  • What Caused the Crime Decline? [PDF] Brennan Center for Justice. February, 2015. "In the 2000s, increased incarceration had no effect on violent crime and accounted for less than one-hundredth of the decade’s property crime drop."
  • Incarceration's Front Door: The Misuse of Jails in America Vera Institute of Justice. February, 2015. "With nearly 12 million annual admissions- almost 19 times those to state and federal prisons- jails have an impact that is both far-reaching and profound."

Friday, February 6 2015:

  • Black Lives Matter: Eliminating Racial Inequity in the Criminal Justice System, [PDF] Sentencing Project. February, 2015. (The report identifies four key features of the criminal justice system that produce racially unequal outcomes, beyond the conditions of socioeconomic inequality that contribute to higher rates of some crimes in marginalized communities.)
  • High-Risk Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Jail and Offender Experiences [PDF] Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice. 2014. "The majority of UII interviews contained statements of violence (64.8%) and drugs (32.4%)."

Friday, January 30 2015:

  • Review of the Drug Enforcement Administration's Use of Cold Consent Encounters at Mass Transportation Facilities, [PDF] Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General. January, 2015. "The DEA does not collect sufficient data on cold consent encounters to enable it or the OIG to assess whether the encounters are conducted in an unbiased or effective manner."
  • End of an Era? The Impact of Drug Law Reform in New York City, Vera Institute of Justice. January, 2015. "The National Institute of Justice-funded study found that drug law reform, as it functioned in the city soon after the laws were passed, led to a 35 percent rise in the rate of diversion of eligible defendants to treatment."
  • When All Else Fails, Fining the Family: First Person Accounts of Criminal Justice Debt, [PDF] Center for Community Alternatives. January, 2015. "Debt is paid not only by those convicted of crimes, but also by their families (or friends) who are the last stop before re-incarceration."
  • Growth in Federal Prison System Exceeds States' Pew Charitable Trusts Public Safety Performance Project. January, 2015. "However, between 2007 and 2013, many states made research-driven policy changes to control prison growth, reduce recidivism, and contain costs. While the federal imprisonment rate continued to rise during that period, the state rate declined."

Thursday, January 29 2015:

  • Department of Corrections Colorado Correctional Industries Performance Audit, [PDF] Colorado Office of the State Auditor. January, 2015. "Although statute requires CCI to operate in a profit-oriented manner, CCI's industries operations earned profit margins on average of less than 1 percent from Fiscal Years 2009 through 2014."
  • Private Prisons, Private Records [PDF] Boston University School of Law. January, 2015. "Without access to operational and personnel information, practitioners and advocates are unable to determine with any reasonable degree of confidence whether many private facilities are operated in humane, productive, and cost effective ways."
  • Exonerations in 2014: The National Registry of Exonerations, [PDF] The National Registry of Exonerations. January, 2015. "The National Registry of Exonerations has recorded 125 exonerations in 2014. The previous highest total was 91 in 2012."
  • Closer to Home: An Analysis of the State and Local Impact of the Texas Juvenile Justice Reforms, The Council of State Governments Justice Center. January, 2015. "Youth incarcerated in state-run facilities are 21 percent more likely to be rearrested than those who remain under supervision closer to home."

Wednesday, January 28 2015:

  • Preliminary Semiannual Uniform Crime Report, January-June 2014 Federal Bureau of Investigation. January, 2015. (Preliminary figures indicate that law enforcement agencies throughout the nation showed an overall decrease of 4.6 percent in the number of violent crimes brought to their attention for the first 6 months of 2014 when compared with 2013 figures.)
  • Advancing a Federal Fair Chance Hiring Agenda: Background Check Reforms in Over 100 Cities, Counties, & States Pave the Way for Presidential Action, National Employment Law Project. January, 2015. "More than 100 jurisdictions, including 13 states, the District of Columbia, and 96 cities and counties, have adopted"

Thursday, January 22 2015:

  • Screening Out Family Time: The for-profit video visitation industry in prisons and jails, Prison Policy Initiative. January, 2015. (In order to stimulate demand for their low-quality product, jails and video visitation companies work together to shut down the traditional in-person visitation rooms and instead require families to pay up to $1.50 per minute for visits via video.)
  • Video Visiting in Corrections: Benefits, Limitations, and Implementation Considerations, [PDF] National Institute of Corrections. December, 2014. "Video visiting can be a positive enhancement to in-person visiting when implemented in a way that balances the goals of the facility and the needs of incarcerated individuals and their families."

Wednesday, January 21 2015:

  • A Natural Experiment in Reform: Analyzing Drug Policy Change In New York City, Final Report, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. January, 2015. "Individuals in the Diversion Group were rearrested at a lower rate than those in the Sentenced Group. Therefore, there is a law enforcement benefit of $146 and a court system benefit of $886 per person in treatment."

Tuesday, January 20 2015:

  • Justice Reinvestment in Nebraska Analysis and Policy Framework, [PDF] The Council of State Governments Justice Center. January, 2015. "If this growth continues unchecked, prisons will become even more crowded, swelling from 159 percent of capacity (5,221 people) as of December 31, 2014 to a projected 170 percent of capacity (5,581 people) by FY2020."
  • Success-Oriented Funding: Reforming Federal Criminal Justice Grants Brennan Center for Justice. August, 2014. "Specifically, the president should use his executive authority to recast all federal grants for criminal justice in a "Success-Oriented Funding" model, in which the flow of dollars is linked to the achievement of clear goals."
  • Federal Prosecution for the 21st Century Brennan Center for Justice. September, 2014. "The report proposes reorienting the way prosecutors' "success" is measured around three core goals: Reducing violent and serious crime, reducing prison populations, and reducing recidivism."
  • Campus Law Enforcement, 2011-12 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. January, 2015. "About 75% of the campuses were using armed officers, compared to 68% during the 2004-05 school year."

Monday, January 19 2015:

  • How Often and How Consistently do Symptoms Directly Precede Criminal Behavior Among Offenders With Mental Illness?, [PDF] Law and Human Behavior. 2014. "Specifically, of the 429 crimes coded, 4% related directly to psychosis, 3% related directly to depression, and 10% related directly to bipolar disorder (including impulsivity)."
  • The Death Penalty in 2014: Year End Report [PDF] Death Penalty Information Center. 2014. "There were 35 executions in 7 states, the fewest number put to death since 1994."
  • CPD Traffic Stops and Resulting Searches in 2013 ACLU of Illinois. December, 2014. "City-wide. The rate of black drivers in the stops (46%) is far higher than the rate of black residents in the city population (32%)."
  • Where Do We Go from Here? Mass Incarceration and the Struggle for Civil Rights, Economic Policy Institute. January, 2015. "In other words, society chose to use incarceration as a welfare program to deal with the poor, especially since the underprivileged are disproportionately people of color."
  • Relief in Sight? States Rethink the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction, 2009 - 2014, Vera Institute of Justice. December, 2014. "In recognition of the damaging effects these collateral consequences can have, 41 states have enacted legislation since 2009 that allows certain individuals to move beyond their convictions."
  • Highlights of the 2010 National Youth Gang Survey [PDF] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. April, 2012. "Gang-related homicides increased more than 10 percent from 2009 in cities with populations of more than 100,000."
  • Highlights of the 2012 National Youth Gang Survey [PDF] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. December, 2014. "Nearly 30 percent of all responding law enforcement agencies reported gang activity."
  • Delinquency Cases in Juvenile Court, 2011 [PDF] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. December, 2014. "From 1985 through 1997, the number of delinquen­cy cases climbed steadily (62%) and then fell 34% from 1997 through 2011. Juvenile courts handled 7% more cases in 2011 than in 1985."

Saturday, December 20 2014:

Wednesday, December 17 2014:

  • Over A Million Dollars A Day: The Daily Waste of the NYPD's Misdemeanor Arrest Practices, [PDF] Police Reform Organizing Project. December, 2014. "Figures for the first nine months of 2014 show that the NYPD makes: ­an average of 648 misdemeanor arrests per day at the daily cost to the city of $1,134,000."
  • Conviction Integrity Units: Vanguard of Criminal Justice Reform, [PDF] Center for Prosecutor Integrity. December, 2014. "In regard to exonerations, the nine CIUS are credited with 61 exonerations."

Monday, December 15 2014:

  • Public Opinion on Juvenile Justice in America [PDF] The Pew Charitable Trusts. November, 2014. "Voters support sending serious juvenile offenders to corrections facilities, but they favor a range of less-costly alternatives for lower-level offenders."

Friday, December 12 2014:

Thursday, December 11 2014:

Wednesday, December 10 2014:

  • Hate Crime Statistics, 2013 Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2014. (Some 5,928 hate crime incidents involving 6,933 offenses were reported by law-enforcement agencies last year.)

Tuesday, December 9 2014:

  • Gun Possession among American Youth: A Discovery-Based Approach to Understand Gun Violence, PLOS ONE. November, 2014. "We identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession."
  • Sticker Shock: Calculating the Full Price Tag for Youth Incarceration, Justice Policy Institute. December, 2014. "Each year, the U.S. incurs an estimated $8-$21 billion in long-term costs for the confinement of young people."

Monday, December 8 2014:

Saturday, December 6 2014:

  • Bridging the Divide: A new paradigm for addressing safety, crime, and victimization, [PDF] Equal Justice USA. November, 2014. "There is a growing movement to confront the false choice between meeting the needs of crime victims and reforming failed criminal justice and corrections policies."

Friday, December 5 2014:

  • Ten Economic Facts about Crime and Incarceration in the United States [PDF] The Hamilton Project. May, 2014. (The high incarceration rate can have profound effects on society; research has shown that incarceration may impede employment and marriage prospects, increase poverty and behavioral problems among children, and amplify the spread of communicable diseases.)
  • Still Buried Alive: Arizona Prisoner Testimonies on Isolation in Maximum-Security, [PDF] American Friends Service Committee. December, 2014. "The impacts on the men and women held in isolation are deeply damaging and long lasting. Yet Arizona has once again chosen to double down on solitary confinement with these 500 new maximum-security prison beds in the Lewis complex."
  • One Strike and You're Out: How We Can Eliminate Barriers to Economic Security and Mobility for People with Criminal Records, [PDF] Center for American Progress. December, 2014. "Estimates put the cost of employment losses among people with criminal records at as much as $65 billion per year in terms of gross domestic product."

Thursday, December 4 2014:

  • The Rise in State Prison Populations Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. December, 2014. "Most states’ prison populations are at historic highs after decades of extraordinary growth. This growth has been costly, limiting economic opportunity for communities with especially high incarceration rates."
  • Public Ideology, Minority Threat, and Felony Collateral Sanctions: A State-Level Analysis, University of Delaware, Department of Sociology & Criminal Justice. July, 2014. "States with large minority and conservative populations are more likely to have more stigmatizing collateral sanction that can affect recidivism."

Friday, November 28 2014:

  • On Life Support: Public Health in the Age of Mass Incarceration, Vera Institute of Justice. November, 2014. (Research in epidemiology indicates that had the U.S. incarceration rate remained at its 1973 level, then the infant mortality rate would have been 7.8% lower than it was in 2003, and disparity between black and white infant deaths nearly 15% lower.)
  • Crime in the United States 2012 Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2012. "In 2012, an estimated 1,214,462 violent crimes occurred nationwide, an increase of 0.7 percent from the 2011 estimate."

Tuesday, November 25 2014:

  • Household Poverty and Nonfatal Violent Victimization, 2008-2012 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2014. "For the period 2008-12, persons living in poor households at or below the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) (39.8 per 1,000) had more than double the rate of violent victimization as persons in high-income households (16.9 per 1,000)."
  • Contra Costa County: A Model for Managing Local Corrections, [PDF] JFA Institute. January, 2014. "Over a three-year period, people on felony probation in the County had a recidivism rate of 20% - far lower than the 60% or higher rates statewide found in other studies."
  • Incorporating Racial Equity into Criminal Justice Reform [PDF] Sentencing Project. October, 2014. "Reform strategies that do not directly tackle racial disparity ignore the multifaceted ways in which public safety is produced. Key among these is the perception of the criminal justice system by the community."

Monday, November 24 2014:

  • Justice Reinvestment in North Carolina: Three Years Later, [PDF] The Council of State Governments Justice Center. November, 2014. "A total of 10 prisons closed as a result and the state is using some of the savings generated to focus on improving supervision practices by adding 175 probation and parole officers and investing in cognitive interventions and substance use treatment."

Friday, November 21 2014:

  • Treatment Industrial Complex: How For-Profit Prison Corporations are Undermining Efforts to Treat and Rehabilitate Prisoners for Corporate Gain, [PDF] American Friends Service Committee; Grassroots Leadership; Southern Center for Human Rights. November, 2014. "Most for-profit prison corporations have dismal records in terms of safety, cost, and quality of the prisons that they manage."

Wednesday, November 19 2014:

  • Standing with LGBT Prisoners: An Advocate's Guide to Ending Abuse and Combating Imprisonment, [PDF] National Center for Transgender Equality. 2014. "According to the National Transgender Discrimination Survey, 16% of transgender adults have been in a prison or jail for any reason."

Tuesday, November 18 2014:

  • Report of Inquiry into Documentation of Sex Crime Investigations by Five Detectives in the Special Victims Section of the New Orleans Police Department, [PDF] Office of Inspector General City of New Orleans. November, 2014. "Due to this total void of information, the investigators could not analyze 65% of the sex crime related calls for service assigned to the five detectives."
  • The Impact of Right to Carry Laws and the NRC Report: The Latest Lessons for the Empirical Evaluation of Law and Policy, Stanford Law School. September, 2014. "The strongest evidence of a statistically significant effect would be for aggravated assault, with 11 of 28 estimates suggesting that RTC laws increase this crime at the .10 confidence level."
  • States Project 3 Percent Increase in Prisoners by 2018 Pew Charitable Trusts Public Safety Performance Project. November, 2014. "The number of state prison inmates is expected to rise 3 percent by 2018, according to projections collected from 34 states by the Pew Charitable Trusts."

Saturday, November 15 2014:

  • Most States Cut Imprisonment and Crime Pew Charitable Trusts Public Safety Performance Project. November, 2014. "Over the past five years, the majority of states have reduced their imprisonment rates while experiencing less crime."

Friday, November 14 2014:

  • Solitary Confinement as Torture [PDF] University of North Carolina School of Law Immigration/Human Rights Clinic. 2014. (The conclusion reached is stark and straightforward: solitary confinement is ineffective at decreasing violence within prisons; it is ineffective at preserving public safety; it is ineffective at managing scarce monetary resources.)
  • Crimes Against the Elderly, 2003-2013 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2014. (For the period 2003-13, elderly persons age 65 or older experienced nonfatal violent crime victimizations at lower rates than younger persons ages 12 to 24, 25 to 49, and 50 to 64.)
  • Profiting from Probation: America's "Offender-Funded" Probation Industry, [PDF] Human Rights Watch. February, 2014. "The central problem with offender-funded, pay only probation is this: the longer it takes offenders to pay off their debts, the longer they remain on probation and the more they pay in supervision fees."
  • Failed Policies, Forfeited Futures: A Nationwide Scorecard on Juvenile Records, Juvenile Law Center. November, 2014. "A study of each state’s policies on keeping juvenile records confidential and allowing for those records to be expunged shows that the nation limits opportunities for youth by failing to protect them from the harmful effects of their juvenile records."

Wednesday, November 12 2014:

  • The Use of Prolonged Solitary Confinement in United States Prisons, Jails, and Detention Centers, [PDF] Center for Constitutional Rights; Legal Services for Prisoners with Children; California Prison Focus. November, 2014. "The US currently detains approximately 80,000 prisoners in solitary confinement in its jails, prisons, and detention centers."
  • United States' Compliance with the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union. October, 2014. "The ACLU report also highlights key aspects of the criminal justice system that do not comply with article 16 of the Convention, which requires the prevention of acts of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment."

Saturday, November 8 2014:

  • The Justice Reinvestment Initiative Experiences from the Local Sites [PDF] Urban Institute. November, 2014. "Seven sites adopted strategies that expanded jail diversion (e.g., deferred prosecution programs) and jail programming (e.g., inmate transition programs) as well as increased access to employment and education services."
  • Evaluation of the Allegheny County Jail Collaborative Reentry Programs Findings and Recommendations, [PDF] Urban Institute. October, 2014. (Impact analyses suggest that both Reentry1 and Reentry2 reduce rearrest among participants and prolong time to rearrest, particularly after the first 90 days, indicating that initial and continued program efforts to stabilize clients are effective.)

