@AltBJS highlights important data on racial disparities in the criminal justice system

During Black History Month, the twitter user @AltBJS presented 28 under-discussed facts about racial disparities in the justice system. I collected the sources.

by Emily Widra, March 7, 2017

Last month, in honor of Black History Month, the twitter user known as @AltBJS highlighted a different fact each day about racial disparities in the criminal justice system:

Some of these facts were well-known, but many were not. Some were published in obscure corners of Bureau of Justice Statistics publications and some were published in academia or by other analysts. The tweets highlighted important research, but old tweets are hard to find and the @AltBJS’s academic citation style made it a little hard for us to follow.

So, to the best of my ability and for the preservation of these important facts, I’ve put together links to the underlying sources here:

February 1st:

Source: Glaze, L.E., & Maruschak, L.M. (2008) “Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children.” Bureau of Justice Statistics: Special Report. U.S. Department of Justice: p. 14.

February 2nd:

Source: U.S. Department of Education: Office for Civil Rights. Data Snapshot: School Discipline. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, March 21, 2014: p. 1.

February 3rd:

Source: Kutateladze, Besiki L., et al. (2014). “Cumulative Disadvantage: Examining Racial and Ethnic Disparity in Prosecution and Sentencing.” Criminology 52.3: p. 518.

The primary author is Besiki Luka Kutateladze This paper is available in libraries and is written by Besiki L. Kutateladze, Nancy R. Andiloro, Brian D. Johnson, and Cassia C. Spohn.

February 4th:

Source: Rhodes, W., Kling, R., Luallen, J., & Dyous, C. (2015) “Federal Sentencing Disparity: 2005-2012.” Working Paper Series: Bureau of Justice Statistics. U.S. Department of Justice. p. 41.

February 5th:

Source: Spohn, Carissa. (2000) “Thirty Years of Sentencing Reform: The Quest for a Racially Neutral Sentencing Process.” Criminal Justice 2000. U.S. Deptartment of Justice: p. 481-2.

February 6th:

Source: Association of State Correctional Administrators (ASCA), & the Arthur Liman Public Interest Program, Yale Law School (2016). Aiming to Reduce Time-in-Cell: Reports From Correctional Systems on the Numbers of Prisoners in Restricted Housing and on the Potential of Policy Changes to Bring About Reforms: p. 35.

February 7th:

Source: Stolzenberg, L., D’Alessio, S.J., & Eitle, D. (2013). “Race and Cumulative Discrimination in the Prosecution of Criminal Defendants.” Race and Justice, 3(4): p. 288.

The primary author is Liza Stolzenberg. This paper is available in libraries and is written by Liza Stolzenberg, Stewart J. D’Alessio, and David Eitle.

February 8th:

Source: Farley, R. (April 12, 2016). Bill Clinton and the 1994 Crime Bill.

February 9th:

Source: Annino, P.G., Rasmussen, D.W., & Rice, C.B. (2009). “Juvenile Life Without Parole for Non-homicide Offenses: Florida Compared to Nation.” FSU College of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 399. Chart D.

The primary author of this research paper is Paulo Annino. This paper is available in libraries and is written by Paulo Annino, David W. Rasmussen, and Chelsea Boehme Rice.

February 10th:

Source: Thompson, M. (2011). Gender, race, and mental illness in the criminal justice system. National Institute of Corrections: p. 4.

February 11th:

Source: Decker, S.H., Spohn, C., Ortiz, N.R., & Hedberg, E. (2014). Criminal stigma, race, gender and employment: An expanded assessment of the consequences of imprisonment for employment. National Institute of Justice: p.1.

February 12th:


Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ). (September 2015). Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed Tables. Table 1.19A and 1.19B.

Snyder, H.N. (2011) “Arrests in the United States, 1980-2009.” Bureau of Justice Statistics. U.S. Department of Justice: Figure 40.

