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I co-founded the Prison Policy Initiative to put the problem of mass incarceration — and the perverse incentives that fuel it — on the national agenda. Over the last 16 years, our campaigns have protected our democracy from the prison system and protected the poorest families in this country from the predatory prison telephone industry. Our reports untangle the statistics and recruit new allies.

But now, more than ever, we need your help to put data & compassion into the conversation. Any gift you can make today will be matched by other donors and go twice as far.

Thank you.
—Peter Wagner, Executive DirectorDonate

Section II: Incarceration & Its Consequences

Variation of Incarceration Rates in the States

  • Number of prisoners in Alaska, per 100,000 population in 2000261: 341
  • Number of prisoners in Alabama, per 100,000 population in 2000262: 549
  • Number of prisoners in California, per 100,000 population in 2000263: 474
  • Number of prisoners in the District of Columbia, per 100,000 population in 2000264: 971
  • Number of prisoners in Idaho, per 100,000 population in 2000265: 430
  • Number of prisoners in Louisiana, per 100,000 population in 2000266: 801
  • Number of prisoners in Maine, per 100,000 population in 2000267: 129
  • Number of prisoners in Missouri, per 100,000 population in 2000268: 494
  • Number of prisoners in Montana, per 100,000 population in 2000269: 348
  • Number of prisoners in Nevada, per 100,000 population in 2000270: 518
  • Number of prisoners in North Dakota, per 100,000 population in 2000271: 353
  • Number of prisoners in Oregon, per 100,000 population in 2000272: 316
  • Number of prisoners in South Dakota, per 100,000 population in 2000273: 158
  • Number of prisoners in Texas, per 100,000 population in 2000274: 730
  • Number of prisoners in Utah, per 100,000 population in 2000275: 254
  • Number of prisoners in Virginia , per 100,000 population in 2000276: 422
  • Number of prisoners in Washington, per 100,000 population in 2000277: 251
  • Number of prisoners in West Virginia, per 100,000 population in 2000278: 211
  • Number of prisoners in Wyoming, per 100,000 population in 2000279: 349

Incarceration in New York

  • Number of prisoners, 2001280: 67,534
  • Imprisonment rate per 100,000281: 355
  • Percent change in the rate at which Whites are sent to prison in a year, 1930 to 2000282: -3.7%
  • Percent change in the rate at which African-Americans are sent to prison in a year, 1930 to 2000283: 260%
  • Percent of growth in New York prison population from 1985 to 1997 that was minorities284: 90%
  • Percent of prisoners incarcerated for drug law violations, 1970285: 8.6%
  • Percent of prisoners incarcerated for drug law violations, 2000286: 31.2%
  • Percent of prison population growth since 1970 that is minorities287: 87.6%
  • Number of times a Latino is more likely to go to prison for drugs than a White person288: 26
  • Number of times an African-American is more likely to go to prison for drugs than a White person289: 34
  • For every White prisoner, number of White college students290: 13.9
  • For every African-American prisoner, number of African-American college students291: 0.74
  • Percent of New York that lives in New York City292: 42.2%
  • Percent of New York prisoners from New York City293: 62.2%
  • Percent of New York State prisoners housed outside New York City294: 91%
  • Percent of New York prisoners incarcerated more than 2 hours from New York City295: 87%
  • Percent of new prisons built since 1982 located upstate296: 100%
  • Percent of New York State Senate that is Republican, 2000297: 59%
  • Percent of New York State prisoners that are housed in prisons in Republican Senatorial districts, 2000298: 90%
  • Number of police per 10,000 residents299: 93
  • Among the 50 states, national ranking in New York in police per capita300: 1
  • Annual cost of state prisons in New York, in dollars301: $2 billion

Incarceration in Texas

  • Imprisonment rate per 100,000, 2001302: 731
  • Number of prisoners on death row, 2001303: 453
  • Percentage of U.S. executions carried out in the year 2000 that were in Texas304: 47%
  • Percentage of U.S. executions carried out in the year 2001 that were in Texas305: 25%
  • Percentage of U.S. population that lives in Texas, 2000306: 7.4%
  • Number of prisoners and jail inmates, 2001307: 164,465
  • Number of Texans on probation, 2001308: 443,684
  • Number of Texans on parole, 2001309: 107,688
  • Number of Texans under some form of correctional supervision, 2001310: 755,100
  • Number of people in South Dakota, 2000311: 754,844

What do we think prisons do?