Thursday, November 6 2014:

  • Study of Victim Experiences of Wrongful Conviction [PDF] ICF International. November, 2013. "A number of victims described the impact of the wrongful conviction as being comparable to, or worse than, their original victimization."
  • Iowa Prison Population Forecast FY 2014-FY 2024 [PDF] Iowa Department of Human Rights Division of Criminal and Juvenile Justice Planning. October, 2014. (If current offender behaviors and justice system trends, policies, and practices continue, Iowa's prison population may be expected to increase by about 39 percent over the ten-year period.)

Tuesday, November 4 2014:

  • Oregon Corrections Population Forecast [PDF] State of Oregon Office of Economic Analysis. October, 2014. "The number of inmates housed in Oregon's prisons, currently 14,598, is expected to grow to 15,074 inmates by September 2024."
  • Bias Behind Bars: Decreasing Disproportionate Rates of Incarcerated Women in California and Nationwide for Low-Level Offenses, [PDF] The Women's Foundation of California. October, 2014. "Nationally-but especially in California-women have been incarcerated for nonviolent, poverty-related offenses at disproportionate rates compared to men."

Friday, October 31 2014:

  • Are Black Kids Worse? Myths and Facts about Racial Differences in Behavior, [PDF] Equity Project at Indiana University. 2013. "Such studies have provided little to no evidence that African American students in the same school or district are engaging in more seriously disruptive behavior that could warrant higher rates of exclusion or punishment."
  • Drugs: International Comparators, [PDF] Home Office. October, 2014. "We did not in our fact-finding observe any obvious relationship between the toughness of a country’s enforcement against drug possession, and levels of drug use in that country."
  • Officer Involved Shooting Information Philadelphia Police Department. 2014. "An officer involved shooting is the discharge of a firearm, whether accidental or intentional, by a police officer, whether on or off duty."
  • Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform The Federal Role, National Research Council of the National Academies. 2014. (OJJDP has not been reauthorized since 2002. Appropriated funding has declined by half in current dollars since 2003-2010, but more importantly the discretion that OJJDP has to use its funding has been sharply compromised.)

Wednesday, October 29 2014:

  • Changing Priorities: State Criminal Justice Reforms and Investments in Education, [PDF] Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. October, 2014. "Corrections spending is now the third-largest category of spending in most states, behind education and health care."
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2013 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2014. (At yearend 2013, an estimated 4,751,400 adults were under community supervision---a decline of about 29,900 offenders from yearend 2012.)
  • A Constitutional Default: Services to Criminal Defendants in Pennsylvania, [PDF] Joint State Government Commission, General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. December, 2011. (A study of the Commonwealth's indigent defense system concluded that the Supreme Court's mandate of free counsel has been ignored by the General Assembly and is not being fulfilled in Pennsylvania.)

Tuesday, October 28 2014:

  • ClaimStat Alert [PDF] Office of the New York City Comptroller. August, 2014. (The 37 percent increase in personal injury correctional facility claims activity from FY 2013 to FY 2014 corresponds to a rise in the number of serious allegations of violence at Rikers.)
  • On the Streets of America: Human Rights Abuses in Ferguson, [PDF] Amnesty International. October, 2014. (This briefing outlines some of the human rights concerns witnessed by Amnesty International and recommendations that need to be implemented with regards to the use of lethal force by law enforcement and the policing of protests.)

Wednesday, October 22 2014:

  • The Crime Beat: Does Quantity Matter? [PDF] John Jay College of Criminal Justice Center on Media, Crime and Justice. October, 2014. "We found that the six papers under review averaged about 78 crime-related stories for the period studied, with the most stories appearing in The Camden Courier-Post (165) and the fewest in the Naperville Sun (26)."
  • Skewed Justice: Citizens United, Television Advertising and State Supreme Court Justices' Decisions in Criminal Cases, Emory Law School; American Constitution Society. October, 2014. "In a state with 10,000 ads, a doubling of airings is associated on average with an 8 percent increase in justices' voting against a criminal defendant's appeal."
  • South Bronx Community Connections Technical Report, [PDF] John Jay College of Criminal Justice. November, 2013. "By fall 2013, two years into project implementation, a statistical analysis of SBCC’s available data (see Appendix A) found juvenile project participants to be suggestively, but significantly (p value= 0.09), less likely to be re-arrested within a year."
  • The Unpredictability of Murder: Juvenile Homicide in the Pathways to Desistance Study, [PDF] Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. October, 2014. (Results from a rare-events logistic regression that examined the relationship between these five risk factors and their ability to distinguish between the two groups indicate that only lower IQ and a greater exposure to violence were significant.)

Tuesday, October 21 2014:

  • Explaining Dimensions of State-Level Punitiveness in the United States: The Roles of Social, Economic, and Cultural Factors, [PDF] Baker Institute of Public Policy. August, 2014. (For incarceration, citizen engagement and property crime have a statistically significant and negative impact on state punitiveness, while the percent of population that is black has a significant and positive effect.)

Friday, October 17 2014:

  • Prison Visitation Policies: A Fifty State Survey, Chesa Boudin, Trevor Stutz, & Aaron Littman. February, 2014. "This paper presents a summary of the findings from the first fifty-state survey of prison visitation policies."
  • Video Visitation: How Private Companies Push for Visits by Video and Families Pay the Price, [PDF] Grassroots Leadership; Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. October, 2014. "Video-only visitation policies strip away that choice; they are simply another outgrowth of the idea that offering services to prisoners and their families can be commercialized."

Tuesday, October 14 2014:

  • Florida's Aging Prisoner Problem [PDF] Florida Tax Watch. September, 2014. "Between 2000 and 2014, the elderly prison population grew from 5,605 to 21,002, at an average increase of 9.9 percent per year, a rate more than three times higher than the general prison population."
  • Black, Brown and Targeted: A report on Boston Police Department Street Encounters from 2007-2010, [PDF] ACLU of Massachusetts. October, 2014. (Most alarmingly, the analysis found that Blacks were subjected to 63% of these encounters, even though they made up just 24% of Boston's population. The analysis also showed that crime does not explain this racial disparity.)
  • An Overview of Public Opinion and Discourse on Criminal Justice Issues [PDF] The Opportunity Agenda. August, 2014. (Since the 1990s, people are backing away from harsh enforcement and sentencing policies, such as mandatory sentencing, and appear more interested in allocating tax dollars toward rehabilitation, treatment, and support efforts.)

Friday, October 10 2014:

  • Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000-2012 - Statistical Tables [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2014. "In 2012, 4,309 inmates died while in the custody of local jails or state prisons-an increase of 2% (67 deaths) from 2011. The number of deaths in local jails increased, from 889 in 2011 to 958 in 2012, which marked the first increase since 2009."

Wednesday, October 8 2014:

  • Entombed: Isolation in the US Federal Prison System, [PDF] Amnesty International. July, 2014. "This report will detail how conditions in ADX breach international standards for the humane treatment of prisoners."
  • A meta-analysis of the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in incarcerated populations, [PDF] Cambridge University. March, 2014. "Compared with published general population prevalence, there is a fivefold increase in prevalence of ADHD in youth prison populations (30.1%) and a 10-fold increase in adult prison populations (26.2%)."
  • Flint DDACTS Pilot Evaluation: Summary of Findings, [PDF] Michigan Justice Statistics Center. July, 2014. "Indeed, the target areas experienced a 19 percent reduction in violent crime and a 30 percent reduction in robberies. This compared to 7 and 2 percent reductions, respectively, in the rest of the city."
  • Reforming Marijuana Laws: Which Approach Best Reduces the Harms of Criminalization? A Five-State Analysis, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. September, 2014. "All five states experienced substantial declines in marijuana possession arrests. The four states with available data also showed unexpected drops in marijuana felony arrests."
  • For-Profit Family Detention: Meet the Private Prison Corporations Making Millions by Locking Up Refugee Families, [PDF] Grassroots Leadership; Justice Strategies. October, 2014. "This report will scrutinize GEO’s dismal track record with operation of facilities holding immigrants, as well as its dreadful past history of failing to provide vulnerable children and youths with a safe and humane custodial environment."
  • Improving Recidivism as a Performance Measure [PDF] Urban Institute. October, 2014. "Recidivism is not a single measure of success or failure, and states should move away from using one uniform definition. Making recidivism a meaningful performance measure demands that states employ a wide range of reoffending metrics."
  • Proposition 47: Estimating Local Savings and Jail Population Reductions, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. September, 2014. "Every year, Los Angeles County could save between $99.9 million and $174.8 million, San Diego County between $28.4 million and $49.7 million, and San Joaquin County between $6.8 million and $12.0 million due to the implementation of Proposition 47."

Wednesday, October 1 2014:

  • Solitary Confinement - Understanding Restrictive Housing Unit Practices Within the U.S. Department of Justice's Bureau of Prisons, Out4Good. July, 2014. "First and second line supervisors, mainly GS9 and GS11 lieutenants, have far too much discretion when it comes to placing offenders in the SHU. The general criterion for SHU placement is that an inmate is disrupting the orderly running of the institution."
  • Congressional Action Mandated to Reduce Rising Costs of Incarceration Out4Good. January, 2014. "It becomes evident that more than $100 billion is being spent annually to accommodate the confinement and correctional supervision of these individuals."

Monday, September 29 2014:

  • Presumption of Guilt: The Global Overuse of Pretrial Detention, [PDF] Open Society Justice Initiative. September, 2014. "The present global cohort of 3.3 million pretrial detainees will collectively spend an estimated 660 million days in detention-a terrible waste of human potential that comes at a considerable cost to states, taxpayers, families, and communities."

Thursday, September 25 2014:

Tuesday, September 23 2014:

  • Socio-emotional Impact of Violent Crime [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2014. "Overall, 68% of victims of serious violence experienced socio-emotional problems as a result of their victimization."
  • The Effect of Collateral Consequence Laws on State Rates of Returns to Prison, [PDF] University of Maryland, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice. July, 2014. "Surprisingly, these analyses give some indication that collateral consequences may be related to lower rates of returns to prison for technical violations, however future research is needed to confirm this relationship."

Thursday, September 18 2014:

Tuesday, September 16 2014:

  • Prisoners in 2013 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2014. "On December 31, 2013, the United States held an estimated 1,574,700 persons in state and federal prisons, an increase of approximately 4,300 prisoners (0.3%) from 2012."
  • Impact of Disproportionate Incarceration of and Violence Against Black People with Mental Health Conditions In the World's Largest Jail System, [PDF] Dignity and Power Now. August, 2014. "Nationwide, people with mental health conditions constitute 64% of the jail population, according to the Federal Bureau of Prison Statistics."

Monday, September 15 2014:

  • Parsons v. Ryan, CV 12-00601: Arizona Class Action Prison Conditions Lawsuit Expert Reports, [PDF] ACLU of Arizona. September, 2014. "Every week, on average, a patient who has been neglected or mistreated dies in the Arizona prison system, according to these expert reports."
  • Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras [PDF] Office of Justice Programs. September, 2014. "The evaluations in Mesa and Rialto documented substantial drops in citizen complaints following deployment of the technology. The UK studies documented a similar effect."
  • The Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) in the Lives of Juvenile Offenders Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 2014. "The top three most prevalent ACE indicators were the same for both males and females: family violence, parental separation or divorce, and household member incarceration."

Thursday, September 11 2014:

  • Aging Behind Bars: Trends and Implications of Graying Prisoners in the Federal Prison System, [PDF] Urban Institute. August, 2014. "The number of prisoners age 50 or older experienced a 330 percent increase from 1994 to 2011."
  • Adventures in Risk: Predicting Violent and Sexual Recidivism in Sentencing Law, Arizona State Law Journal. March, 2014. "Whatever merit actuarial assessments may have for a variety of criminal justice decisions (such as bail, probation, and parole), they are far too problematic for use in sentencing matters."

Wednesday, September 10 2014:

  • Liberal but Not Stupid: Meeting the Promise of Downsizing Prisons, [PDF] Joan Petersilia and Francis T. Cullen, Stanford Journal of Criminal Law and Policy. June, 2014. "The issue of downsizing will also remain at the forefront of correctional discourse because of the court-ordered reduction in imprisonment in California...a 'criminology of downsizing' must be developed to foster effective policy interventions."
  • Prison Population Trends 2013 [PDF] Massachusetts Department of Correction. May, 2014. "A steady decline from January 2012 to January 2014 reflects a seven percent decrease in the custody population."
  • California Prison Downsizing and Its Impact on Local Criminal Justice Systems, [PDF] Joan Petersilia, Harvard Law & Policy Review. 2014. "Everyone agreed county officials are working more collaboratively toward reducing recidivism, and that new funding has fostered innovative programming. But our interviews also found counties carry out an initiative...imposed overnight."

Friday, September 5 2014:

  • State Variation in Hospital Use and Cost of Firearm Assault Injury, 2010 [PDF] Urban Institute. August, 2014. (Hospital use for firearm-assault injury is disproportionately concentrated among young males, particularly young black males, in all six study states.)
  • Race and Prosecution in Manhattan Vera Institute of Justice. July, 2014. (Blacks and Latinos were particularly likely to be held in pretrial detention for misdemeanor person offenses, followed by misdemeanor drug offenses. Blacks and Latinos were also most likely to have their cases dismissed for misdemeanor drug offenses.)

Thursday, September 4 2014:

  • Close-Range Gunfire around DC Schools [PDF] Urban Institute. September, 2014. "Fifty-four percent of DC schools covered by gunfire-detection technology had at least one burst of gunfire occur within 1,000 feet of the school."
  • Does Immigration Enforcement Reduce Crime? Evidence from "Secure Communities", [PDF] University of Chicago Law; New York University Law School. August, 2014. "Our results show that Secure Communities has led to no meaningful reductions in the FBI index crime rate."
  • Policing Immigration [PDF] New York University School of Law; University of Chicago Law School. 2013. "The data undermine the government's claim that Secure Communities is principally about making communities more secure from crime."
  • Race and Punishment: Racial Perceptions of Crime and Support for Punitive Policies, [PDF] Sentencing Project. September, 2014. "Studies have shown that whites who associate crime with blacks and Latinos are more likely to support punitive policies - including capital punishment and mandatory minimum sentencing - than whites with weaker racial associations of crime."

Friday, August 29 2014:

  • Managing Drug-Involved Offenders [PDF] Department of Justice. July, 2014. "Drug courts, which also mandate drug treatment but under judicial supervision, have demonstrated better outcomes than standard treatment diversion programs."

Friday, August 22 2014:

  • The Debt Penalty: Exposing the financial barriers to offender reintegration, [PDF] John Jay College of Criminal Justice. August, 2014. "Paradoxically, criminal justice systems sometimes spend more on debt collection and punishing offenders who are behind on their payments than they are likely to recoup from enforcing the financial obligations of ex-offenders."
  • Youth in Residential Placement, 2011 [PDF] Department of Justice. August, 2014. "The number of delinquents held in placement increased 4% between 1997 and 1999 and then decreased 43% to its lowest level in 2011."

Monday, August 18 2014:

  • Operation Ghetto Storm [PDF] Malcolm X Grassroots Movement. April, 2013. "There is no centralized database that keeps track of extrajudicial killings by police... With no numbers, there can be no studies, no analysis of trends and no accountability."

Thursday, August 14 2014:

  • State Prison Health Care Spending: An Examination of Female Offenders Released from State Prison in the First Year of Public Safety Realignment, [PDF] Pew Charitable Trusts. July, 2014. "In fiscal 2011, states spent a total of $7.7 billion on correctional health care—likely about a fifth of overall prison expenditures."

Monday, August 11 2014:

  • The High Costs of Low Risk: The Crisis of America’s Aging Prison Population, [PDF] The Osborne Association. July, 2014. " present, twenty-eight states hold more than 1,000 older prisoners, up from just two states in 1990."
  • Barriers to Recreation at Rikers Island’s Central Punitive Segregation Unit [PDF] New York City Board of Corrections. July, 2014. "...while the CPSU population hovers around 400 people, fewer than 40 prisoners are experiencing the mandated hour outside their solitary confinement cells on an average day."

