Reports and campaigns
Data visualizations
Related issues
Research library

People in prisons and jails are disproportionately likely to have chronic health problems including diabetes, high blood pressure, and HIV, as well as substance use and mental health problems. Nevertheless, correctional healthcare is low-quality and difficult to access. It’s also expensive: Astonishingly, most prisons charge incarcerated people a copay for doctor visits.

The downstream effects — for both incarcerated people and the general public — have been disastrous: Mass incarceration has shortened the overall U.S. life expectancy by 5 years.

Below is our key research into the public health effects of incarceration:


Reports and campaigns

report thumbnailChronic Punishment: The unmet health needs of people in state prisons

We break down the most recent national data on incarcerated people’s health, showing how prisons are neglecting the health problems of many in their care.

report thumbnailOur COVID-19 resources

Find our three major reports on COVID-19 in prisons and jails, as well as a list of policy recommendations, an explainer on social distancing behind bars, a powerful fact sheet, and much more. We also tracked where pandemic-related policy changes took place.

report thumbnailArrest, Release, Repeat: How police and jails are misused to respond to social problems

At least 4.9 million people go to county and city jails each year, our national analysis shows. We find that people who go to jail - particularly those who go more than once a year - are more likely to have preexisting health problems.


issue thumbnailDrug policy

One of the worst criminal justice policy failures — responding to drug use with punishment rather than care — also puts public health at risk.

issue thumbnailCollateral consequences

Tens of millions of people are dealing with the “collateral consequences” of punishment: effects such as homelessness that last long after someone has served their sentence. These harms also impact public health.

issue thumbnailCommunication and contact

Visits and phone calls mitigate the harmful effects of prolonged isolation behind bars. But jails and prisons make staying in touch difficult, particularly for poor families.

Research Library

Didn’t find what you were looking for? We also curate a database of virtually all the empirical criminal justice research available online. See the sections of our Research Library on public health, mental health, and conditions of confinement.

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