February 13th:


P.L. 105-244. 1998 Amendments to the Higher Education Act of 1965.

Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (1993). “Turning Points in the Life Course: Why Change Matters to the Study of Crime.” Criminology, 31(3), 301-325.

Schnittker, J., Massoglia, M., & Uggen, C. (2011). “Incarceration and Health of the African American Community.” Du Bois Review, 8(1), 1-9.

Machin, S., Marie, O., & Vujic\0x0107, S. (2011). “The Crime Reducing Effect of Education.” The Economic Journal: The Journal of the Royal Economic Society, 121(552), 463-484.

The corresponding author of this research paper is Suncica Vujic\0x0107. This paper is available in libraries and is written by Stephen Machin, Oliveier Marie, and Suncica Vujic\0x0107.

Hjalmarsson, R. & L., Lochner. (2012). “The Impact of Education on Crime: International Evidence.” CESifo DICE Report, 10(2), 49-55.

February 14th:

Source: Warren, J. (2008) One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008. Pew Research Center: Washington, D.C.

February 15th:

Source: Hockenberry, S. (2016) Juveniles in Residential Placement, 2013. U.S. Department of Justice. p. 13.

February 16th:

Source: Irazola, S., Williamson, E., Stircker, J., & Niedzwiecki, E. (2013). Study of Victim Experiences of Wrongful Conviction. National Institute of Justice.

February 17th:

Olney, M. & Bonn, S. (2014). “An Exploratory Study of the Legal and Non-legal Factors Associated with Exoneration for Wrongful Conviction: The Power of DNA Evidence.” Criminal Justice Policy Review, p. 1-21.

February 18th:

Kaeble, D. & Bonczar, T.P. (2016). “Probation and Parole in the United States, 2015.” Bureau of Justice Statistics.

February 19th:

Langton, L. & Durose, M. (2013). “Police Behavior During Traffic and Street Stops, 2011.” Bureau of Justice Statistics.

February 20th:

Hyland, S., Langton, L., & Davis, E. (2015). “Police Use of Nonfatal Force, 2002-11.” Bureau of Justice Statistics: p. 4.

February 21st:

Rugh, J.S. & Massey, D.S. (2010). “Racial Segregation and the American Foreclosure Crisis.” American Sociological Review, 75(5): p. 629-651.

February 22nd:

Source: National Center for Juvenile Justice (2014). Juvenile offenders and victims: 2014 national report. Eds. Sickmund, M. & Puzzanchera, C. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention: p. 137.

February 23rd:

Source: Cair, M. & Winter, A.S. (2016). “How Judges Think About Racial Disparities: Situational Decision-Making in the Criminal Justice System.” Crimonology: p. 22.

February 24th:

Source: Campbell, M.C., Vogel, M., & Williams, J. (2015). “Historical Contingencies and the Evolving Importance of Race, Violent Crime, and Region in Explaining Mass Incarceration in the United States.” Criminology, 53(2): p. 199.

February 25th:

Source: Fielding-Miller, R., Davidson, P., & Raj, A. (2016). “Blacks Face Higher Risk of Drug Arrests in White Neighborhoods.” The International Journal on Drug Policy, 32: p. 100-103.

The primary author is Rebecca Fielding-Miller . This paper is available in libraries and is written by Rebecca Fielding-Miller, Peter Davidson, and Anita Raj.

February 26th:

Source: Pew Research Center. Collateral Costs: Incarceration’s Effect on Economic Mobility. Washington, D.C. p. 4.

February 27th:

Source: Petrella, C. & Begley, J. (2013). “The Color of Corporate Corrections: The Overrepresentation of People of Color in the For-Profit Corrections Industry.” Radical Criminology, 2: p. 139-148.

February 28th:

Source: Crenshaw, K. (2015) Black Girls Matter: Pushed Out, Overpoliced and Underprotected. Columbia Law School Center for Intersectionality and Social Policy Studies.

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