Thursday, August 7 2014:

  • Incarceration of a Household Member and Hispanic Health Disparities: Childhood Exposure and Adult Chronic Disease Risk Behaviors, [PDF] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. May, 2013. "If the escalation of incarceration continues through the early years of this century, its public health effect will continue to grow as the children of those prisoners or former prisoners reach adulthood."
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2013 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2014. "Since 2010, about 31% of inmates held in Indian country jails have been confined for a violent offense, a decline from about 39% in each year between midyear 2004 and 2009."
  • Medicaid Prior Authorization Policies and Imprisonment Among Patients With Schizophrenia, [PDF] American Journal of Managed Care. July, 2014. "As the total costs in the United States that are associated with severe psychiatric disorders in jails are very high, new policies on how to treat incarcerated individuals with schizophrenia, particularly nonviolent offenders, are warranted."
  • Female Realignment Report: An Examination of Female Offenders Released from State Prison in the First Year of Public Safety Realignment, [PDF] California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. May, 2014. " shows that there is very little difference between female offenders and their outcomes following release after completing their State prison term pre- and post-Realignment"
  • CRIPA Investigation of the NYC Department of Correction Jails on Rikers Island, [PDF] Department of Justice. August, 2014. "We conclude that there is a pattern and practice of conduct at Rikers that violates the constitutional rights of adolescent inmates."

Thursday, July 31 2014:

  • Safely Home [PDF] Youth Advocate Programs. June, 2014. "Community-based programs yield better results for kids than incarceration and can be implemented without spending any new money."

Thursday, July 24 2014:

  • Fewer Prisoners, Less Crime: A Tale of Three States, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. July, 2014. "Studies consistently find that expediting prisoners’ release from prison has no or minimal impact on recidivism rates."

Thursday, July 17 2014:

  • The Early Release of Prisoners And its Impact on Police Agencies and Communities in California, [PDF] Police Executive Research Forum. May, 2011. "...there is research indicating that enforcement alone is ineffective in lowering recidivism rates, and in any case, prisons are far too expensive to be used as a default sanction for many criminal offenders."
  • Voices from the Field How California Stakeholders View Public Safety Realignment, [PDF] Stanford Criminal Justice Center. January, 2014. "...counties now must handle virtually all drug and property crime sentences, which represented 54% of all felony arrestees convicted in California in 2010."
  • Recalibrating Justice A Review of 2013 State Sentencing and Corrections Trends, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. July, 2014. "In 2013, at least six states authorized the creation or expansion of diversion programs or strengthened the infrastructure support- ing existing programs."

Wednesday, July 9 2014:

Monday, July 7 2014:

  • The Crisis of Violence in Georgia's Prisons [PDF] Southern Center for Human Rights. July, 2014. "Prison officials violate the Constitution if they know that people in prison face a substantial risk of serious harm, but disregard that risk by failing to take reasonable measures to protect prisoners."
  • The Double Edged Sword of Prison Video Visitation Claiming to Keep Families Together While Furthering the Aims of the Prison Industrial Complex, [PDF] Patrice A. Fulcher, Associate Professor at John Marshall Law School. July, 2014. "The use of inmate video visitation services must not be oppressive, so fees must be affordable and transparent so that there are no hidden costs." (published in 9 Fla. A&M. U. L. Rev. 83 (2014))
  • Justice Expenditure And Employment Extracts, 2009 Final, [Website] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2014. "This series includes national, federal, and state-level estimates of government expenditures and employment for the following justice categories: police protection, all judicial and legal functions... and corrections."
  • Justice Expenditure And Employment Extracts, 2010 Final, [Website] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2014. "This series includes national, federal, and state-level estimates of government expenditures and employment for the following justice categories: police protection, all judicial and legal functions... and corrections."
  • Indicators Of School Crime And Safety, 2013 [Website] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2014. "During the 2009–10 school year, 85% of public schools recorded that one or more crime incidents had taken place at school, amounting to an estimated 1.9 million crimes."

Monday, June 30 2014:

  • Latino Voices: The Impacts of Crime and Criminal Justice Policies on Latinos, [PDF] Californians for Safety and Justice. June, 2014. "...the data that does exist — specifically research on Latino victimization rates and their treatment in the justice system — paints a troubling picture of"
  • War Comes Home The Excessive Militarization of American Policing, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union. June, 2014. "Using... federal funds, state and local law enforcement agencies have amassed military arsenals purportedly to wage the failed War on Drugs, the battlegrounds of which have disproportionately been in communities of color."

Friday, June 27 2014:

  • Is Public Safety Realignment Reducing Recidivism in California? Public Policy Institute of California. June, 2014. "Realignment's success depends largely on efforts addressing recidivism among former prison inmates and other convicted offenders diverted from prison as a result of the reform."
  • The contagious nature of imprisonment an agent-based model to explain racial disparities in incarceration rates, [PDF] The Royal Society. June, 2014. "Our model suggests that increased sentencing for an individual has negative effects that spread through social networks to affect families and whole communities."

Thursday, June 26 2014:

  • Voting Rights Barriers and Discrimination in 21st Century California 2000-2013, [PDF] Lawyer's Committee for Civil Rights of the San Francisco Bay Area. March, 2014. "Structural vote dilution and discrimination continue to plague California. These voting rights violations are just as real today as they were when the VRA was first enacted in 1965..."
  • Report on the Psychiatric Management of John Salvi in Massachusetts Department of Correction Facilities 1995-1996, [PDF] University of Massachusetts Medical Center Department of Psychiatry. January, 1997. " our opinion, the number of full-time equivalent psychiatrists within the DOC is far too low to meet the psychiatric needs of the inmate population."
  • Prisons and Sentencing in Massachusetts Waging a More Effective Fight Against Crime, [PDF] MassInc. June, 1999. "Critics of mandatory minimum drug laws, both state and federal, claim that these draconian penalties are jamming prisons with nonviolent offenders, many of them serving long sentences for a first conviction."

Monday, June 23 2014:

  • 2008 Court Commitments to the Massachusetts Department of Correction [PDF] Massachusetts Department of Correction. June, 2009. (Inmates were committed for the following categories of offenses during 2008: Drug (31%), Person (30%), "Other" (16%), Property (16%), and Sex (6%).)
  • Prison Population Trends 2012 Massachusetts Department of Correction. May, 2013. "The intent of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of inmate statistics specific to CY2012 as well as trends over the last five to ten years."

Wednesday, June 18 2014:

  • Seasonal Patterns in Criminal Victimization Trends [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2014. "This report examines seasonal patterns in violent and household property victimization in the United States from 1993 to 2010."
  • Irreversible Error Recommended Reforms for Preventing and Correcting Errors in the Administration of Capital Punishment, [PDF] The Constitution Project. May, 2014. "...the system must be willing to acknowledge errors that could result in the execution of an innocent person . Each jurisdiction should adopt legislation that sets standards to facilitate the review of credible post-conviction claims of innocence."
  • Report on the Continuing Impact of United States v. Booker on Federal Sentences, [Website] United States Sentencing Commission. December, 2012. "This report assesses the continuing impact on the federal sentencing system of the Supreme Court's 2005 opinion in United States v. Booker, which rendered the sentencing guidelines advisory."

Tuesday, June 17 2014:

  • Justice in Washing State Survey, 2012 Revised and Updated 2014, [PDF] The Washington State Minority Health Commission, The Washington State Center for Court Research. 2014. "When we asked about their personal encounters with police officers and the courts, we found substantial differences between Whites and African Americans in terms of the frequency of negative encounters."

Monday, June 16 2014:

  • Warehoused and Forgotten Immigrants Trapped in Our Shadow Private Prison System, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union. June, 2014. "Nationwide, more than half of all federal criminal prosecutions initiated in fiscal year 2013 were for unlawfully crossing the border into the United States"
  • Mississippi's 2014 Corrections and Criminal Justice Reform [PDF] Pew's Public Safety Performance Project. May, 2014. "...nonviolent offenders and those revoked for probation or parole violations accounted for a large and growing share of Mississippi's prison population."
  • Too Good to be True Private Prisons in America, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. January, 2012. "The available data belies the oft-claimed economic benefits of private contracting, and points to the practice being an unreliable approach toward financial stability."
  • Mandatory Reentry Supervision Evaluating the Kentucky Experience, [PDF] Pew's Public Safety Performance Project. June, 2014. "Inmates released to supervision under the policy had 30 percent fewer returns to prison for a new crime and 11 percent fewer violations of their supervision rules than the pre-policy group."
  • Recidivism Among Offenders Receiving Retroactive Sentence Reductions The 2007 Crack Cocaine Amendment, [PDF] United States Sentencing Commission. May, 2014. "This publication reports on recidivism of crack cocaine offenders who were released immediately before and after implementation of the 2007 Crack Cocaine Amendment, and followed in the community for five years."
  • Tinkering with Life A Look at the Inappropriateness of of Life Without Parole as an Alternative to the Death Penalty, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. January, 2013. "LWOP is often touted as the humane alternative to the death penalty, yet many of the problematic aspects of the death penalty are also applicable to this sentence."
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2013 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Center for Education Statistics. June, 2014. "Presents data on crime and safety at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, and principals."
  • Capital City Correction: Reforming DC's Use of Adult Incarceration Against Youth, [PDF] DC Lawyers for Youth, Campaign for Youth Justice. May, 2014. "DC continues this practice of prosecuting, detaining, and incarcerating youth in the adult system despite the fact that research consistently finds that adult prosecution of youth does not effectively deter crime."
  • Measuring Juvenile Recidivism Data collection and reporting practices in juvenile corrections, [Website] Pew's Public Safety Performance Project. May, 2014. "...a recent survey of these agencies in all 50 states and the District of Columbia found that 1 in 4 does not regularly collect and report recidivism data, and fewer than half use measures that provide a comprehensive picture of youth reoffending."

Friday, June 13 2014:

  • ADAM II 2013 Annual Report, [PDF] Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program II. January, 2013. "The Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring II (ADAM II) survey gathers information on drug use and related issues from booked adult male arrestees within 48 hours of their arrest."
  • Collateral Costs Racial Disparities and Injustice in Minnesota's Marijuana Laws, [PDF] Minnesota 2020. April, 2014. "...blacks in Minnesota were 6.4 times more likely than whites to be arrested for marijuana possession – over two times the national average."
  • A New Approach to Reducing Incarceration While Maintaining Low Rates of Crime, [PDF] The Hamilton Project. May, 2014. "What alternative policy options could we pursue in conjunction with scaling back incarceration rates that would reduce the social costs of incarceration while controlling crime?"
  • The Growth of Incarceration in the United States Exploring causes and consequences, [PDF] National Research Council.. 2014. "The study assesses the evidence and its implications for public policy to inform an extensive and thoughtful public debate about and reconsideration of policies."
  • Key Factors in California's Jail Construction Needs [PDF] Public Policy Institute of California. May, 2014. "This report highlights two important factors in addressing jail capacity constraints: aging jail facilities and long - term needs."
  • World Pre-trial/Remand Imprisonment List Pre-trail detainees and other remand prisoners in all five continents, [PDF] International Centre for Prison Studies. January, 2008. "..this List refers to those persons who, in connection with an alleged offence or offences, are deprived of their liberty following a judicial or other legal process but have not been definitively sentenced by a court for the offence(s)."
  • Collatoral Damage A Roadmap to Restore Rights and Status After Arrest or Conviction, [PDF] National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. May, 2014. "NACDL recommends a broad national initiative to construct a legal infrastructure that will provide individuals with a criminal record with a clear path to equal opportunity."
  • Reducing Recidivism States Deliver Results, [PDF] The Council of State Governments Justice Center and the National Reentry Resource Center. June, 2014. "This report focuses on statewide recidivism data for adults released in 2007 and 2010 with a three-year follow-up period, offering a current snapshot of criminal justice outcomes in these states."
  • Nation Behind Bars a human rights solution, [PDF] Human Rights Watch. May, 2014. "The momentum for sentencing reform is welcome for all who care about the fair use of government's power to determine what conduct to criminalize and what sanctions to impose on those who break the law."
  • World Female Imprisonment List 2nd Edition Women and girls in penal institutions, including pre-trial detainees/remand prisoners, [PDF] International Centre for Prison Studies. August, 2012. "More than 625,000 women and girls are held in penal institutions throughout the world,"
  • Closing Massachusetts' Training Schools Reflections Forty Years Later, [PDF] The Annie E. Clark Foundation. June, 2014. "...a quiet revolution has begun sweeping through our nation's juvenile justice systems... states across the country have begun shuttering juvenile corrections facilities and dramatically reducing the population of young people incarcerated."
  • Youth Behind Bars Examining the impact of prosecuting and incarcerating kids in Michigan's criminal justice system, [PDF] Michigan Council on Crime and Delinquency. May, 2014. "...Michigan broadened juvenile prosecutors' discretion to automatically file in criminal court, expanded the number of juvenile offenses requiring an adult sentence, and allowed children of any age to be criminally convicted and sent to prison."

Wednesday, June 11 2014:

  • Breaking Down Mass Incarceration in the 2010 Census State-by-State Incarceration Rates by Race/Ethnicity, Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2014. "It is imperative that we are able to measure the extent to which the criminal justice system disparately impacts our communities."
  • Cruel Confinement Abuse, Discrimination and Death Within Alabama's Prisons, [PDF] Southern Poverty Law Center. June, 2014. "This extraordinary understaffing has led to a multitude of problems. The vast majority are easily predictable: delays, failures to diagnose and treat problems, failure to follow up with patients, errors and decisions to not treat seriously ill prisoners."
  • Ending the Drug Wars Report of the LSE Expert Group on the Economics of Drug Policy, [PDF] London School of Economics. May, 2014. "A global system which predominantly encourages policies that transfer the costs of prohibition onto poorer producer and transit countries, as the current system does, is an ineffective and unsustainable way to control drugs in the long term."
  • Tracking State Prison Growth in 50 States Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2014. "This briefing fills the gap with a series of more than 100 graphs showing prison growth (and sometimes decline) for every state in the nation to encourage states to confront how their criminal policy choices undermine our national welfare."
  • States of Incarceration The Global Context, Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2014. "While there are certainly important differences between how U.S. states handle incarceration, placing each state in a global context reveals that incarceration policy in every region of this country is out of step with the rest of the world."
  • Inside Out Questionable and Abusive Practices in New Jersey's Bail-Bond Industry, [PDF] State of New Jersey Commission of Investigation. May, 2014. "The result is a disorderly process driven by private profit rather than public interest and one that is dangerously out of balance when it comes to both the rights of the defendents and the requirements of the criminal justice system."
  • Max Out The Rise in Prison Inmates Released Without Supervision, [PDF] Pew Charitable Trusts. June, 2014. "a large and increasing number of offenders are maxing out—serving their entire sentences behind bars—and returning to their communities without supervision or support."
  • Disproportionate Minority Contact in the Juvenile Justice System [PDF] Sentencing Project. May, 2014. "juvenile justice systems are marked by disparate racial outcomes at every stage of the process, starting with more frequent arrests for youth of color and ending with more frequent secure placement."
  • The School Discipline Consensus Report Strategies from the Field to Keep Students Engaged In School and Out of the Juvenile Justice System, The Council of State Governments Justice Center. June, 2014. ""The juvenile justice system does not have the tools or resources to respond to the needs of many youth coming thorugh its doors for minor school-based offenses."

Tuesday, April 29 2014:

  • Deadly Heat in Texas Prisons [PDF] Human Rights Clinic at the University of Texas School of Law. April, 2014. "Since 2007, at least fourteen inmates have died from extreme heat in nine different TDCJ prisons. All fourteen inmates had preexisting health circumstances that rendered them more vulnerable to heat-related illnesses..."
  • Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 30 States in 2005: Patterns from 2005 to 2010, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2014. "Overall, 67.8% of the 404,638 state prisoners released in 2005 in 30 states were arrested within 3 years of release, and 76.6% were arrested within 5 years of release."
  • Rate of False Conviction of Criminal Defendants Who are Sentenced to Death [PDF] University of Michigan Law School. March, 2014. "The rate of exonerations among death sentences in the United States is far higher than for any other category of criminal convictions."
  • Best Practices in the Use of Restraints with Pregnant Women and Girls Under Correctional Custody, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Assistance. 2012. "The use of restraints on pregnant women and girls under correctional custody should be limited to absolute necessity. The use of restraints is considered absolutely necessary only when there is an imminent risk of escape or harm..."
  • Worse Than Second-Class: Solitary Confinement of Women in the United States, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union. April, 2014. "...solitary is often used on the most vulnerable: pregnant women, individuals with mental illness, transgender women, and - in a particularly disturbing trend - victims of sexual assault by prison guards."
  • Automatic Adult Prosecution of Children in Cook County, Illinois.2010-2012 [PDF] Juvenile Justice Initiative. April, 2014. "Illinois should restore authority over whether a child under 18 should be tried in adult criminal court to juvenile court judges. This will bring Illinois in line with the majority of states, and will ensure better outcomes..."
  • Juvenile Defense Attorneys: A Critical Protection Against Injustice The Importance of Skilled Juvenile Defenders to Upholding the Due Process Rights of Youth, [PDF] National Juvenile Defense Center. March, 2014. "A youth's record can negatively impact his or her access to housing, employment, immigration status, voting rights, education, financial independence, and many other areas that impact the likelihood of future success."
  • Unbalanced Juvenile Justice [Website] Burns Institute. 2014. "To help you better understand racial and ethnic disparities and how juvenile justice is being administered in your county, state, and nationwide, BI's interactive tools provide customizable searches."
  • Just Learning The Imperative to Transform Juvenile Justice Systems Into Effective Educational Systems, [PDF] Southern Education Foundation. 2014. "...most students come in and out of the juvenile justice systems with little or no real regard for their education."