  • Percent of public reporting they believe the prison system does an excellent job rehabilitating prisoners so they are less likely to commit crimes in the future, 2000312: 2%
  • Percent of public reporting they believe the prison system does an excellent job maintaining a safe environment for prisoners, 2000313: 5%
  • Percent of public reporting they believe the prison system does an excellent, good or fair job at keeping prisoners from escaping, 2000314: 90%

This page is an excerpt from The Prison Index: Taking the Pulse of the Crime Control Industry (April 2003) by Peter Wagner, published by the Western Prison Project and the Prison Policy Initiative.

Footnotes

261 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

262 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

263 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

264 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

265 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

266 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

267 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

268 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

269 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

270 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

271 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

272 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

273 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

274 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

275 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

276 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

277 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

278 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

279 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 6.28.

280 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prisoners in 2001, Table 4.

281 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prisoners in 2001, Table 4.

282 Peter Wagner, Prisoner disenfranchisement and state legislative redistricting in New York State: Electoral appropriation and the return of the 3/5ths clause, unpublished manuscript, November 2001, Table 1.

283 Peter Wagner, Prisoner disenfranchisement and state legislative redistricting in New York State: Electoral appropriation and the return of the 3/5ths clause, unpublished manuscript, November 2001, Table 1.

284 Barry Holman, Masking the Divide: How Officially Reported Prison Statistics Distort the Racial and Ethnic Realities of Prison Growth, p.10.

285 Peter Wagner, Prisoner disenfranchisement and state legislative redistricting in New York State: Electoral appropriation and the return of the 3/5ths clause, unpublished manuscript, November 2001, Table 5.

286 Peter Wagner, Prisoner disenfranchisement and state legislative redistricting in New York State: Electoral appropriation and the return of the 3/5ths clause, unpublished manuscript, November 2001, Table 5.

287 Peter Wagner, Prisoner disenfranchisement and state legislative redistricting in New York State: Electoral appropriation and the return of the 3/5ths clause, unpublished manuscript, November 2001, Table 7.

288 Peter Wagner, Prisoner disenfranchisement and state legislative redistricting in New York State: Electoral appropriation and the return of the 3/5ths clause, unpublished manuscript, November 2001, Table 1.

289 Peter Wagner, Prisoner disenfranchisement and state legislative redistricting in New York State: Electoral appropriation and the return of the 3/5ths clause, unpublished manuscript, November 2001, Table 1.

290 Calculation, Peter Wagner, Prisoner disenfranchisement and state legislative redistricting in New York State: Electoral appropriation and the return of the 3/5ths clause, unpublished manuscript, November 2001, Table 4.

291 Calculation, Peter Wagner, Prisoner disenfranchisement and state legislative redistricting in New York State: Electoral appropriation and the return of the 3/5ths clause, unpublished manuscript, November 2001, Table 4.

292 Calculation, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2001, The National Data Book, Tables 18 and 34.

293 State of New York Department of Correctional Services, Profile of Inmates Undercustody on January 1 2002, Table 4.

294 Peter Wagner, Importing Constituents: Prisoners and Political Clout in New York, April 22, 2002 http://www.prisonpolicy.org/importing , p. 4.

295 Peter Wagner, Importing Constituents: Prisoners and Political Clout in New York, April 22, 2002 http://www.prisonpolicy.org/importing , p. 14.

296 Peter Wagner, Importing Constituents: Prisoners and Political Clout in New York, April 22, 2002 http://www.prisonpolicy.org/importing , p. 4.

297 City Project, Following the Dollars, p. 4.

298 City Project, Following the Dollars, p. 4.

299 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2001, Table 1.21.

300 Calculation, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2001, Table 1.21.

301 City Project, Following the Dollars: Where New York State Spends its Prison Moneys, march 2000.

302 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2001, revised 5/10/02 Table 2.

303 Bureau of Justice Statistics,Capital Punishment 2001, Table 5.

304 Calculation based on Bureau of Justice Statistics, Capital Punishment 2000, December 2001, p. 1.

305 Calculation based on Bureau of Justice Statistics, Capital Punishment 2000, p. 1.

306 Calculation based on Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2001, The National Data Book, Table 18.

307 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2001, revised 5/10/02 Table 2.

308 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Probation and Parole in the United States, 2001, Table 2.

309 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Probation and Parole in the United States, 2001, Table 5.

310 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Probation and Parole in the United States, 2001, Table 8.

311 census.gov American factfinder. Viewed Dec 29, 2002. Figure is from Census 2000.

312 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 2.20.

313 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 2.20.

314 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000, Table 2.20.

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