How much of mass incarceration is a result of the war on drugs? Few questions about the justice system are more common — or harder to find clear answers to.
Only about 20% of incarcerated people — a small minority — are locked up for drug offenses. But the impact of the war on drugs can feel much larger. That's partly because police still make over 1 million drug arrests each year, only some of which lead to prison sentences. It's also because a lack of treatment and options often leads people to be incarcerated for drug-related crimes.
The complex connections between drugs and punishment don't end there. Below is some of our key research putting the war on drugs into perspective — and highlighting some of its worst policy failures:
Our report and data visualizations break down where people in the U.S. are incarcerated and why, including how many people are held in different facilities for drug offenses.
A misguided policy from the War on Drugs suspends the driver's licenses of 175,000 people every year for drug offenses that do not involve driving. We're helping states repeal it.
In multiple states, increasing drug sentences in school zones has worsened racial disparities in state prisons by effectively creating higher penalties in urban areas.
The war on drugs is the most famous — but far from the only — criminal justice policy failure impacting public health. Our research sheds light on the public health effects of mass incarceration.
What does the war on drugs have to do with probation and parole? Plenty — from unjust supervision terms imposed on people who commit drug offenses to people on supervision who are incarcerated for a failed drug test.
Incarcerated women are more likely to be locked up for drug offenses — and more likely to suffer from substance use disorders — than men. Read more about incarcerated women and the injustices they face.
Didn't find what you were looking for? We also curate a database of virtually all the empirical criminal justice research available online. See the section of our Research Library on drug policy.