Tuesday, April 15 2014:

  • World Prison Population List (tenth edition), [PDF] International Centre for Prison Studies. November, 2013. "This tenth edition of the World Prison Population List gives details of the number of prisoners held in 222 independent countries and dependent territories."
  • Putting How to Reform Texas' Expensive, Ineffective State Jail System, [PDF] Texas Public Policy Foundation. November, 2012. "State jails were designed to be a low-cost alternative to prison, with dual goals of reducing prison populations and reducing recidivism rates in low-risk defendants. Unfortunately, state jails are universally failing in their objective."
  • The Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in Prisons and Jails: A State Survey, [PDF] Treatment Advocacy Program. April, 2014. "The number of individuals with serious mental illness in prisons and jails now exceeds the number in state psychiatric hospitals tenfold."
  • Branded for Life: Florida's Prosecution of Children as Adults under its "Direct File" Statute, [PDF] Human Rights Watch. April, 2014. "Florida transfers more children out of the juvenile system and into adult court than any other state. In the last five years alone, more than 12,000 juvenile crime suspects in Florida were transferred to the adult court system."

Thursday, April 3 2014:

  • Billion Dollar Divide: Virginia's Sentencing, Corrections and Criminal Justice Challenge, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. April, 2014. " understand how Virginia got to where it is today, the Justice Policy Institute has summarized the trends under three major themes: more people serving longer sentences, more people coming into the system and fewer people leaving the system."

Tuesday, April 1 2014:

  • The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws on Crime: Evidence from State Panel Data, 1990-2006, [PDF] Plos One. March, 2014. "...states passing Medical Marijuana Legalization laws experienced reductions in crime and the rate of reduction appears to be steeper for states passing MML laws as compared to others for several crimes such as homicide, robbery, and aggravated assault."
  • Recidivism Report 2013 [PDF] Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. February, 2013. "...the 1-year reincarceration rates of releases from 2005 to 2011 for those who were paroled to the street were consistently lower than for those paroled to a Community Corrections Center."
  • Victim Gender and the Death Penalty [PDF] Cornell Law School. March, 2014. "...our analyses suggest that victim gender continues to influence capital sentencing decisions."
  • Improving Illinois' Response to Sexual Offense Committed by Youth: Recommendations for Law, Policy, and Practice, [PDF] Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission. March, 2014. "Recommendation 3: Remove young people from the state's counter-productive sex offender registry and the application of categorical restrictions and "collateral consequences.""

Friday, March 28 2014:

  • Reaching too far: How Connecticut's large sentencing enhancement zones miss the mark, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2014. "This report shows that the law doesn't work, it cannot possibly work, and that it creates an unfair two-tiered system of justice based on a haphazard distinction between urban and rural areas of the state."

Thursday, March 27 2014:

  • The State Expenditure Report [PDF] National Association of State Budget Officers. July, 1987. "This report provides figures for actual Fiscal Year 1985 expenditures, estimated Fiscal Year 1986 expenditures..., and appropriated Fiscal Year 1987 expenditures."
  • State Expenditure Report Examining Fiscal 2010-2012 State Spending, [PDF] National Association of State Budget Officers. 2012. "Corrections accounted for 3.1 percent of total state expenditures in fiscal 2011 and 7.5 percent of general funds."
  • State Expenditure Report Examining Fiscal 2011-2013 State Spending, [PDF] National Association of State Budget Officers. 2013. "Total corrections spending increased by 3.3 percent in fiscal 2012 and is estimated to have declined slightly by 0.3 percent in fiscal 2013."

Tuesday, March 25 2014:

  • Capital Punishment, 2010- Statistical Tables [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2011. "Of those under sentence of death at yearend, 55% were white and 42% were black. The 388 Hispanic inmates under sentence of death accounted for 14% of inmates with a known ethnicity. 98% of inmates under sentence of death were male, and 2% were female."
  • Prisoners at Yearend 2009-Advance Counts [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2010. "At yearend 2009, state and federal correctional authorities had jurisdiction over 1,613,656 prisoners, an increase of 0.2% (3,897 prisoners) from yearend 2008."
  • Prisoners 1925-81 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 1982. "The average annual growth rate for the prison population during 1925-81 was 2.4 percent; for the residential population of the United States it was 1.2 percent."
  • State and Federal Prisoners, 1925-85 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 1986. "At the end of 1985 the incarceration rate was 201 per 100,000, the highest ever recorded."
  • Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 1991. "The recorded number of black prisoners In 1986 was nearly 9 times larger than the number recorded In 1926 (80,814 In 1986 versus 9,292 in 1926). The recorded number of white prisoners was 3 times larger (100,874 in 1986 versus 33,626 In 1926)..."
  • This is a Prison: Glitter is Not Allowed Experiences of Trans and Gender Variant People in Pennsylvania's Prison System, [PDF] Hearts on a Wire Collective. 2011. "Accounts of prison conditions... show the intensity of discrimination, abuse, medical neglect, and punitive isolation... on the inside. Incarcerated T/GV individuals report dismissal, intimidation, or retaliation when attempting to file grievances."
  • Kids Doing Time for What's Not a Crime: The Over-Incarceration of Status Offenders, [PDF] Texas Public Policy Foundation. March, 2014. "...there are very compelling reasons to avoid confinement of status offenders. The punishment fails to fit the"
  • Facilitating Access to Health Care Coverage for Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth, [PDF] Models for Change. December, 2013. "Youth involved in the juvenile justice system have extensive physical and behavior health needs. The majority have at least one mental health condition and substance abuse is also very common."

Wednesday, March 19 2014:

  • Central California Women's Facility (CCWF) Health Care Evaluation [PDF] Court Medical Experts. December, 2013. "We find that the Central California Women's Facility (CCWF) is not providing adequate medical care, and that there are systemic issues resulting in preventable morbidity and mortality and that present an on-going serious risk of harm to patients."
  • Strategies for Reducing Gun Violence in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts A Report to Speaker of the House of Representatives Robert DeLeo, [PDF] Committee to Reduce Firearm Violence. February, 2014. "Massachusetts already has some of the strongest gun laws in the nation. For example, over the last few years the Brady Center ranked Massachusetts 3rd among US states in terms of strength of our gun laws."
  • Redefining Indigence: Financial Eligibility Guidelines for Assigned Counsel, [PDF] National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. March, 2014. "A defendant making just above 125 percent of the Federal Poverty Guidelines receives federal assistance to pay for food, heat and medical care for their children but is somehow not regarded by some states as too poor to hire a lawyer."

Tuesday, March 18 2014:

  • Voices from the Field: How California Stakeholders View Public Safety Realignment, [PDF] Stanford Criminal Justice Center. January, 2014. "What is the result of California's great prison experiment? Even after conducting 125 interviews with agencies across California, it remains a challenge to adequately summarize the changes that Realignment (AB 109) has wrought across the state."
  • Follow the Money: How California Counties Are Spending Their Public Safety Realignment Funds, [PDF] Stanford Criminal Justice Center. January, 2014. "Sheriff and Law Enforcement spending is generally a product of local needs (crime conditions and dedication to law enforcement) and preference for punishment. Programs and Services spending fundamentally revolves around electoral confidence in the Sheriff"
  • The Degree of Disadvantage: Incarceration and Inequality in Education, [PDF] Stephanie Ewert, Bryan L. Sykes, and Becky Pettit. November, 2013. "Nearly three in ten white male dropouts in the United States can expect to serve time in a state or federal correctional facility in their lifetime, and nearly 60 percent of black male dropouts are imprisoned at some point in their lives..."
  • Reallocation of Responsibility: Changes to the Correctional System in California Post-Realignment, [PDF] Stanford Criminal Justice Center. January, 2014. "California has decarcerated under Realignment. The state prison population has decreased by 29,886 people since 2010, while the jail population has modestly increased by 8,229 people."
  • Addressing Racial Disparities In Bail Determinations [PDF] New York University Journal of Legislation and Public Policy. 2013. "...Seventy-five percent of pretrial detainees are charged with relatively minor property crimes, drug offenses or other non-violent acts, and remain in jail simply because the money bond was set in an amount they cannot afford to pay."
  • Criminal Records, Race, and Redemption [PDF] New York University Journal of Legislation and Public Policy. 2013. "...poor individuals of color disproportionately shoulder the weight of a criminal record."
  • The Color of Corporate Corrections, Part II: Contractual Exemptions and the Overrepresentation of People of Color in Private Prisons, [PDF] Radical Criminology. February, 2014. "...this study finds that people of color are overrepresented in private minimum and/or medium security private facilities relative to their public counterparts in each of the nine (9) states examined."
  • Assessing Judicial Sentencing Preferences After Public Safety Realignment: A Survey of California Judges, [PDF] Stanford Criminal Justice Center. January, 2014. "Our study finds that 57% of judges preferred to give an 1170(h) sentence over a felony probation sentence, except when the hypothetical contains information about the offender's substance abuse or mental illness."
  • The New Normal? Prosecutorial Charging in California After Public Safety Realignment, [PDF] Stanford Criminal Justice Center. January, 2014. "As for specific substantive conclusions, the undramatic one is that most charging or recommendation preferences remain consistent with traditional severity factors and do not manifest major alterations in light of AB 109."
  • In Search of Racial Justice: The Role of the Prosecutor, [PDF] New York University Journal of Legislation and Public Policy. 2013. " of every three African American males born today can expect to go to prison in his lifetime, as can one of every six Latino males. One of every eighteen African American females and one of every forty-five Hispanic females face a similar fate."

Thursday, March 13 2014:

  • SOCCPN Annuals Survey of Sex Offender Civil Commitment Programs 2013 [PDF] Sex Offender Civil Commitment Programs Network. 2013. "Nationwide census of civilly committed individuals is 4779 among the 18 programs who responded to the 2013 survey."
  • Estimating the Size and Structure of the Underground Commercial Sex Economy [PDF] Urban Institute. March, 2014. "The goals of this study were to: (1) derive a more rigorous estimate of the underground commercial sex economy (UCSE) in eight major US cities and (2) provide an understanding of the structure of this underground economy. To date, no reliable data exist.."
  • Crime and Justice Atlas 1999 Update [PDF] United States Department of Justice. 1999. "Between 1992 and 1997, 35 states, along with the District of Columbia, experienced decreased rates of serious violent crime."
  • Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2014. "Jail churn is particularly high because at any given moment most of the 722,000 people in local jails have not been convicted..."

Thursday, March 6 2014:

  • Investigation of the Drug Laboratory at the William A. Hinton State Laboratory Institute 2002-2012, [PDF] Office of the Inspector General Commonwealth of Massachusetts. March, 2014. "Dookhan admitted to "dry-labbing," or failing to conduct all of the required tests on drug samples that she analyzed, and also to tampering with drug samples to make negative findings into positives."

Tuesday, March 4 2014:

  • Mandatory Minimum Sentences Briefing, [PDF] Connecticut General Assembly. December, 2005. "The annual cost of incarceration associated with mandatory minimum sentences is $201.1 million."
  • Minimum Mandatory Sentence Final Report, [PDF] Connecticut General Assembly. December, 2005. "Mandatory minimum sentencing laws were specifically intended to deter offenders and thereby reduce crime (and curb drug use). There is no direct evidence to suggest that the state's mandatory minimum sentencing laws reduced the crime rate (or drug use)."
  • No More Shackles A report on... California's counties under the new law that limits the use of restraints on pregnant prisoners, [PDF] Legal Services for Prisoners with Children. February, 2014. "...specification that a prisoner known to be pregnant or in recovery after delivery shall never be restrained by the use of leg irons, waist chains, or handcuffs from behind the body."
  • Second Chances Juveniles serving life without parole in Michigan prisons, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union of Michigan. January, 2006. "The majority (221) of juvenile lifers are minority youth, 211 of whom are African-American. The percentage of African-American juvenile lifers (69%) is greatly disproportionate to the general population in Michigan, which is 15% African-American."

Thursday, February 27 2014:

  • Prisoners executed under civil authority in the United States, by year, region, and jurisdiction, 1977-2013., [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2013.
  • How Effective is Correctional Education, and Where Do We Go from Here? The Results of a Comprehensive Evaluation, [PDF] Rand Corporation. February, 2014. "...correctional education for incarcerated adults reduces the risk of post-release reincarceration (by 13 percentage points) and does so cost-effectively (a savings of five dollars on reincarceration costs for every dollar spent on correctional education)"
  • Investigation of the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections' Use of Solitary Confinement on Prisoners with Serious Mental Illness and/or Intellectual Disabilities, [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. February, 2014. "The manner in which PDOC subjects prisoners with SMI to prolonged periods of solitary confinement involves conditions that are often unjustifiably harsh and in which these prisoners routinely have difficulty obtaining adequate mental health care..."
  • Criminal Stigma, Race, Gender, and Employment: An Expanded Assessment of the Consequences of Imprisonment for Employment, [PDF] Arizona State University School of Criminology and Criminal Justice. February, 2014. "A key feature of a successful (crime free) return to society is employment... But prior research shows that the majority of prisoners - particularly blacks and Hispanics - face significant employment hurdles."
  • The Crucible of Adversarial Testing Access to counsel in Delaware's criminal courts, [PDF] Sixth Amendment Center. February, 2014. "As such, it is our opinion that Delaware triages justice to the detriment of a large number of defendants that come before its criminal and family courts."

Tuesday, February 25 2014:

  • Crimes Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009-2012 -Statistical Tables, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. February, 2014. "Among persons ages 12 to 15, the unadjusted rate of violent victimization was nearly three times higher for persons with disabilities (123 per 1,000) than for persons without disabilities (43 per 1,000) in 2012."
  • Stop-and-Frisk: A First Look Six Months of Data on Stop-and-Frisk Practices in Newark, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union of New Jersey. February, 2014. "Although black Newarkers represent 52 percent of the city's population, they make up 75 percent of all stops."
  • Driving While Black: Racial Profiling On Our Nation's Highways, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union. June, 1999. "All the evidence to date suggests that using traffic laws for non-traffic purposes has been a disaster for people of color and has deeply eroded public confidence in law enforcement."
  • Fout's Spring: A Model Approach to Serving High-Risk Youth, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. November, 2013. "This report analyzes a five-year time period regarding youth committed to the program and its ability to serve th[em]... [It] conclude[s] that Fouts Springs produced substantially better public safety results than DJF, in less time and at reduced cost."

Thursday, February 20 2014:

  • Hate Crime Victimization, 2004-2012 - Statistics, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. February, 2014. "In 2012, victims perceived that the offender was motivated by bias against the victim's ethnicity in 51% of hate crimes... This was a statistically significant increase from 30% of hate crimes motivated by ethnicity bias in 2011 and 22% in 2004."
  • Reducing Gun Violence in America Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis, [PDF] Center for Gun Policy and Research. February, 2014. "Unless we take action, during... four years some 48,000 Americans will be killed with guns - nearly twice as many people as were killed in combat during the entire Vietnam War."
  • Risks of Drug-Related Death, Suicide, and Homicide During the Immediate Post-Release Period Among People Released From New York City Jails, 2001-2005, [PDF] New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. August, 2011. "...formerly incarcerated people in NYC were 8 times more likely to die of drug-related causes and 5 times more likely to die from homicide during the first 2 weeks after release than were nonincarcerated NYC residents in the same 2-week period."

Tuesday, February 18 2014:

  • Solitary Confinement and Risk of Self-Harm Among Jail Inmates [PDF] American Journal of Public Health. March, 2014. "Inmates ...assigned to solitary confinement were 3.2 times as likely to commit an act of self-harm per 1000 days at some time during their incarceration as those never assigned to solitary."
  • Playbook for Change? States Reconsider Mandatory Sentences, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. February, 2014. "...there is little evidence that longer sentences have more than a marginal effect in reducing recidivism-a key performance indicator of a state's correctional system. More than four out of 10 adult offenders still return to prison within three years..."
  • Parolable Lifers in Michigan: Paying the price of unchecked discretion, [PDF] Citizens Alliance on Prisons & Public Spending. February, 2014. "With the average annual cost of incarcerating an aging prisoner at roughly $40,000, each decision to continue a lifer for five years costs taxpayers about $200,000. Research demonstrates that lifers have by far the lowest re-offense rates of all parolees"
  • Michigan's Parolable Lifers: The Cost of a Broken Process, [PDF] Citizens Alliance on Prisons & Public Spending. February, 2014. "When most of today's parole-eligible lifers were sentenced, it was by judges who believed both a life sentence and a 40-year minimum term meant release within 16 years."

Thursday, February 6 2014:

  • A Program Evaluation of In-Prison Components The Colorado Department of Corrections Sex Offender Treatment and Monitoring Program, [PDF] Central Coast Clinical and Forensic Psychology Services, Inc.. January, 2014. "Many sexual offenders who could successfully be managed in the community, had they effectively participated in treatment, may instead spend additional years in prison. This will represent a great cost to the Colorado taxpayer..."
  • Indicators of Labor Trafficking Among North Carolina Migrant Farmworkers [PDF] National Institute of Justice. August, 2013. "...Law enforcement representatives do not view labor trafficking either as a problem or as a law enforcement issue."
  • California's 58 Crime Rates: Realignment and Crime in 2012, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. January, 2014. "he present analysis finds California's 58 counties vary dramatically in their implementation of Realignment and in their respective crime rates."
  • Incarceration is associated with used syringe lending among active injection drug users with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA: a longitudinal analysis, [PDF] BMC Infectious Diseases. December, 2013. "Among people who inject drugs (PWID), exposure to correctional facilities is common and has been consistently associated with heightened risk of sharing used syringes..."
  • Healthcare Not Handcuffs: Putting the Affordable Care Act to Work for Criminal Justice and Drug Policy Reform, [PDF] ACLU. December, 2013. "...the legislation represents an opportunity to recast substance use disorders and drug use as a matter for public health rather than criminal justice..."
  • Third Time the Charm? State Laws on Medical Cannabis Distribution and Department of Justice Guidance on Enforcement, [PDF] Americans for Safe Access. November, 2013. "In fact, the Obama Administration has outspent all predecessors, with enforcement targeting medical cannabis programs and participants that has cost taxpayers over $300 million and destroyed thousands of lives."
  • Justice Reinvestment Initiative State Assessment Report [PDF] Urban Institute. January, 2014. "Since enacting JRI, all eight states - Arkansas, Hawaii, Louisiana, Kentucky, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, and South Carolina - have experienced reductions in their prison populations since the start of JRI."
  • Redefining Relationships: Explaining the Countervailing Consequences of Paternal Incarceration for Parenting, [PDF] Turney, Kristen. January, 2014. "In this paper, we consider the countervailing consequences of paternal incarceration for a host of family relationships, including fathers' parenting, mothers' parenting, and the relationship between parents."
  • Imprisonment and Disenfranchisement of Disconnected Low-Income Men [PDF] Urban Institute. August, 2013. "When broken out by race and ethnicity, striking differences appear: incarceration rates for African American men are over six times higher than rates for white men and nearly two and a half times higher than rates for Hispanic men..."
  • Demographic Patterns of Cumulative Arrest Prevalence by Ages 18 and 23 [PDF] Brame, Robert. January, 2014. "...about 30% of Black males have experienced at least one arrest by age 18 (vs. about 22% for White males); by age 23 about 49% of Black males have been arrested (vs. about 38% for White males)."
  • A Review of Mental Health Services in Local and Regional Jails [PDF] Virginia Office of the State Inspector General. January, 2014. "Jails lack the capacity to satisfy the current demand for mental health services."
  • Realignment Report An Examination of Offenders Released from State Prison in the First Year of Public Safety Realignment, [PDF] California Department of Corrections And Rehabilitation. December, 2013. "...the one-year return to prison rate was substantially less post-Realignment, since most offenders in this cohort were ineligible to return to prison on a parole violation."

Friday, January 24 2014:

Friday, January 3 2014:

  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2013. "Among those offenders who were released from federal prison in 2008 and returned within 3 years, 59% returned for a supervision violation and 39% returned for a new offense."

Tuesday, December 31 2013:

  • Homicide in the U.S. Known to Law Enforcement, 2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2013. "The U.S. homicide rate declined by nearly half (49%), from 9.3 homicides per 100,000 U.S. residents in 1992 to 4.7 in 2011, falling to the lowest level since 1963."

Tuesday, December 24 2013:

  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2012 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2013. "Both parole entries (down 9.1%) and exits (down 6.8%) declined between 2011 and 2012."
  • The Death Penalty in 2013: Year End Report, [PDF] Death Penalty Information Center. December, 2013. "Public support for the death penalty reached its lowest level in 40 years."
  • Prisoners in 2012: Trends in Admissions and Releases, 1991-2012, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2013. "The number of releases from U.S. prisons in 2012 (637,400) exceeded that of admissions for the fourth consecutive year, contributing to the decline in the total U.S. prison population."

Friday, December 20 2013:

  • Correctional Populations in the United States, 2012 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2013. "Although the correctional population declined by 0.7% during 2012, this was the slowest rate of decline observed since 2009 when the population first decreased."

Thursday, December 12 2013:

  • Victims of Identity Theft, 2012 [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. December, 2013. "About 7% of persons age 16 or older were victims of identity theft in 2012."
  • Local Government Corrections Expenditures, FY 2005-2011 [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. December, 2013. "Local governments spent 1.6% of total expenditures on corrections."
  • Assessing Pretrial Risk without a Defendant Interview [PDF] Laura and John Arnold Foundation. November, 2013. "Less than 10% of judicial officers across the country use pretrial risk assessment tools to make these decisions, in part because they require costly and time-consuming defendant interviews."
  • Investigating the Impact of Pretrial Detention on Sentencing Outcomes [PDF] Laura and John Arnold Foundation. November, 2013. "Low-risk defendants who are detained for the entire pretrial period are 5.41 times more likely to be sentenced to jail and 3.76 times more likely to be sentenced to prison when compared to low-risk defendants who are released ... before trial..."
  • The Hidden Costs of Pretrial Detention [PDF] Laura and John Arnold Foundation. November, 2013. "When held 8-14 days, low-risk defendants are 51 percent more likely to commit another crime within two years after completion of their cases than equivalent defendants held no more than 24 hours."
  • Exploring the Impact of Supervision on Pretrial Outcomes [PDF] Laura and John Arnold Foundation. November, 2013. "Defendants supervised pretrial for more than 180 days were 12% to 36% less likely to commit new crimes before case disposition."
  • The Impact of Parole in New Jersey [PDF] Pew Charitable Trusts. November, 2013. "About 25 percent of parolees released in 2008 committed new crimes and returned to prison within three years, compared with 41 percent of offenders who maxed out their sentences, were released without supervision, and subsequently committed new crimes."
  • From Courts to Communities: The Right Response to Truancy, Running Away, and Other Status Offenses, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. December, 2013. "Youth who run away from home, routinely skip school, and engage in other risky behaviors that are prohibited ...are acting out in ways that should concern the adults in their lives. They need appropriate attention-but not from the juvenile justice system."
  • A Generation Later: What We've Learned about Zero Tolerance in Schools, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. December, 2013. "Among middle school students, black youth are suspended nearly 4 times more often than white youth, and Latino youth are roughly twice as likely to be suspended or expelled than white youth."

Thursday, December 5 2013:

  • Reforming Funding to Reduce Mass Incarceration [PDF] Brennan Center for Justice. November, 2013. "More than 68 million Americans - a quarter of the nation's population - have criminal records."
  • The Impact of Federal Budget Cuts from FY10-FY13 on State and Local Public Safety, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. November, 2013. "Overall funding for Department of Justice grant programs has dropped by 43 percent since FY10."
  • An Offer You Can't Refuse How US Federal Prosecutors Force Drug Defendants to Plead Guilty, [PDF] Human Rights Watch. December, 2013. "In 2012, the average sentence of federal drug offenders convicted after trial was three times higher (16 years) than that received after a guilty plea (5 years and 4 months)."
  • State Court Organization, 2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2013. "From 1980 to 2011, the number of state trial court judges increased 11%, from 24,784 to 27,570 (figure 1). During the same period, the U.S. population increased 37%, and arrests in the U.S. increased 19%."
  • Alone & Afraid Children Held in Solitary Confinement and Isolation in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union. November, 2013. "Solitary confinement and isolation of children in juvenile facilities is psychologically, developmentally, and physically damaging and can result in long-term problems and even suicide."

Thursday, November 21 2013:

  • Intimate Partner Violence: Attributes of Victimizations, 1993-2011, [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. November, 2013. "From 1994 to 2011, the rate of serious intimate partner violence declined 72% for females and 64% for males."
  • A Lifetime of Punishment: The Impact of the Felony Drug Ban on Welfare Benefits, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. November, 2013. "... there is little reason to believe that barring individuals with felony drug convictions from receiving welfare benefits deters drug use or crime."
  • Funding Public Safety Realignment [PDF] Public Policy Institute of California. November, 2013. "Achieving lower rates of recidivism is a key goal for the state because the share of individuals returning to crime has a direct bearing on the state's ability to reduce prison crowding."
  • Impact of Realignment on County Jail Populations [PDF] Public Policy Institute of California. June, 2013. "Between June 2011 and June 2012, the state prison population declined by 26,600 inmates. Concurrently, California's county average daily jail population grew by about 8,600 inmates..."
  • Rethinking the State-Local Relationship [PDF] Public Policy Institute of California. August, 2011. "The legislature has passed and Governor Jerry Brown has signed legislation (AB 109) to send roughly 30,000 prisoners to county jail rather than state prison."
  • Locked Up & Shipped Away: Interstate Prison Transfers and the Private Prison Industry, [PDF] Grassroots Leadership. November, 2013. "Currently, prisoners in out-of-state private facilities are held approximately 450 miles to nearly 3,000 miles from their home states."

Thursday, November 14 2013:

  • Virginia's Justice System Expensive, Ineffective and Unfair, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. November, 2013. "Virginia's aggressive stance on arresting people for drug violations has had no effect on reducing drug use. In fact, illicit drug use has increased in recent years."
  • Sentencing and Prison Practices in Germany and the Netherlands: Implications for the United States, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. October, 2013. "Many countries in Northern Europe - such as Germany and the Netherlands - have significantly lower incarceration rates and make much greater use of non-custodial penalties, particularly for nonviolent crimes."
  • Report on Suicide Prevention Practices within the District of Colombia, Department of Corrections' Central Detention Facility, [PDF] DC Department of Corrections. September, 2013. "...correctional officers that are assigned to the mental health unit the Central Detention Facility do not receive any specialized mental health and/or suicide prevention training."
  • Criminal Justice in the 21st Century: Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Criminal Justice System, [PDF] National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. October, 2013. "We have to question why we are using the long arm of the criminal justice system to arrest... black and Latino men who write their name on a wall, or why we arrest kids for pot in a pocket when we don't arrest other kids for pot."
  • A Second Chance Charting a New Course for Re-Entry and Criminal Justice Reform, [PDF] Leadership Conference Education Fund. October, 2013. "...the United States currently incarcerates ...more than 2.2 million individuals. And that's just people who are physically in jail or prison. If we count people on parole and people on probation, that number jumps to almost 7 million."
  • A Living Death Life Without Parole for Nonviolent Offenses, [PDF] ACLU. November, 2013. "About 79 percent of the 3,278 prisoners serving life without parole were sentenced to die in prison for nonviolent drug crimes."

Friday, November 1 2013:

Thursday, October 31 2013:

  • Criminals and Campaign Cash The Impact of Judicial Campaign Spending on Criminal Defendants, [PDF] Center for American Progress. October, 2013. "As Illinois voters were bombarded with attack ads featuring violent criminals, the high court ruled in favor of the prosecution in 69 percent of its criminal cases—an 18 percent increase over the previous year."
  • Managing Prison Health Care Spending [PDF] The Pew Charitable Trust, The MacArthur Foundation. October, 2013. "Pew found that prison health care spending in these 44 states totaled $6.5 billion in 2008, out of $36.8 billion in overall institutional correctional expenditures."
  • Smart on Sentencing, Smart on Crime: An Argument for Reforming Louisiana's Determinate Sentencing Laws, [PDF] Reason Foundation, Pelican Institute for Public Policy, Texas Public Policy Foundation, Right on Crime. October, 2013. "Today, Louisiana has the highest incarceration rate in the country, with 868 of every 100,000 of its citizens in prison."

Friday, October 25 2013:

  • Criminal Victimization, 2012 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2013. "The apparent increase in the number and rate of serious violent crime from 2011 to 2012 was not statistically significant."

Thursday, October 24 2013:

  • Safer, Smarter, and More Cost-Efficient Approaches to Reducing Crime in Texas, [PDF] Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. October, 2013. "39% of people in prison (53,810 men and women) were incarcerated for a nonviolent, non-sexually based offense."
  • The Hospital Cost of Firearms [PDF] Urban Institute. September, 2013. "Young males (age 15–24) are the most common firearm assault victims, visiting the ED almost seven times more than the national average."
  • The Cost of Firearm Violence [PDF] Children's Safety Network. 2013. "PIRE researcher Ted Miller estimates annual firearm injury costs average $645 per gun in America."
  • Justice for Immigration's Hidden Population Protecting the Rights of Persons with Mental Disabilities in the Immigration Court and Detention System, [PDF] Texas Appleseed. March, 2010. "Detention often exacerbates mental illness,3 separates immigrants with mental disabilities from therapeutic services and family, frequently leads to misdiagnosis, and interrupts continuity of care."
  • State of Recidivism The Revolving Door of America's Prisons, [PDF] Pew Center on the States. April, 2011. "The most recent of those reports, which tracked offenders released from state prison in 1994, concluded that a little more than half of released offenders (51.8 percent) were back in prison within three years..."
  • Improving Discovery in Criminal Cases in Texas: How Best Practices Contribute to Criminal Justice, [PDF] Texas Appleseed. February, 2013. "Witness statements are often crucial to the evaluation and defense of a criminal case. While most states require pre-trial disclosure of witness statements or lists, Texas does not."
  • Thinking Outside the Cell Alternatives to Incarceration for Youth with Mental Illness, [PDF] Texas Appleseed. April, 2011. "...youth should be supported close to their families and home environments and that detention should always be a last resort."
  • Restructuring Texas' Juvenile Justice System Saving Money, Saving Communities & Saving Youth, [PDF] Texas Appleseed. March, 2011. "Building a continuum of care – reserving secure facilities for only those youth who cannot be safely treated in the community – provides for quality treatment."

Wednesday, October 23 2013:

  • Reclaiming Michigan's Throwaway Kids: Students Trapped in the School-to-Prison Pipeline, [PDF] Michigan ACLU. 2009. "When school administrators refer some student discipline matters to law enforcement agencies, there is a consequent criminalization of many students whose offenses would otherwise have been dealt with entirely by school officials."

Monday, October 21 2013:

  • The Choice is Yours: Early Implementation of a Diversion Program for Felony Offenders, [PDF] Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center. October, 2013. "As of June 30, 2013, of consented participants in the The Choice is Yours (TCY) who progressed beyond orientation and into the full enrollment phase, 4.6 percent (N=3 of 65) have been rearrested"
  • Three Quarter Houses: The View from Inside, [PDF] John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Prisoner Reentry Institute. October, 2013. "Illegal evictions derail recovery and reintegration and can lead to relapse, street homelessness, unemployment, and violations of parole mandates that can result in re-incarceration."

Friday, October 18 2013:

Thursday, October 17 2013:

  • Violent Crime in U.S. Falls to New 32-Year Low [PDF] John Jay College of Criminal Justice. October, 2013. "Compared with trends since 1980, the arrest rate for violent youth crime reached a new low every year from 2009 through 2012."
  • The Impact of the Byrne Justice Assistance Grant Program How Byrne JAG is Changing the Criminal Justice System, [PDF] National Criminal Justice Association. October, 2013. "The Byrne Justice Assistance Grant program... is the nation's cornerstone crime-fighting program, supporting the federal government's crucial role in spurring innovation, as well as testing and replicating evidence-based practices in crime control..."
  • Ending Mass Incarceration: Social Interventions that Work, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. October, 2013. "Evidence based research provides the strongest support for school and community-based interventions in lieu of residential placement."
  • Jail Mental Health Design and Programming "Options and Opportunities", [PDF] National Institute of Corrections, United States Department of Justice. July, 2013. "More people are being booked into the McLean County Detention Facility with more serious criminal charges and they are staying longer."
  • The Health Effects of Conducted Energy Weapons The Expert Panel on the Medical and Physiological Impacts of Conducted Energy Weapons, [PDF] Council of Canadian Academies. 2013. "Since 1998, at least 33 deaths have followed the deployment of a CEW in Canada."

Thursday, October 10 2013:

  • Drug Testing and Crime-Related Restrictions in TANF, SNAP, and Housing Assistance, [PDF] Congressional Research Service. September, 2013. "The 1996 welfare reform law gave states the option of requiring drug tests for TANF recipients and penalizing those who fail such tests."
  • Report of Findings: (investigation of allegations of national origin discrimination), [PDF] Civil Rights Division of the United States Department of Justice. March, 2012. "...AOC policy does not provide interpreters in child custody hearings; child support hearings, civil no-contact order 50C proceedings, foreclosures, and divorce proceedings"
  • The Missouri Model Reinventing the Practice of Rehabilitating Youthful Offenders, [PDF] Annie E. Casey Foundation. 2010. "For instance, the average length of stay in North Carolina juvenile facilities was 386 days in 2007,18 while California youth average three years in confinement."
  • State Trends Legislative Victories 2011-2013 Removing Youth from the Adult Criminal Justice System, [PDF] Campaign for Youth Justice. 2013. ""[e]ighty-five percent of youth sentenced to life without parole are people of color, with 75 percent of all cases in California being African American or Hispanic youth."

Thursday, October 3 2013:

  • More Prisoners Versus More Crime is the Wrong Question [PDF] Brookings Institution. 2013. "...America's current approach to crime control is woefully inefficient. Much greater crime control could be achieved at lower human and financial cost."
  • Turning the Corner on Mass Incarceration? [PDF] Georgetown University Law Center. 2011. "Criminal justice policies and practices are largely determined at the state and local levels, and practices vary widely among the states and even among cities, towns, and counties within a single state."
  • Democracy Imprisoned A Review of the Prevalence and Impact of Felony Disenfranchisement Laws in the United States, [PDF] The Sentencing Project et al.. September, 2013. "In three states, at least one out of every five African-American adults is disenfranchised: Florida (23%), Kentucky (22%), and Virginia (20%)."
  • The Relationship Between Gun Ownership and Firearm Homicide Rates in the US 1981-2010, [PDF] American Journal of Public Health. September, 2013. "..we found that states with higher levels of gun ownership had disproportionately large numbers of deaths from firearm-related homicides."
  • Report of the Sentencing Project to the UN Human Rights Committee Regarding Racial Disparities in the United States Criminal Justice System, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. August, 2013. "If current trends continue, one of every three black American males born today can expect to go to prison in his lifetime, as can one of every six Latino males—compared to one of every seventeen white males."
  • Prisoner Reentry Experiences of Adult Males Characteristics, Service Receipt, and Outcome of Participants in the SVORI Multi-Site Evaluation, [PDF] Pamela K. Lattimore, Danielle M. Steffey, Christy A. Visher. September, 2009. "SVORI program participation greatly increased the likelihood of receiving a wide range of services, but levels of participation were less than reported needs."
  • An Epidemic of Prosecutor Misconduct [PDF] Center for Prosecutor Integrity. 2013. "An analysis by the Northern California Innocence Project found out of 707 cases of court-identified misconduct, only six prosecutors (fewer than 1%) were disciplined by the State Bar."
  • Changing Course Preventing Gang Membership, [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2013. "The complex interplay between poverty, competition over scarce resources and crime creates environments that are conducive to the formation of gangs and their attractiveness to youth."

Wednesday, October 2 2013:

  • The 2% Death Penalty: How a Minority of Counties Produce Most Death Cases At Enormous Costs to All, [PDF] Death Penalty Information Center. October, 2013. "All of the state executions since the death penalty was reinstated stem from cases in just 15% of the counties in the U.S. All of the 3,125 inmates on death row as of January 1, 2013 came from just 20% of the counties."

Tuesday, October 1 2013:

  • When Men Murder Women: An Analysis of 2011 Homicide Data, [PDF] Violence Policy Center. September, 2013. "For homicides in which the victim to offender relationship could be identified, 94 percent of female victims (1,509 out of 1,601) were murdered by a male they knew."
  • Are Immigration Detainer Practices Rational? [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. September, 2013. "According to these data, an undocumented foreign national with a traffic offense is more likely to be booked into ICE detention than one with a homicide, forcible rape, robbery, or aggravated assault offense."

Wednesday, September 25 2013:

  • Colorado Department of Corrections Administrative Segregation and Classification Review, [PDF] National Institute of Corrections. October, 2011. "Currently about 7% (1,427) of the prison population is in administrative segregation, which is significantly above the national average of 1-2 %."
  • Police Behavior during Traffic and Street Stops, 2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2013. "Of those involved in traffic and street stops, a smaller percentage of blacks than whites believed the police behaved properly during the stop."
  • Requests for Police Assistance, 2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2013. "An estimated 1 in 8 U.S. residents age 16 or older, or 31.4 million persons, requested assistance from police at least once, most commonly to report a crime, suspicious activity, or neighborhood disturbance."

Friday, September 20 2013:

  • State Spending for Corrections: Long-Term Trends and Recent Criminal Justice Policy Reforms, [PDF] National Association of State Budget Officers. September, 2013. "State spending for corrections reached $52.4 billion in fiscal 2012 and has been higher than 7.0 percent of overall general fund expenditures every year since fiscal 2008."
  • Realigning the Revolving Door: An Analysis of California Counties' AB 109 2011-2012 Implementation Plans, [PDF] Stanford Law School Criminal Justice Center. September, 2013. "Sheriff's departments were allocated the largest amount of funding at $125,655,502, or 34.9 percent of all expenditure."
  • Coming of Age with Stop and Frisk: Experiences, Perceptions, and Public Safety Implications, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. September, 2013. "Young people who have been stopped more often are less willing to report crimes, even when they are the victims. Each additional stop in the span of a year is associated with an 8% drop in the person's likelihood of reporting a violent crime."

Thursday, September 19 2013:

  • 2001 Court Commitments to the Massachusetts Department of Correction [PDF] Massachusetts Department of Correction. March, 2003. "Inmates were committed in 2001 for the following offense groups: Person (31%), Drug (31%), Property (16%), "Other" (15%), Sex (7%)."
  • The Missouri Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Missouri's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. April, 2012. "Of those sixty-eight inmates who were executed...Fifty-two ...were sentenced to death for murdering a white victim, while sixteen were sentenced to death for murdering an African-American victim."
  • The Ohio Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Ohio's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. September, 2007. "...the chances of a death sentence in Hamilton County are 2.7 times higher than in the rest of the state, 3.7 times higher than in Cuyahoga County, and 6.2 times higher than in Franklin County."
  • The Pennsylvania Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Pennsylvania's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. October, 2007. "The study found that defendants were more than twice as likely to receive the death penalty when the jury was composed of six or more white male jurors..."
  • The Tennessee Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Tennessee's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. March, 2007. "Often, however, jury instructions are poorly written and poorly conveyed, which confuses jurors about the applicable law and the extent of their responsibilities."
  • The Texas Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Texas's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. September, 2013. "...since 1992, Texas has paid over $60 million to those it has wrongfully imprisoned..."
  • Administrative Investigation The facts and circumstances surrounding the events, which Inmate John Geoghan's death on August 23, 2003, [PDF] Massachusetts Administrative Investigation Panel. 2003. "...the known ability of inmates to prevent staff from opening the cell doors in SBCC... also played a role."
  • Criminal: How Lockup Quotas and, [PDF] In the Public Interest. September, 2013. "Essentially, the state would have to guarantee that its prison would be 90 percent filled for the next 20 years (a quota), or pay the company for unused prison beds if the number of inmates dipped below 90 percent capacity at any point..."

Wednesday, September 18 2013:

  • Life Goes On: The Historic Rise in Life Sentences in America, [PDF] Sentencing Project. September, 2013. "As of 2012, there were 159,520 people serving life sentences, an 11.8% rise since 2008."

Thursday, September 12 2013:

  • The Alabama Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Alabama's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. June, 2006. "...the State of Alabama does not require that an indigent individual charged with or convicted of a capital felony be appointed counsel and provided with resources for experts and investigators at every stage of the proceedings."
  • The Arizona Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Arizona's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. June, 2006. "The State of Arizona provides only one to two percent of the funding for the cost of capital representation, significantly underfunding these indigent defense services."
  • The Florida Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Florida's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. September, 2006. "Since 1973, the State of Florida has exonerated twenty-two death-row inmates, which is more than any other state in the nation."
  • The Georgia Death Penalty Report An Analysis of Georgia's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. January, 2006. " of August 1998, fifty-five of the 119 inmates on Georgia's death row were black and of the 88 persons awaiting death penalty trial, 53 were black males, 26 were white males, 2 were black females, 4 were white females, and 3 were Hispanic males."
  • The Indiana Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Indiana's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. February, 2007. "...white offenders received harsher sentences for murder than offenders belonging to racial or ethnic minority groups"
  • The Kentucky Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Kentucky's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. December, 2011. "Kentucky does not require the accreditation of its forensic laboratories, MEO, or any of the 120 county coroner offices."

Tuesday, September 10 2013:

  • Progress Report: Three Strikes Reform (Proposition 36), [PDF] Stanford Law School Three Strikes Project and NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund. September, 2013. "Fewer than 2% of the prisoners released under Prop 36 have been charged with new crimes, according to state and county records. The average recidivism rate over a similar period of time for non-Prop 36 inmates leaving California prisons is 16%."
  • Technology, Teen Dating, Violence and Abuse, and Bullying [PDF] Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center. August, 2013. "26% of youth in a relationship said they experienced some form of cyber dating abuse victimization in the prior year. Females were twice as likely as males to report being a victim of sexual cyber dating abuse in the prior year."

Friday, September 6 2013:

  • The Virginia Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Virginia's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. August, 2013. "Between 1989 and 2013, at least 18 people in Virginia whose convictions were based largely on eyewitness misidentifications have been exonerated of serious violent felonies following DNA testing or the discovery of new evidence."

Thursday, September 5 2013:

  • Measuring the Prevalence of Crime with the National Crime Victimization Survey, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2013. "The percentage of violent crime victims who experienced two or more victimizations during a year declined from 23% in 1993 to 17% in 2010. In 2010, this 17% accounted for more than half (54%) of all violent victimizations."
  • Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, [PDF] Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. September, 2013. "Among adults aged 50 to 64, the rate of current illicit drug use increased during the past decade. For adults aged 50-54, the rate increased from 3.4% in 2002 to 7.2% in 2012, and among those aged 55-59 it increased from 1.9% in 2002 to 6.6% in 2012."

Wednesday, September 4 2013:

  • Highlights of the 2011 National Youth Gang Survey [PDF] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. September, 2013. "Change estimates from 2010 to 2011 indicate a measurable increase in gangs and gang members and a nearly 8-percent drop in the number of recorded gang-related homicides."

Wednesday, August 28 2013:

  • Improvements Needed in Bureau of Prisons' Monitoring and Evaluation of Impact of Segregated Housing, [PDF] Government Accountability Office. May, 2013. "Without an assessment of the impact of segregation on institutional safety or study of the long-term impact of segregated housing on inmates, BOP cannot determine the extent to which segregated housing achieves its stated purpose."

Monday, August 26 2013:

Thursday, August 22 2013:

  • Evaluating the Effectiveness of Correctional Education A Meta-Analysis of Programs That Provide Education to Incarcerated Adults, [PDF] RAND Corporation. August, 2013. "On average, inmates who participated in correctional education programs had 43% lower odds of recidivating than inmates who did not, and the odds of obtaining employment postrelease was 13% higher than those who had not participated."

Tuesday, August 20 2013:

  • International Growth Trends in Prison Privatization [PDF] Sentencing Project. August, 2013. "Prison privatization is most concentrated and most fully privatized in a handful of predominantly English-speaking countries. These include Australia, Scotland, England and Wales, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States."
  • Motivation for Treatment Among Women Offenders in Prison-Based Treatment and Longitudinal Outcomes Among Those Who Participate in Community Aftercare, [PDF] National Institutes of Health. September, 2011. "Participants who completed the aftercare program, or who had longer treatment duration, and those who had participated in an in-prison program prior to parole had reduced risk of recidivism."

Friday, August 16 2013:

  • Crime in California 2012 [PDF] California Attorney General and California Department of Justice. August, 2013. "The homicide rate remained at a rate 18 percent lower than the average homicide rate for the prior ten years."

Thursday, August 15 2013:

  • Treatment of the Highest-risk Offenders Can Avoid Costs [PDF] Oregon Secretary of State. August, 2013. "Oregon taxpayers and victims could have avoided about $21.6 million in costs if substance abuse treatment had been provided to all of the highest-risk offenders."
  • Re-Entry Policy Study Commission report Indianapolis-Marion County City-County Council, [PDF] Indianapolis-Marion County City-County Council Re-Entry Policy Study Commission. August, 2013. "Employment was the number one predictor of recidivism. The recidivism rate among the unemployed offenders was 42.4%; recidivism among the employed offenders was 26.2%."

Tuesday, August 6 2013:

  • The Effect of Immigration Detainers in a Post-Realignment California [PDF] CJCJ. August, 2013. "89 percent of said non-criminal ICE detentions in California are in local jails and facilities. These detentions cost taxpayers approximately $16.3 million for local jail holds during the 30-month period studied"
  • Recidivism in Delaware: An Analysis of Prisoners Released in 2008 and 2009, [PDF] Delaware Criminal Justice Council. July, 2013. "Recidivism rates are generally higher for Blacks than for Whites, and higher for males than for females. Additionally, recidivism rates were lower for those who had longer prison sentences (i.e., lengths of stay)."

Thursday, August 1 2013:

  • Wanted: Accurate FBI Background Checks for Employment [PDF] National Employment Law Project. July, 2013. "About 1.8 million workers a year are subject to FBI background checks that include faulty or incomplete information. 600,000 of those workers may be prejudiced in their job search when reports do not include up-to-date/accurate information."

Wednesday, July 31 2013:

  • Preliminary Crack Retroactivity Data Report Fair Sentencing Act, [PDF] U.S. Sentencing Commission. July, 2013. "After federal sentencing guideline changes on crack cocaine were made retroactive, more than 7,300 defendants got on average a 29-month reduction in their sentences."

Monday, July 29 2013:

  • Race, Justifiable Homicide, and Stand Your Ground Laws: Analysis of FBI Supplementary Homicide Report Data, [PDF] Urban Institute. July, 2013. "Regardless of how the data are analyzed, substantial racial disparities exist in the outcomes of cross-race homicides. In addition, the recent expansion of Stand Your Ground laws in two dozen states appears to worsen the disparity."

Thursday, July 25 2013:

  • Prisoners in 2012 - Advance Counts [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2013. "The U.S. prison population declined for the third consecutive year in 2012, from a high of 1,615,487 inmates in 2009 to 1,571,013 at yearend 2012."
  • Racial Disparities in Arrests in the District of Columbia, 2009-2011 [PDF] Washington Lawyers' Committee. July, 2013. "While there are about as many African Americans aged 18 or older (47.6%) as there are adult whites (42%) living in this city, eight out of 10 adults arrested for a crime in Washington are African American."

Wednesday, July 24 2013:

  • A Death Before Dying: Solitary Confinement on Death Row, [PDF] ACLU. July, 2013. "93 percent of states lock up their death row prisoners for 22 or more hours per day. Most of these prisoners live under conditions of extreme social isolation and enforced idleness."
  • Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Colorado's continued warehousing of mentally ill prisoners in solitary confinement, [PDF] ACLU of Colorado. July, 2013. "As of March 2013, CDOC housed at least 87 seriously mentally ill prisoners in solitary confinement, 54 of whom have been living in isolation for over a year and 14 of whom have been in solitary confinement for more than 4 years."

Friday, July 19 2013:

  • The Potential of Community Corrections to Improve Safety and Reduce Incarceration, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. July, 2013. "Community-based supervision has always had the potential to support individual change, help make communities safer, and reduce public costs. Now it's getting more attention due to budget constraints, prison proliferation, and high recidivism rates."

Thursday, July 18 2013:

  • Juvenile Incarceration, Human Capital and Future Crime: Evidence from Randomly-Assigned Judges, [PDF] Brown University, MIT. June, 2013. ""Estimates suggest that juvenile incarceration results in large decreases in the likelihood of high school completion and large increases in the likelihood of adult incarceration.""

Thursday, June 27 2013:

  • Jails in Indian Country, 2012 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2013. "At midyear 2012, a total of 2,364 inmates were confined in Indian country jails—a 5.6% increase from the 2,239 inmates confined at midyear 2011."

Wednesday, June 26 2013:

  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2012, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2013. "In 2011, about 28 percent of 12- to 18-year-old students reported being bullied at school during the school year."

Monday, June 24 2013:

  • Keeping Kids In School and Out of Court: Report and Recommendations, [PDF] New York City School-Justice Partnership Task Force. May, 2013. "During the School Year 2012 there were 882 arrests and 1,666 summonses issued, with over-representation of students of color. Suspension and school arrest patterns are less a function of student misbehavior than a function of the adult response."
  • The Comeback States: Reducing youth incarceration in the United States, [PDF] National Juvenile Justice Network and the Texas Public Policy Foundation. June, 2013. "Six policies encourage reductions in reliance on detention and incarceration, including disallowing incarceration for minor offenses, and increasing the availability of evidence-based alternatives to incarceration."

Friday, June 21 2013:

  • Household Burglary, 1994-2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2013. "The rate of household burglary decreased 56% from 1994 to 2011. During this time period, households with an income of $14,999 or less were victimized at a higher rate than households with higher incomes."

Thursday, June 20 2013:

  • Felony Disenfranchisement: A Primer, [PDF] Sentencing Project. June, 2019. "Only two states, Maine and Vermont, do not restrict the voting rights of anyone with a felony conviction, including those in prison."

Wednesday, June 19 2013:

  • Collecting DNA at Arrest: Policies, Practices, and Implications, [PDF] Urban Institute. May, 2013. "Arrestee DNA laws led to more profiles in CODIS, contributed to additional hits, imposed significant administrative and analytic burdens on many state crime laboratories and collecting agencies, and raised important legal and policy issues."

Monday, June 17 2013:

  • The War on Marijuana in Black and White: Billions of Dollars Waster on Racially Biased Arrests, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union. June, 2013. "On average, a Black person is 3.73 times more likely to be arrested for marijuana possession than a white person, even though Blacks and whites use marijuana at similar rates"
  • Understanding and Addressing Youth Violence in the Texas Juvenile Justice Department, [PDF] Michelle Deitch, Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. May, 2013. "Although they represented 57% of TJJD's youth population, youth ages 17-18 committed only 44% of violations involving violence/escapes or riots/group disturbances in 2012. 14- 15-year olds were 12% of the population but 25% of serious violations."

Thursday, June 13 2013:

  • Priorities for Research to Reduce the Threat of Firearm-Related Violence [PDF] Institute of Medicine. June, 2013. "The complexity and frequency of firearm violence, combined with its impact on the health and safety of Americans, suggest that a public health approach should be incorporated into the strategies used to prevent future harm and injuries."
  • The Pennsylvania Juvenile Justice Recidivism Report: Youth with a 2007 Case Closure , [PDF] Pennsylvanie Juvenile Court Judges' Commission. April, 2013. "Youth with only one written allegation in their juvenile offending history (i.e., first time offenders) reoffended at a rate of 13%. Conversely, juveniles with four or more previous written allegations re-offended at a rate of 37%."

Monday, June 10 2013:

  • PTSD, Trauma, and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Detained Youth [PDF] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. June, 2013. "Of the study sample, 92.5 percent of youth had experienced at least one trauma, 84 percent had experienced more than one trauma, and 56.8 percent were exposed to trauma six or more times."
  • Sexual Victimization in Juvenile Facilities Reported by Youth, 2012 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2013. "An estimated 9.5% of adjudicated youth in state juvenile facilities and state contract facilities (1,720 youth) reported experiencing one or more incidents of sexual victimization in the past 12 months or since admission, if less than 12 months."

Friday, May 24 2013:

  • Turning Migrants Into Criminals: The Harmful Impact of US Border Prosecutions, [PDF] Human Rights Watch. May, 2013. "But the prosecutions of illegal entry offenses happening today are overbroad... and are thus draining resources that could go to efforts to increase public safety and create a more secure, efficient, and humane immigration system."

Wednesday, May 22 2013:

  • Jail Inmates at Midyear 2012 - Statistical Tables [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 2013. "The average daily population (ADP) in jails remained stable from 735,565 during the 12-month period ending June 30, 2011, and 735,983 during the 12-month period ending June 30, 2012."

Friday, May 17 2013:

  • Realignment Report A One-year Examination of Offenders Released from State Prison in the First Six Months of Public Safety Realignment, [PDF] California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. May, 2013. "The 1-year arrest/conviction rates of offenders released pre and post-Realignment is similar, but the 1-year return to prison rate was substantially less post-Realignment since most offenders in this cohort were ineligible to return on a parole violation."

Thursday, May 16 2013:

  • Report of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence, [PDF] Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence. December, 2012. "It is crucial that incarceration of juveniles not involve sanctions that subject them to additional violence, both to protect them from harm and to avoid teaching them by example that violence is an appropriate means to control other people's behavior."

Wednesday, May 15 2013:

  • Report to the Governor - 2012 [PDF] Oregon Commission on Public Safety. December, 2012. "Oregon's imprisonment rate has grown at over three times the rate of the national average in the last decade. During that same period, prison admissions have grown to include increasing percentages of nonviolent offenders."

Wednesday, May 8 2013:

  • Please Deposit All of Your Money: Kickbacks, Rates, and Hidden Fees in the Jail Phone Industry, [PDF] Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2013. "This report is the first to address in depth the many fees prison phone customers must pay. Fees have an enormous impact on prison phone bills, making up 38% of the $1 billion annual price of calling home."
  • Firearm Violence, 1993-2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 2013. "Nonfatal firearm crimes declined 69%, from 1.5 million victimizations in 1993 to 467,300 victimizations in 2011."
  • Gun Homicide Rate Down 49% Since 1993 Peak; Public Unaware: Pace of Decline Slows in Past Decade, [PDF] Pew Research Center. May, 2013. "Compared with '93, the peak of U.S. gun homicides, the gun homicide rate was 49% lower in 2010, and there were fewer deaths, even though the nation's population grew. 56% of Americans believe gun crime is higher than in '93, only 12% think it is lower."

Friday, May 3 2013:

  • Blueprint for a Public Health and Safety Approach to Drug Policy [PDF] New York Academy of Medicine and the Drug Policy Alliance. March, 2013. "This report finds two clear themes: 1) structural issues (like income disparities, education, & opportunity) profoundly shape experiences of drug policies; 2) when problematic drug use does occur, our response should involve help instead of sanctions."

Thursday, May 2 2013:

  • The Federal Bureau of Prisons' Compassionate Release Program [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector, General Evaluation and Inspections Division. April, 2013. "Procedures and timeliness standards do not reference the compassionate release program or acknowledge the special circumstances of an inmate requesting compassionate release (particularly those with terminal medical conditions/limited life expectancies)."
  • Lifer Parole Recidivism Report [PDF] California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. January, 2013. "Lifer parolees receive fewer new convictions within three years of being released to parole (4.8 vs. 51.5%, respectively). They also have a markedly lower return to prison recidivism rate than non-lifer parolees (13.3 vs. 65.1%, respectively)."

Wednesday, May 1 2013:

  • Raised on the Registry: The Irreparable Harm of Placing Children on Sex Offender Registries in the US, Human Rights Watch. April, 2013. "Good public policy should deliver measurable protection to the community and measurable benefit to victims. There is little reason to believe that registering people who commit sexual offenses as children delivers either."

Tuesday, April 30 2013:

  • National Prison Rape Elimination Report [PDF] National Prison Rape Elimination Commission. June, 2009. "Many victims cannot safely and easily report sexual abuse, and those who speak out often do so to no avail. Reporting procedures must be improved to instill confidence and protect individuals from retaliation without relying on isolation."
  • Effective Approaches for Reducing Prostitution in Texas: Proactive and Cost-Efficient Strategies to Help People Leave the Streets, [PDF] Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. April, 2013. "There have been no studies that have shown prostitution to be a significant danger to public safety, whereas a tradition of punitive responses to prostitution has clearly demonstrated the high social and economic costs."

Thursday, April 25 2013:

  • Wisconsin's Mass Incarceration of African American Males: Workforce Challenges for 2013, [PDF] Employment and Training Institute, University of Wisconsin. April, 2013. "From 1990 to 2011 Wisconsin incarcerated 26,222 African American men from Milwaukee County in state correctional facilities. As of January 2012, 20,591 men had been released back into the community and 5,631 were still imprisoned."

Tuesday, April 23 2013:

  • Missouri: Justice Rationed An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Juvenile Defense Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF] National Juvenile Defender Center. April, 2013. "Missouri's indigent defense system is in crisis and has suffers crushing caseloads and inadequate resources. The system remains broken and forced to ration services, and youth are discouraged from and systematically denied counsel throughout the state."

Friday, April 19 2013:

  • Communities, Evictions & Criminal Convictions Public Housing and Disparate Impact: A Model Policy, [PDF] Formerly Incarcerated & Convicted People's Movement. April, 2013. "The focus of this report is to isolate and clarify one element of housing discrimination: excluding people with criminal records, and their whole families, from public housing."

Wednesday, April 17 2013:

  • Ending Mass Incarceration: Charting a New Justice Reinvestment, [PDF] Experts from a coalition of organizations including The Sentencing Project, JFA Institute, the American Civil Liberties Union, and Justice Strategies.. April, 2013. "While JRI has played a significant role in softening the ground and moving the dial on mass incarceration reform, it runs the danger of institutionalizing mass incarceration at current levels."
  • Imported Constituents: Incarcerated People and Political Clout in Connecticut, Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2013. "Seven of the house districts drawn by the Connecticut General Assembly in 2011 use, to meet their required populations, a substantial number of incarcerated people whose home addresses are in other districts."

Thursday, April 11 2013:

  • Buried Alive: Solitary Confinement in the US Detention System, [PDF] Physicians for Human Rights. April, 2013. "...solitary confinement can cause severe and lasting physiological/psychological harm. Moreover, in many cases, the resulting harm rises to the level of torture or cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment, in violation of domestic and international law."
  • Workplace Violence Against Government Employees, 1994-2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2013. "In 2011, excluding law enforcement and security employees, the rate of workplace violence against government employees (8.7 per 1,000) was greater than the rate for private-sector employees (4.7 per 1,000)."
  • Gideon at 50: Three Reforms to Revive the Right to Counsel, [PDF] Brennan Center for Justice. April, 2013. "Recommendations include: legalizing some petty offenses or reclassifying them into non-jailable civil infractions; increase funding for public defense; Increase effectiveness by funding regular trainings for attorneys and adding social workers."

Wednesday, April 10 2013:

  • Death Sentences and Executions 2012 [PDF] Amnesty International. April, 2013. "While at least 682 people were executed in 2012 - in 2011, 680 executions were recorded - the number of people recorded as sentenced to death fell from 1,923 (in 63 countries) in 2011 to 1,722 (in 58 countries) in 2012."

Tuesday, April 9 2013:

  • New Jersey Jail Population Analysis: Identifying Opportunities to Safely and Responsibly Reduce the Jail Populations, [PDF] Luminosity and Drug Policy Alliance. March, 2013. "Inmates who had been indicted but had not yet had a trial had been in custody on average 314 days. 12% of the entire jail population was held in custody solely due to an inability to pay $2500 or less to secure their release pending disposition."
  • Fostering Change: How investing in D.C.'s child welfare system can keep kids out of the prison pipeline, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. April, 2013. "In 2010, parental incarceration surpassed parental substance abuse as the third highest reason for District children entering care, and in 2010, one in every six kids entering foster care had anincarcerated parent."

Monday, April 8 2013:

Friday, April 5 2013:

  • Investigating the Relationship Between Housing Voucher Use and Crime [PDF] Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy and the Moelis Institution for Affordable Housing Policy. April, 2013. (Our research shows that crime is not following households with vouchers into neighborhoods. However, we do find a relationship between current crime and future voucher use, suggesting that households with vouchers are locating where crime is already high.)
  • The Outskirts of Hope: How Ohio's Debtors' Prisons Are Ruining Lives and Costing Communities, [PDF] ACLU of Ohio. April, 2013. "In the second half of 2012, over 20% of all bookings in the Huron County Jail were related to failure to pay fines. Between July 15 and August 31, 2012 at least 45 people in Cuyahoga County and 57 in Erie County were jailed for failure to pay,"

Thursday, April 4 2013:

  • Effective Approaches for Reducing Graffiti in Texas: Strategies to Save Money and Beautify Communities, [PDF] Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. March, 2013. "Efforts aimed at eradicating graffiti should revolve around diversion of graffitists into positive, artistic endeavors that include communities, while reserving the prosecution of graffitists only for those who are involved in other, more serious crimes."
  • The National Registry of Exonerations: Update 2012, [PDF] National Registry of Exonerations. April, 2013. "For all exonerations, the most common causal factors that we have identified are: perjury or false accusation (52%); official misconduct (43%); and mistaken eyewitness identification (41%)."

Tuesday, March 26 2013:

  • Crime, Cost, and Consequences: Is it Time to Get Smart on Crime?, [PDF] MassInc, Community Resources for Justice. March, 2013. "If Massachusetts continues on the current course, the analysis contained in this report suggests the state will spend more than $2 billion over the next decade on corrections policies that produce limited public safety benefit."

Monday, March 25 2013:

Friday, March 22 2013:

  • Massachusetts Department of Correction - 2012 [PDF] Gordon Haas, Norfolk Lifers Group. March, 2013. "Report compares the MA Department of Corrections's stated goals with current practices and outcomes, making suggestions for improvements to promote rehabilitation and reduce recidivism."
  • Hate Crime Victimization, 2003-2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2013. "The percentage of hate crimes motivated by religious bias more than doubled between 2003-06 and 2007-11 (from 10% to 21%), while the percentage motivated by racial bias dropped slightly (from 63% to 54%)."
  • Rationing Justice: The Underfunding of Assigned Counsel Systems -- A 50-State Survey of Trial Court Assigned Counsel Rates, [PDF] National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. March, 2013. "A combination of low hourly rates, fee limitations and the use of flat fees discourages attorneys from providing zealous representation and can give rise to serious conflicts of interest."

Thursday, March 21 2013:

  • Beyond Realignment: Counties' Large Disparities in Imprisonment Underlie Ongoing Prison Crisis, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. March, 2013. "High-imprisonment, state-dependent jurisdictions consume excessive prison space, contribute to overcrowding and lawsuits, and create higher state taxpayer liabilities than do low-imprisonment, self-reliant counties that manage more offenders locally."

Wednesday, March 20 2013:

  • One Million Police Hours Making 440,000 Marijuana Possession Arrests In New York City, 2002‐2012, [PDF] Drug Policy Alliance. March, 2013. "From 2002 to 2012 police have spend one million hours making 440,000 marijuana possession arrests. That is the equivalent of having 31 police officers working eight hours a day, 365 days a year, for 11 years, making only marijuana possession arrests."

Friday, March 15 2013:

  • Mapping Muslims: NYPD Spying and its Impact on American Muslims, [PDF] The Muslim American Civil Liberties Coalition (MACLC), The Creating Law Enforcement Accountability & Responsibility (CLEAR), The Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (AALDEF).. March, 2013. "Interviewees noted deep apprehension of the NYPD's intentions and practices towards them, including day-to-day interactions with beat-police officers such as filing stolen phone complaints, asking an officer for directions, or reporting hate crimes."

Tuesday, March 12 2013:

  • Predicting Erroneous Convictions: A Social Science Approach to Miscarriages of Justice, [PDF] Jon B. Gould, Julia Carrano, Richard Leo, Joseph Young. 2011. "Results indicate that 10 factors help explain why an innocent defendant, once indicted, ends up erroneously convicted rather than released."

Friday, March 8 2013:

  • Do Foreclosures Cause Crime? [PDF] Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy. February, 2013. "Foreclosure starts have a positive and significant impact on crime. An additional foreclosure start in the prior quarter is associated with a in increase of 0.7% in total crime, 1.5% in violent crime, and 0.8% in public order crimes."

Thursday, March 7 2013:

  • Female Victims of Sexual Violence, 1994-2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2013. "From 1995 to 2010, the estimated annual rate of female rape or sexual assault victimizations declined 58%, from 5.0 victimizations per 1,000 females age 12 or older to 2.1 per 1,000."

Wednesday, March 6 2013:

  • The National Institute of Justice's Evaluation of Second Chance Act Adult Reentry Courts: Program Characteristics and Preliminary Themes from Year 1, [PDF] National Institute of Justice. March, 2013. "Characteristics common across most NESCAARC sites include the emphasis on post-release service delivery, relevant services, case management, court hearings for the purpose of monitoring progress, drug testing, and a team approach to decision-making."

Tuesday, March 5 2013:

  • The Case for Independent Oversight of Texas' Prison System: Pursuing Accountability, Efficiency, and Transparency, [PDF] Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. March, 2013. "For Texas communities and the State, there are clear public safety and cost-savings benefits to developing a system of independent, external oversight for Texas prisons, but those living and working in the prisons on a daily basis will benefit most."

Monday, March 4 2013:

  • Dawson State Jail: The Case for Closure, [PDF] Sentencing Project, Grassroots Leadership. March, 2013. "In recent years there have been reports of horrible conditions in the Dawson State Jail involving medical care and inadequate staffing levels. According to reports by CBS News DFW, DSJ has experienced seven deaths since 2004."
  • Racial Disproportionality in the American Prison Population: Using the Blumstein Method to Address the Critical Race and Justice Issue of the 21st Century, [PDF] Justice Policy Journal. September, 2008. "Two key themes are that a national figure of explained racial disparity in imprisonment is not generalizable to the states and that drug offenses consistently have one of the lowest amounts of disproportionality explained by arrest."

Thursday, February 28 2013:

  • National Study of Jail Suicide: 20 Years Later, [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. April, 2010. "In 2006, the suicide rate in detention facilities was 36 deaths per 100,000 inmates, which is approximately 3 times greater than that in the general population. This rate represents a dramatic decrease in the rate of suicide in detention facilities."
  • Prison Suicide: An Overview and Guide to Prevention, [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. June, 1995. "During the past 10 years, the rate of suicide in prisons throughout the country was 20.6 deaths per 100,000 inmates. States with small prison populations appear to have exceedingly high rates of suicide -- often more than 2.5 times the national average."

Wednesday, February 27 2013:

  • The Changing Racial Dynamics of Women's Incarceration [PDF] Sentencing Project. February, 2013. "In 2000 black women were incarcerated at six times the rate of white women. By 2009 that ratio had declined by 53%, to 2.8:1. This shift was a result of both declining incarceration of African American women and rising incarceration of white women."
  • Reducing Youth Incarceration in the United States a KIDS COUNT Data Snapshot, [PDF] Annie E. Casey Foundation. February, 2013. "Since 1995 the rate of youth in confinement dropped by 41 percent, from 381 per 100,000 youth to 225 per 100,000."
  • Common Ground: Lessons Learned from Five States that Reduced Juvenile Confinement by More than Half, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. February, 2013. "For all states and the District of Columbia, the number of youth in residential placement dropped steadily from its high of 107,493 in 1999 to 70,792 in 2010."
  • Raising the Age of Juvenile Court Jurisdiction The future of 17-year-olds in Illinois' justice system, [PDF] Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission. February, 2013. "Adding 17-year-old misdemeanants to the juvenile justice system in 2010 did not crash it. In fact, due to a sharp decline in juvenile crime, there are currently fewer juvenile arrests than when the General Assembly began debating the change in 2008."

Monday, February 25 2013:

  • Who Are the Targets of ICE Detainers? [Website] Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse. February, 2013. "In more than two out of three (77.4%) of the detainers issued by ICE, the record shows that the individual who had been identified had no criminal record — either at the time the detainer was issued or subsequently."

Thursday, February 21 2013:

  • The Chicago Lawyers' Committee's Review of Alternatives for Non- Violent Offenders, [PDF] Chicago Lawyers' Committee. 2011. "This article first addresses specific reforms that have been implemented nationwide relating to non-violent offenders, highlights examples of states that have implemented more aggressive aspects of such reforms, and discusses Illinois' policies."

Wednesday, February 20 2013:

  • Improved Evaluations and Increased Coordination Could Improve Cell Phone Detection, [PDF] Government Accountability Office. September, 2011. "77% of all cell phones confiscated at BOP institutions are found at prison camps, despite the fact that prison camps have accounted for only about 13 percent of BOP's inmate population from fiscal years 2008-2010."
  • Eligibility and Capacity Impact Use of Flexibilities to Reduce Inmates' Time, [PDF] Government Accountability Office. February, 2012. "Increased funding would have reduced the Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program wait lists and enabled eligible inmates to enter the program early enough to earn their maximum allowable sentence reductions."

Friday, February 15 2013:

  • The Federal Prison Population Buildup: Overview, Policy Changes, Issues, and Options, [PDF] Congressional Research Service. January, 2013. "The per capita cost of incarceration for all inmates increased from $19,571 in FY2000 to $26,094 in FY2011. During this same period of time, appropriations for the BOP increased from $3.668 billion to $6.381 billion."

Thursday, February 14 2013:

  • Policing and the Economic Downturn Striving for Efficiency Is the New Norm, [PDF] Police Executive Research Forum. February, 2013. "In 2010, 58% of responding agencies said that police services in their community had already declined or would decline with the implementation of recent or planned budget cuts. In 2012 that figure dropped to 44%."

Wednesday, February 13 2013:

  • Justice Re-investment in New Orleans [PDF] Spatial Information Design Lab. February, 2009. "By 2007, the citywide incarceration rate was at 57 percent of its 2003 level, while the overall population was estimated at 71 percent of its pre-Katrina figure."
  • Institution Length of Stay: January 2011, [PDF] Massachusetts Department of Correction. January, 2011. "This research brief provides an overview of the number of days that inmates spend at each facility—the average institution length of stay."

Tuesday, February 12 2013:

  • Wrong Way for Texas The Driver Responsibility Program: A Texas-Sized Failure, [PDF] Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. February, 2013. "Surcharges levied under the DRP are significantly higher for DWI offenses than those assessed for other traffic offenses. Over the past decade, Texas' rate for alcohol-impaired fatalities has increased compared to other states."
  • The Crisis Continues Inside Police Internal Affairs [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union of New Jersey. February, 2013. "164 of the local police departments we spoke to unlawfully denied complaints by telephone. Only 207 of the 371 New Jersey police departments that our volunteers spoke to indicated that they would allow complaints to be filed by telephone."

Friday, February 8 2013:

  • Does Federal Financial Aid Affect College Enrollment? Evidence from Drug Offenders and the Higher Education Act of 1998, [PDF] Cornell University. January, 2013. "The ban on Federal financial aid increased the amount of time between high school graduation and college enrollment, affected students were less likely to ever enroll in college, and the law did not deter young people from committing drug felonies."
  • Out and Down: The Effects of Incarceration on Psychiatric Disorders and Disability, [PDF] University of Pennsylvania, The Pennsylvania State University, University of Minnesota. February, 2011. "Incarceration has a robust relationship with subsequent mood disorders, related to feeling"

Thursday, February 7 2013:

  • Return to Sender: Postcard-only Mail Policies in Jail, [PDF] Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2013. "Postcard-only policies run contrary to prevailing correctional standards and best practices, and the vast majority of jail facilities around the country, as well as all prisons, successfully manage mail systems without postcard-only policies."
  • How New York City Reduced Mass Incarceration: A Model for Change?, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice, the Brennan Center for Justice, and the JFA Institute. January, 2013. "From 1988 to 2008, the number of felonies reported by New York City to the FBI dropped from 719,887 to 198,419 – a remarkable 72 percent reduction. Outside of New York City, the number of crimes declined by half as much, only 38 percent."

Wednesday, February 6 2013:

  • If Not Now, When? A Survey of Juvenile Justice Training in America's Police Academies, [PDF] Strategies for Youth. February, 2013. "Only 2 states' written curricula included training on youth development issues, such as communication techniques with juveniles, understanding the problems adolescents face and recognizing the sources and triggers of their behavior."

Tuesday, February 5 2013:

  • Making the Transition: Rethinking Jail Reentry in Los Angeles County, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. February, 2013. "The most common hurdles that people held in the jail expected to encounter upon release were related to employment, housing, and substance use. Only six people (out of the 80 people interviewed) reported receiving reentry services while in the jail."

Monday, February 4 2013:

  • The War on Drugs: Undermining peace and security, [PDF] International Drug Policy Consortium. February, 2013. "Total expenditure on drug law enforcement by the US has been estimated at over $1 trillion during the last 40 years."

Friday, February 1 2013:

  • California's Urban Crime Increase in 2012: Is "Realignment" to Blame?, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. January, 2013. "The 11 counties that realigned offenders at lower rates showed greater increases in violent and property crime than the 10 counties that realigned offenders at higher rates."

Thursday, January 31 2013:

  • Adult and Juvenile Correctional Population Projections Fiscal Years 2013 to 2018, [PDF] State of Texas Legislative Budget Board. January, 2013. "The Texas adult incarceration population is projected to remain relatively flat in fiscal years 2013 and 2014 and begin a gradual increase to reach 156,877 by the end of fiscal year 2018."
  • Onsite Assessment RE Cross-Gender Supervision in Correctional Facilities [Tutwiler Prison for Women], [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. November, 2012. "The facility culture is not psychologically safe for women offenders. The women and staff report that Tutwiler is a repressive and intimidating environment. Inmates reported being in fear of retaliation from staff if they reject staff's sexual advances."

Tuesday, January 29 2013:

  • The State of Sentencing 2012: Developments in Policy and Practice, [PDF] Sentencing Project. January, 2013. "State lawmakers in at least 24 states adopted 41 criminal justice policies that in 2012 may contribute to downscaling prison populations and eliminating barriers to reentry while promoting effective approaches to public safety."

Thursday, January 24 2013:

  • Handcuffs on Success The Extreme School Discipline Crisis in Mississippi Public Schools, Advancement Project, American Civil Liberties Union of Mississippi, Mississippi State Conference of the NAACP, Mississippi Coalition for the Prevention of Schoolhouse to Jailhouse. January, 2013. "Extreme and destructive approaches to school discipline not only have directly harmed students and families, but also have caused teachers, law enforcement officials, and community members to have their lives and careers made more difficult."

Tuesday, January 22 2013:

  • Report to the Governor and Legislative Budget Board on the Monitoring of Community Supervision Diversion Funds, [PDF] Texas Department of Criminal Justice. December, 2012. "The felony direct community supervision population increased 5.2% from August 31, 2005 (157,914 offenders) to August 31, 2012 (166,054 offenders), while the number of felony technical revocations decreased 10.9% between FY2005 (13,504) & FY2012 (12,034)."
  • Arrests of and Forced Interventions on Pregnant Women in the United States, 1973-2005: Implications for Women's Legal Status and Public Health, [PDF] National Advocates for Pregnant Women. January, 2013. "Findings confirm that if passed, personhood measures not only would provide a basis for recriminalizing abortion, they would also provide grounds for depriving all pregnant women of their liberty."

Wednesday, January 16 2013:

  • Report of the Special Council on Criminal Justice Reform for Georgians [PDF] Special Council on Criminal Justice Reform for Georgians. November, 2012. "The data shows that most individuals sentenced to prison are drug and property offenders, and these offenders are also staying behind bars for longer periods of time. Drug and property offenders represent almost 60 percent of all admissions."
  • Implementing Proven Programs For juvenile Offenders: Assessing State Progress, [PDF] Association for the Advancement of Evidence-Based Practice. December, 2012. "All of the leading states identified at least one person to become fully informed about the available evidence-based practice options and made the time available for them to do this, including travel to operational sites and training in specific models."

Friday, January 11 2013:

  • Tough on Crime (on the State's Dime): How Violent Crime Does Not Drive California Counties' Incarceration Rates - And Why it Should, [PDF] Georgia State University Law Review. 2011. "California's prison overcrowding is due in large part to county decisions about how to deal with crime. Counties use state prison resources at dramatically different rates, and the counties which use state prisons the most have below-average crime rates."

Thursday, January 10 2013:

  • Effective Approaches to Drug Crimes In Texas: Strategies to Reduce Crime, Save Money, and Treat Addiction, [PDF] Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. January, 2013. "Specifically, policy-makers must support the efforts of practitioners who are seeking to effectively treat those with substance abuse by improving and making more widely available community-based rehabilitation and treatment diversion alternatives."
  • National Indigent Defense Reform: The Solution is Multifaceted, [PDF] National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. January, 2013. "The report discusses 1) front-end reform, 2) the delivery of services, including the importance of standards and commissions, and 3) the need for collaboration and cooperation with others within and outside the criminal justice system."

Tuesday, January 8 2013:

  • Immigration Enforcement in the United States: The Rise of a Formidable Machinery, [PDF] Migration Policy Institute. January, 2013. "the US government spends more on its immigration enforcement agencies than on all its other principal criminal federal law enforcement agencies combined. In fY 2012, spending for the primary immigration enforcement agencies reached nearly $18 billion."

Thursday, January 3 2013:

  • Women's pathways to jail: The roles & intersections of serious mental illness & trauma, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Assistance. September, 2012. "[C]hildhood victimization and adult trauma increased the risk of poor mental health, and poor mental health predicted a greater offending history."

Friday, December 28 2012:

  • The Native Hawaiian Justice Task Force Report 2012, [PDF] The Native Hawaiian Justice Task Force. December, 2012. "Implicit, unconscious bias and disparate treatment on the part of workers at all stages of the criminal justice system may explain a portion of the disproportionate representation of Native Hawaiians in the criminal justice system."
  • The Anatomy of Discretion: An Analysis of Prosecutorial Decision Making, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. December, 2012. "While prosecutorial discretion is generally seen as very broad and unconstrained, prosecutors often rely on a fairly limited array of legal and quasi-legal factors to make decisions, and are further constrained by several contextual factors."

Thursday, December 20 2012:

  • Violent Crime Against Youth, 1994-2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2012. "The rate of serious violent crime against youth ages 12 to 17 involving weapons declined by 80% from 1994 to 2010, and the rate of serious violent crime involving serious injury decreased by 63%."

Wednesday, December 19 2012:

  • Crime Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009-2011 Statistical Tables [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2012. "The average annual age-adjusted rate of violent victimization for persons with disabilities (48 per 1,000 persons with disabilities) was more than twice the rate among persons without disabilities (19 per 1,000 persons without disabilities) in 2011."

Tuesday, December 18 2012:

  • The Death Penalty in 2012: Year End Report, [PDF] Death Penalty Information Center. December, 2012. "The number of new death sentences in 2012 was the second lowest since the death penalty was reinstated in 1976."

Monday, December 17 2012:

  • Prisoners in 2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2012. "Declining for the second consecutive year, state and federal prison populations totaled 1,598,780 at yearend 2011, a decrease of 0.9% (15,023 prisoners) from yearend 2010."

Thursday, December 13 2012:

  • Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000-2010 Statistical Tables [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2012. "The suicide rate in local jails declined over time from 49 per 100,000 inmates in 2001 to 36 per 100,000 in 2007. Since 2007, the rate has increased slightly to reach 42 per 100,000 inmates in 2010."
  • Texas Death Penalty Developments in 2012: The Year in Review, [PDF] Texas Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty. December, 2012. "Seven of the new death row inmates in 2012 are African-American, one is Hispanic, and one is a white female. Over the last five years, nearly 75% of all death sentences in Texas have been imposed on people of color - 46% African-American and 28% Hispanic."
  • "Picking up the Pieces": The Rights and Needs of Children and Families Affected by Imprisonment, [PDF] Irish Penal Reform Trust. November, 2012. "Child impact statements would be one practical approach which would permit the voice of the child to be heard, as outlined under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), when considering putting a parent/parents into custody."

Wednesday, December 12 2012:

Tuesday, December 11 2012: