Research about Criminal Justice Issues:

What's new all:

Wednesday, October 29 2014:

  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2013 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2014. (At yearend 2013, an estimated 4,751,400 adults were under community supervision---a decline of about 29,900 offenders from yearend 2012.)
  • Changing Priorities: State Criminal Justice Reforms and Investments in Education, [PDF] Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. October, 2014. "Corrections spending is now the third-largest category of spending in most states, behind education and health care."
  • A Constitutional Default: Services to Criminal Defendants in Pennsylvania, [PDF] Joint State Government Commission, General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. December, 2011. (A study of the Commonwealth's indigent defense system concluded that the Supreme Court's mandate of free counsel has been ignored by the General Assembly and is not being fulfilled in Pennsylvania.)

Tuesday, October 28 2014:

  • ClaimStat Alert [PDF] Office of the New York City Comptroller. August, 2014. (The 37 percent increase in personal injury correctional facility claims activity from FY 2013 to FY 2014 corresponds to a rise in the number of serious allegations of violence at Rikers.)
  • On the Streets of America: Human Rights Abuses in Ferguson, [PDF] Amnesty International. October, 2014. (This briefing outlines some of the human rights concerns witnessed by Amnesty International and recommendations that need to be implemented with regards to the use of lethal force by law enforcement and the policing of protests.)

Wednesday, October 22 2014:

  • South Bronx Community Connections Technical Report, [PDF] John Jay College of Criminal Justice. November, 2013. "By fall 2013, two years into project implementation, a statistical analysis of SBCC’s available data (see Appendix A) found juvenile project participants to be suggestively, but significantly (p value= 0.09), less likely to be re-arrested within a year."
  • The Unpredictability of Murder: Juvenile Homicide in the Pathways to Desistance Study, [PDF] Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. October, 2014. (Results from a rare-events logistic regression that examined the relationship between these five risk factors and their ability to distinguish between the two groups indicate that only lower IQ and a greater exposure to violence were significant.)
  • The Crime Beat: Does Quantity Matter? [PDF] John Jay College of Criminal Justice Center on Media, Crime and Justice. October, 2014. "We found that the six papers under review averaged about 78 crime-related stories for the period studied, with the most stories appearing in The Camden Courier-Post (165) and the fewest in the Naperville Sun (26)."
  • Skewed Justice: Citizens United, Television Advertising and State Supreme Court Justices' Decisions in Criminal Cases, Emory Law School; American Constitution Society. October, 2014. "In a state with 10,000 ads, a doubling of airings is associated on average with an 8 percent increase in justices’ voting against a criminal defendant’s appeal."

Tuesday, October 21 2014:

  • Explaining Dimensions of State-Level Punitiveness in the United States: The Roles of Social, Economic, and Cultural Factors, [PDF] Baker Institute of Public Policy. August, 2014. (For incarceration, citizen engagement and property crime have a statistically significant and negative impact on state punitiveness, while the percent of population that is black has a significant and positive effect.)

Friday, October 17 2014:

  • Video Visitation: How Private Companies Push for Visits by Video and Families Pay the Price, [PDF] Grassroots Leadership; Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. October, 2014. "Video-only visitation policies strip away that choice; they are simply another outgrowth of the idea that offering services to prisoners and their families can be commercialized."
  • Prison Visitation Policies: A Fifty State Survey, Chesa Boudin, Trevor Stutz, & Aaron Littman. February, 2014. "This paper presents a summary of the findings from the first fifty-state survey of prison visitation policies."

Tuesday, October 14 2014:

  • Florida's Aging Prisoner Problem [PDF] Florida Tax Watch. September, 2014. "Between 2000 and 2014, the elderly prison population grew from 5,605 to 21,002, at an average increase of 9.9 percent per year, a rate more than three times higher than the general prison population."
  • Black, Brown and Targeted: A report on Boston Police Department Street Encounters from 2007-2010, [PDF] ACLU of Massachusetts. October, 2014. (Most alarmingly, the analysis found that Blacks were subjected to 63% of these encounters, even though they made up just 24% of Boston’s population. The analysis also showed that crime does not explain this racial disparity.)
  • An Overview of Public Opinion and Discourse on Criminal Justice Issues [PDF] The Opportunity Agenda. August, 2014. (Since the 1990s, people are backing away from harsh enforcement and sentencing policies, such as mandatory sentencing, and appear more interested in allocating tax dollars toward rehabilitation, treatment, and support efforts.)

Friday, October 10 2014:

  • Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000-2012 - Statistical Tables [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2014. "In 2012, 4,309 inmates died while in the custody of local jails or state prisons-an increase of 2% (67 deaths) from 2011. The number of deaths in local jails increased, from 889 in 2011 to 958 in 2012, which marked the first increase since 2009."

Wednesday, October 8 2014:

  • Flint DDACTS Pilot Evaluation: Summary of Findings, [PDF] Michigan Justice Statistics Center. July, 2014. "Indeed, the target areas experienced a 19 percent reduction in violent crime and a 30 percent reduction in robberies. This compared to 7 and 2 percent reductions, respectively, in the rest of the city."
  • Reforming Marijuana Laws: Which Approach Best Reduces the Harms of Criminalization? A Five-State Analysis, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. September, 2014. "All five states experienced substantial declines in marijuana possession arrests. The four states with available data also showed unexpected drops in marijuana felony arrests."
  • For-Profit Family Detention: Meet the Private Prison Corporations Making Millions by Locking Up Refugee Families, [PDF] Grassroots Leadership; Justice Strategies. October, 2014. "This report will scrutinize GEO’s dismal track record with operation of facilities holding immigrants, as well as its dreadful past history of failing to provide vulnerable children and youths with a safe and humane custodial environment."
  • Entombed: Isolation in the US Federal Prison System, [PDF] Amnesty International. July, 2014. "This report will detail how conditions in ADX breach international standards for the humane treatment of prisoners."
  • A meta-analysis of the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in incarcerated populations, [PDF] Cambridge University. March, 2014. "Compared with published general population prevalence, there is a fivefold increase in prevalence of ADHD in youth prison populations (30.1%) and a 10-fold increase in adult prison populations (26.2%)."
  • Improving Recidivism as a Performance Measure [PDF] Urban Institute. October, 2014. "Recidivism is not a single measure of success or failure, and states should move away from using one uniform definition. Making recidivism a meaningful performance measure demands that states employ a wide range of reoffending metrics."
  • Proposition 47: Estimating Local Savings and Jail Population Reductions, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. September, 2014. "Every year, Los Angeles County could save between $99.9 million and $174.8 million, San Diego County between $28.4 million and $49.7 million, and San Joaquin County between $6.8 million and $12.0 million due to the implementation of Proposition 47."

Wednesday, October 1 2014:

  • Congressional Action Mandated to Reduce Rising Costs of Incarceration Out4Good. January, 2014. "It becomes evident that more than $100 billion is being spent annually to accommodate the confinement and correctional supervision of these individuals."
  • Solitary Confinement - Understanding Restrictive Housing Unit Practices Within the U.S. Department of Justice's Bureau of Prisons, Out4Good. July, 2014. "First and second line supervisors, mainly GS9 and GS11 lieutenants, have far too much discretion when it comes to placing offenders in the SHU. The general criterion for SHU placement is that an inmate is disrupting the orderly running of the institution."

Monday, September 29 2014:

  • Presumption of Guilt: The Global Overuse of Pretrial Detention, [PDF] Open Society Justice Initiative. September, 2014. "The present global cohort of 3.3 million pretrial detainees will collectively spend an estimated 660 million days in detention-a terrible waste of human potential that comes at a considerable cost to states, taxpayers, families, and communities."

Thursday, September 25 2014:

Tuesday, September 23 2014:

  • Socio-emotional Impact of Violent Crime [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2014. "Overall, 68% of victims of serious violence experienced socio-emotional problems as a result of their victimization."
  • The Effect of Collateral Consequence Laws on State Rates of Returns to Prison, [PDF] University of Maryland, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice. July, 2014. "Surprisingly, these analyses give some indication that collateral consequences may be related to lower rates of returns to prison for technical violations, however future research is needed to confirm this relationship."

Thursday, September 18 2014:

Tuesday, September 16 2014:

  • Prisoners in 2013 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2014. "On December 31, 2013, the United States held an estimated 1,574,700 persons in state and federal prisons, an increase of approximately 4,300 prisoners (0.3%) from 2012."
  • Impact of Disproportionate Incarceration of and Violence Against Black People with Mental Health Conditions In the World's Largest Jail System, [PDF] Dignity and Power Now. August, 2014. "Nationwide, people with mental health conditions constitute 64% of the jail population, according to the Federal Bureau of Prison Statistics."

Monday, September 15 2014:

  • The Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) in the Lives of Juvenile Offenders, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 2014. "The top three most prevalent ACE indicators were the same for both males and females: family violence, parental separation or divorce, and household member incarceration."
  • Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras [PDF] Office of Justice Programs. September, 2014. "The evaluations in Mesa and Rialto documented substantial drops in citizen complaints following deployment of the technology. The UK studies documented a similar effect."
  • Parsons v. Ryan, CV 12-00601: Arizona Class Action Prison Conditions Lawsuit Expert Reports, [PDF] ACLU of Arizona. September, 2014. "Every week, on average, a patient who has been neglected or mistreated dies in the Arizona prison system, according to these expert reports."

Thursday, September 11 2014:

  • Aging Behind Bars: Trends and Implications of Graying Prisoners in the Federal Prison System, [PDF] Urban Institute. August, 2014. "The number of prisoners age 50 or older experienced a 330 percent increase from 1994 to 2011."
  • Adventures in Risk: Predicting Violent and Sexual Recidivism in Sentencing Law, Arizona State Law Journal. March, 2014. "Whatever merit actuarial assessments may have for a variety of criminal justice decisions (such as bail, probation, and parole), they are far too problematic for use in sentencing matters."

Wednesday, September 10 2014:

  • Liberal but Not Stupid: Meeting the Promise of Downsizing Prisons, [PDF] Joan Petersilia and Francis T. Cullen, Stanford Journal of Criminal Law and Policy. June, 2014. "The issue of downsizing will also remain at the forefront of correctional discourse because of the court-ordered reduction in imprisonment in California...a 'criminology of downsizing' must be developed to foster effective policy interventions."
  • Prison Population Trends 2013 [PDF] Massachusetts Department of Correction. May, 2014. "A steady decline from January 2012 to January 2014 reflects a seven percent decrease in the custody population."
  • California Prison Downsizing and Its Impact on Local Criminal Justice Systems, [PDF] Joan Petersilia, Harvard Law & Policy Review. 2014. "Everyone agreed county officials are working more collaboratively toward reducing recidivism, and that new funding has fostered innovative programming. But our interviews also found counties struggling...to carry out an initiative...imposed overnight."

Friday, September 5 2014:

  • Race and Prosecution in Manhattan Vera Institute of Justice. July, 2014. (Blacks and Latinos were particularly likely to be held in pretrial detention for misdemeanor person offenses, followed by misdemeanor drug offenses. Blacks and Latinos were also most likely to have their cases dismissed for misdemeanor drug offenses.)
  • State Variation in Hospital Use and Cost of Firearm Assault Injury, 2010 [PDF] Urban Institute. August, 2014. (Hospital use for firearm-assault injury is disproportionately concentrated among young males, particularly young black males, in all six study states.)

Thursday, September 4 2014:

  • Close-Range Gunfire around DC Schools [PDF] Urban Institute. September, 2014. "Fifty-four percent of DC schools covered by gunfire-detection technology had at least one burst of gunfire occur within 1,000 feet of the school."
  • Does Immigration Enforcement Reduce Crime? Evidence from "Secure Communities", [PDF] University of Chicago Law; New York University Law School. August, 2014. "Our results show that Secure Communities has led to no meaningful reductions in the FBI index crime rate."
  • Policing Immigration [PDF] New York University School of Law; University of Chicago Law School. 2013. "The data undermine the government's claim that Secure Communities is principally about making communities more secure from crime."
  • Race and Punishment: Racial Perceptions of Crime and Support for Punitive Policies, [PDF] Sentencing Project. September, 2014. "Studies have shown that whites who associate crime with blacks and Latinos are more likely to support punitive policies - including capital punishment and mandatory minimum sentencing - than whites with weaker racial associations of crime."

Friday, August 29 2014:

  • Managing Drug-Involved Offenders [PDF] Department of Justice. July, 2014. "Drug courts, which also mandate drug treatment but under judicial supervision, have demonstrated better outcomes than standard treatment diversion programs."

Friday, August 22 2014:

  • Juveniles in Residential Placement, 2011 [PDF] Department of Justice. August, 2014. "The number of delinquents held in placement increased 4% between 1997 and 1999 and then decreased 43% to its lowest level in 2011."
  • The Debt Penalty: Exposing the financial barriers to offender reintegration, [PDF] John Jay College of Criminal Justice. August, 2014. "Paradoxically, criminal justice systems sometimes spend more on debt collection and punishing offenders who are behind on their payments than they are likely to recoup from enforcing the financial obligations of ex-offenders."

Monday, August 18 2014:

  • Operation Ghetto Storm [PDF] Malcolm X Grassroots Movement. April, 2013. "There is no centralized database that keeps track of extrajudicial killings by police... With no numbers, there can be no studies, no analysis of trends and no accountability."
  • The Color of Corporate Corrections, part two: Contractual Exemptions and the Overrepresentation of People of Color in Private Prisons, [PDF] Radical Criminology. January, 2014. "Health—and therefore age—tends to serve as a proxy for race without any explicit reference to it."

Thursday, August 14 2014:

  • State Prison Health Care Spending: An Examination of Female Offenders Released from State Prison in the First Year of Public Safety Realignment, [PDF] Pew Charitable Trusts. July, 2014. "In fiscal 2011, states spent a total of $7.7 billion on correctional health care—likely about a fifth of overall prison expenditures."

Monday, August 11 2014:

  • Barriers to Recreation at Rikers Island’s Central Punitive Segregation Unit, [PDF] New York City Board of Corrections. July, 2014. "...while the CPSU population hovers around 400 people, fewer than 40 prisoners are experiencing the mandated hour outside their solitary confinement cells on an average day."
  • The High Costs of Low Risk: The Crisis of America’s Aging Prison Population, [PDF] The Osborne Association. July, 2014. "...at present, twenty-eight states hold more than 1,000 older prisoners, up from just two states in 1990."

Thursday, August 7 2014:

  • Incarceration of a Household Member and Hispanic Health Disparities: Childhood Exposure and Adult Chronic Disease Risk Behaviors, [PDF] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. May, 2013. "If the escalation of incarceration continues through the early years of this century, its public health effect will continue to grow as the children of those prisoners or former prisoners reach adulthood."
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2013 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2014. "Since 2010, about 31% of inmates held in Indian country jails have been confined for a violent offense, a decline from about 39% in each year between midyear 2004 and 2009."
  • CRIPA Investigation of the NYC Department of Correction Jails on Rikers Island, [PDF] Department of Justice. August, 2014. "We conclude that there is a pattern and practice of conduct at Rikers that violates the constitutional rights of adolescent inmates."
  • Medicaid Prior Authorization Policies and Imprisonment Among Patients With Schizophrenia, [PDF] American Journal of Managed Care. July, 2014. "As the total costs in the United States that are associated with severe psychiatric disorders in jails are very high, new policies on how to treat incarcerated individuals with schizophrenia, particularly nonviolent offenders, are warranted."
  • Female Realignment Report: An Examination of Female Offenders Released from State Prison in the First Year of Public Safety Realignment, [PDF] California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. May, 2014. "…data shows that there is very little difference between female offenders and their outcomes following release after completing their State prison term pre- and post-Realignment"

Thursday, July 31 2014:

  • Safely Home [PDF] Youth Advocate Programs. June, 2014. "Community-based programs yield better results for kids than incarceration and can be implemented without spending any new money."

Thursday, July 24 2014:

  • Fewer Prisoners, Less Crime: A Tale of Three States, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. July, 2014. "Studies consistently find that expediting prisoners’ release from prison has no or minimal impact on recidivism rates."

Thursday, July 17 2014:

  • Voices from the Field How California Stakeholders View Public Safety Realignment, [PDF] Stanford Criminal Justice Center. January, 2014. "...counties now must handle virtually all drug and property crime sentences, which represented 54% of all felony arrestees convicted in California in 2010."
  • The Early Release of Prisoners And its Impact on Police Agencies and Communities in California, [PDF] Police Executive Research Forum. May, 2011. "...there is research indicating that enforcement alone is ineffective in lowering recidivism rates, and in any case, prisons are far too expensive to be used as a default sanction for many criminal offenders."
  • Recalibrating Justice A Review of 2013 State Sentencing and Corrections Trends, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. July, 2014. "In 2013, at least six states authorized the creation or expansion of diversion programs or strengthened the infrastructure support- ing existing programs."

Wednesday, July 9 2014:

Monday, July 7 2014:

  • Indicators Of School Crime And Safety, 2013 [Website] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2014. "During the 2009–10 school year, 85% of public schools recorded that one or more crime incidents had taken place at school, amounting to an estimated 1.9 million crimes."
  • The Crisis of Violence in Georgia's Prisons [PDF] Southern Center for Human Rights. July, 2014. "Prison officials violate the Constitution if they know that people in prison face a substantial risk of serious harm, but disregard that risk by failing to take reasonable measures to protect prisoners."
  • The Double Edged Sword of Prison Video Visitation Claiming to Keep Families Together While Furthering the Aims of the Prison Industrial Complex, [PDF] Patrice A. Fulcher, Associate Professor at John Marshall Law School. July, 2014. "The use of inmate video visitation services must not be oppressive, so fees must be affordable and transparent so that there are no hidden costs." (published in 9 Fla. A&M. U. L. Rev. 83 (2014))
  • Justice Expenditure And Employment Extracts, 2009 Final, [Website] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2014. "This series includes national, federal, and state-level estimates of government expenditures and employment for the following justice categories: police protection, all judicial and legal functions... and corrections."
  • Justice Expenditure And Employment Extracts, 2010 Final, [Website] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2014. "This series includes national, federal, and state-level estimates of government expenditures and employment for the following justice categories: police protection, all judicial and legal functions... and corrections."

Monday, June 30 2014:

  • Latino Voices The Impacts of Crime and Criminal Justice Policies on Latinos, [PDF] Californians for Safety and Justice. June, 2014. "...the data that does exist — specifically research on Latino victimization rates and their treatment in the justice system — paints a troubling picture of "cumulative disadvantage" for the safety of Latino individuals, families and communities."
  • War Comes Home The Excessive Militarization of American Policing, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union. June, 2014. "Using... federal funds, state and local law enforcement agencies have amassed military arsenals purportedly to wage the failed War on Drugs, the battlegrounds of which have disproportionately been in communities of color."

Friday, June 27 2014:

  • Is Public Safety Realignment Reducing Recidivism in California? Public Policy Institute of California. June, 2014. "Realignment's success depends largely on efforts addressing recidivism among former prison inmates and other convicted offenders diverted from prison as a result of the reform."
  • The contagious nature of imprisonment an agent-based model to explain racial disparities in incarceration rates, [PDF] The Royal Society. June, 2014. "Our model suggests that increased sentencing for an individual has negative effects that spread through social networks to affect families and whole communities."

Thursday, June 26 2014:

  • Voting Rights Barriers and Discrimination in 21st Century California 2000-2013, [PDF] Lawyer's Committee for Civil Rights of the San Francisco Bay Area. March, 2014. "Structural vote dilution and discrimination continue to plague California. These voting rights violations are just as real today as they were when the VRA was first enacted in 1965..."
  • Report on the Psychiatric Management of John Salvi in Massachusetts Department of Correction Facilities 1995-1996, [PDF] University of Massachusetts Medical Center Department of Psychiatry. January, 1997. "...in our opinion, the number of full-time equivalent psychiatrists within the DOC is far too low to meet the psychiatric needs of the inmate population."
  • Prisons and Sentencing in Massachusetts Waging a More Effective Fight Against Crime, [PDF] MassInc. June, 1999. "Critics of mandatory minimum drug laws, both state and federal, claim that these draconian penalties are jamming prisons with nonviolent offenders, many of them serving long sentences for a first conviction."

Monday, June 23 2014:

  • 2008 Court Commitments to the Massachusetts Department of Correction [PDF] Massachusetts Department of Correction. June, 2009. (Inmates were committed for the following categories of offenses during 2008: Drug (31%), Person (30%), "Other" (16%), Property (16%), and Sex (6%).)
  • Prison Population Trends 2012 Massachusetts Department of Correction. May, 2013. "The intent of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of inmate statistics specific to CY2012 as well as trends over the last five to ten years."

Wednesday, June 18 2014:

  • Seasonal Patterns in Criminal Victimization Trends [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2014. "This report examines seasonal patterns in violent and household property victimization in the United States from 1993 to 2010."
  • Irreversible Error Recommended Reforms for Preventing and Correcting Errors in the Administration of Capital Punishment, [PDF] The Constitution Project. May, 2014. "...the system must be willing to acknowledge errors that could result in the execution of an innocent person . Each jurisdiction should adopt legislation that sets standards to facilitate the review of credible post-conviction claims of innocence."
  • Report on the Continuing Impact of United States v. Booker on Federal Sentences, [Website] United States Sentencing Commission. December, 2012. "This report assesses the continuing impact on the federal sentencing system of the Supreme Court's 2005 opinion in United States v. Booker, which rendered the sentencing guidelines advisory."

Tuesday, June 17 2014:

  • Justice in Washing State Survey, 2012 Revised and Updated 2014, [PDF] The Washington State Minority Health Commission, The Washington State Center for Court Research. 2014. "When we asked about their personal encounters with police officers and the courts, we found substantial differences between Whites and African Americans in terms of the frequency of negative encounters."

Monday, June 16 2014:

  • Warehoused and Forgotten Immigrants Trapped in Our Shadow Private Prison System, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union. June, 2014. "Nationwide, more than half of all federal criminal prosecutions initiated in fiscal year 2013 were for unlawfully crossing the border into the United States"
  • Mississippi's 2014 Corrections and Criminal Justice Reform [PDF] Pew's Public Safety Performance Project. May, 2014. "...nonviolent offenders and those revoked for probation or parole violations accounted for a large and growing share of Mississippi's prison population."
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2013 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Center for Education Statistics. June, 2014. "Presents data on crime and safety at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, and principals."
  • Capital City Correction Reforming DC's Use of Adult Incarceration Against Youth, [PDF] DC Lawyers for Youth, Campaign for Youth Justice. May, 2014. "DC continues this practice of prosecuting, detaining, and incarcerating youth in the adult system despite the fact that research consistently finds that adult prosecution of youth does not effectively deter crime."
  • Measuring Juvenile Recidivism Data collection and reporting practices in juvenile corrections, [Website] Pew's Public Safety Performance Project. May, 2014. "...a recent survey of these agencies in all 50 states and the District of Columbia found that 1 in 4 does not regularly collect and report recidivism data, and fewer than half use measures that provide a comprehensive picture of youth reoffending."
  • Too Good to be True Private Prisons in America, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. January, 2012. "The available data belies the oft-claimed economic benefits of private contracting, and points to the practice being an unreliable approach toward financial stability."
  • Mandatory Reentry Supervision Evaluating the Kentucky Experience, [PDF] Pew's Public Safety Performance Project. June, 2014. "Inmates released to supervision under the policy had 30 percent fewer returns to prison for a new crime and 11 percent fewer violations of their supervision rules than the pre-policy group."
  • Recidivism Among Offenders Receiving Retroactive Sentence Reductions The 2007 Crack Cocaine Amendment, [PDF] United States Sentencing Commission. May, 2014. "This publication reports on recidivism of crack cocaine offenders who were released immediately before and after implementation of the 2007 Crack Cocaine Amendment, and followed in the community for five years."
  • Tinkering with Life A Look at the Inappropriateness of of Life Without Parole as an Alternative to the Death Penalty, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. January, 2013. "LWOP is often touted as the humane alternative to the death penalty, yet many of the problematic aspects of the death penalty are also applicable to this sentence."

Friday, June 13 2014:

  • Collatoral Damage A Roadmap to Restore Rights and Status After Arrest or Conviction, [PDF] National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. May, 2014. "NACDL recommends a broad national initiative to construct a legal infrastructure that will provide individuals with a criminal record with a clear path to equal opportunity."
  • ADAM II 2013 Annual Report, [PDF] Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program II. January, 2013. "The Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring II (ADAM II) survey gathers information on drug use and related issues from booked adult male arrestees within 48 hours of their arrest."
  • Collateral Costs Racial Disparities and Injustice in Minnesota's Marijuana Laws, [PDF] Minnesota 2020. April, 2014. "...blacks in Minnesota were 6.4 times more likely than whites to be arrested for marijuana possession – over two times the national average."
  • The Growth of Incarceration in the United States Exploring causes and consequences, [PDF] National Research Council.. 2014. "The study assesses the evidence and its implications for public policy to inform an extensive and thoughtful public debate about and reconsideration of policies."
  • Key Factors in California's Jail Construction Needs [PDF] Public Policy Institute of California. May, 2014. "This report highlights two important factors in addressing jail capacity constraints: aging jail facilities and long - term needs."
  • Closing Massachusetts' Training Schools Reflections Forty Years Later, [PDF] The Annie E. Clark Foundation. June, 2014. "...a quiet revolution has begun sweeping through our nation's juvenile justice systems... states across the country have begun shuttering juvenile corrections facilities and dramatically reducing the population of young people incarcerated."
  • Youth Behind Bars Examining the impact of prosecuting and incarcerating kids in Michigan's criminal justice system, [PDF] Michigan Council on Crime and Delinquency. May, 2014. "...Michigan broadened juvenile prosecutors' discretion to automatically file in criminal court, expanded the number of juvenile offenses requiring an adult sentence, and allowed children of any age to be criminally convicted and sent to prison."
  • World Pre-trial/Remand Imprisonment List Pre-trail detainees and other remand prisoners in all five continents, [PDF] International Centre for Prison Studies. January, 2008. "..this List refers to those persons who, in connection with an alleged offence or offences, are deprived of their liberty following a judicial or other legal process but have not been definitively sentenced by a court for the offence(s)."
  • A New Approach to Reducing Incarceration While Maintaining Low Rates of Crime, [PDF] The Hamilton Project. May, 2014. "What alternative policy options could we pursue in conjunction with scaling back incarceration rates that would reduce the social costs of incarceration while controlling crime?"
  • Reducing Recidivism States Deliver Results, [PDF] The Council of State Governments Justice Center and the National Reentry Resource Center. June, 2014. "This report focuses on statewide recidivism data for adults released in 2007 and 2010 with a three-year follow-up period, offering a current snapshot of criminal justice outcomes in these states."
  • Nation Behind Bars a human rights solution, [PDF] Human Rights Watch. May, 2014. "The momentum for sentencing reform is welcome for all who care about the fair use of government's power to determine what conduct to criminalize and what sanctions to impose on those who break the law."
  • World Female Imprisonment List 2nd Edition Women and girls in penal institutions, including pre-trial detainees/remand prisoners, [PDF] International Centre for Prison Studies. August, 2012. "More than 625,000 women and girls are held in penal institutions throughout the world,"

Wednesday, June 11 2014:

  • Breaking Down Mass Incarceration in the 2010 Census State-by-State Incarceration Rates by Race/Ethnicity, Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2014. "It is imperative that we are able to measure the extent to which the criminal justice system disparately impacts our communities."
  • Ending the Drug Wars Report of the LSE Expert Group on the Economics of Drug Policy, [PDF] London School of Economics. May, 2014. "A global system which predominantly encourages policies that transfer the costs of prohibition onto poorer producer and transit countries, as the current system does, is an ineffective and unsustainable way to control drugs in the long term."
  • Tracking State Prison Growth in 50 States Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2014. "This briefing fills the gap with a series of more than 100 graphs showing prison growth (and sometimes decline) for every state in the nation to encourage states to confront how their criminal policy choices undermine our national welfare."
  • States of Incarceration The Global Context, Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2014. "While there are certainly important differences between how U.S. states handle incarceration, placing each state in a global context reveals that incarceration policy in every region of this country is out of step with the rest of the world."
  • Automatic Adult Prosecution of Children in Cook County, Illinois. 2010-­‐2012. Over 30 years of poor outcomes from "automatic" adult prosectuion of children., [PDF] Juvenile Justice Initiative. April, 2014. "More than 30 years of studies have consistently demonstrated that categorical treatment of children as adults prevents rehabilitation and positive development, fails to protect public safety and yields profound racial, ethnic and geographic disparities."
  • Disproportionate Minority Contact in the Juvenile Justice System [PDF] Sentencing Project. May, 2014. "juvenile justice systems are marked by disparate racial outcomes at every stage of the process, starting with more frequent arrests for youth of color and ending with more frequent secure placement."
  • The School Discipline Consensus Report Strategies from the Field to Keep Students Engaged In School and Out of the Juvenile Justice System, The Council of State Governments Justice Center. June, 2014. ""The juvenile justice system does not have the tools or resources to respond to the needs of many youth coming thorugh its doors for minor school-based offenses."
  • Inside Out Questionable and Abusive Practices in New Jersey's Bail-Bond Industry, [PDF] State of New Jersey Commission of Investigation. May, 2014. "The result is a disorderly process driven by private profit rather than public interest and one that is dangerously out of balance when it comes to both the rights of the defendents and the requirements of the criminal justice system."
  • Cruel Confinement Abuse, Discrimination and Death Within Alabama's Prisons, [PDF] Southern Poverty Law Center. June, 2014. "This extraordinary understaffing has led to a multitude of problems. The vast majority are easily predictable: delays, failures to diagnose and treat problems, failure to follow up with patients, errors and decisions to not treat seriously ill prisoners."
  • Max Out The Rise in Prison Inmates Released Without Supervision, [PDF] Pew Charitable Trusts. June, 2014. "a large and increasing number of offenders are maxing out—serving their entire sentences behind bars—and returning to their communities without supervision or support."

Tuesday, April 29 2014:

  • Automatic Adult Prosecution of Children in Cook County, Illinois.2010-2012 [PDF] Juvenile Justice Institute. April, 2014. "Illinois should restore authority over whether a child under 18 should be tried in adult criminal court to juvenile court judges. This will bring Illinois in line with the majority of states, and will ensure better outcomes..."
  • Juvenile Defense Attorneys: A Critical Protection Against Injustice The Importance of Skilled Juvenile Defenders to Upholding the Due Process Rights of Youth, [PDF] National Juvenile Defense Center. March, 2014. "A youth's record can negatively impact his or her access to housing, employment, immigration status, voting rights, education, financial independence, and many other areas that impact the likelihood of future success."
  • Unbalanced Juvenile Justice [Website] Burns Institute. 2014. "To help you better understand racial and ethnic disparities and how juvenile justice is being administered in your county, state, and nationwide, BI's interactive tools provide customizable searches."
  • Just Learning The Imperative to Transform Juvenile Justice Systems Into Effective Educational Systems, [PDF] Southern Education Foundation. 2014. "...most students come in and out of the juvenile justice systems with little or no real regard for their education."
  • Deadly Heat in Texas Prisons [PDF] Human Rights Clinic at the University of Texas School of Law. April, 2014. "Since 2007, at least fourteen inmates have died from extreme heat in nine different TDCJ prisons. All fourteen inmates had preexisting health circumstances that rendered them more vulnerable to heat-related illnesses..."
  • Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 30 States in 2005: Patterns from 2005 to 2010, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2014. "Overall, 67.8% of the 404,638 state prisoners released in 2005 in 30 states were arrested within 3 years of release, and 76.6% were arrested within 5 years of release."
  • Rate of False Conviction of Criminal Defendants Who are Sentenced to Death [PDF] University of Michigan Law School. March, 2014. "The rate of exonerations among death sentences in the United States is far higher than for any other category of criminal convictions."
  • Best Practices in the Use of Restraints with Pregnant Women and Girls Under Correctional Custody, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Assistance. 2012. "The use of restraints on pregnant women and girls under correctional custody should be limited to absolute necessity. The use of restraints is considered absolutely necessary only when there is an imminent risk of escape or harm..."
  • Worse Than Second-Class: Solitary Confinement of Women in the United States, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union. April, 2014. "...solitary is often used on the most vulnerable: pregnant women, individuals with mental illness, transgender women, and - in a particularly disturbing trend - victims of sexual assault by prison guards."

Tuesday, April 15 2014:

  • World Prison Population List (tenth edition), [PDF] International Centre for Prison Studies. November, 2013. "This tenth edition of the World Prison Population List gives details of the number of prisoners held in 222 independent countries and dependent territories."
  • Putting "Corrections" Back in State Jails: How to Reform Texas' Expensive, Ineffective State Jail System, [PDF] Texas Public Policy Foundation. November, 2012. "State jails were designed to be a low-cost alternative to prison, with dual goals of reducing prison populations and reducing recidivism rates in low-risk defendants. Unfortunately, state jails are universally failing in their objective."
  • Branded for Life: Florida's Prosecution of Children as Adults under its "Direct File" Statute, [PDF] Human Rights Watch. April, 2014. "Florida transfers more children out of the juvenile system and into adult court than any other state. In the last five years alone, more than 12,000 juvenile crime suspects in Florida were transferred to the adult court system."
  • The Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in Prisons and Jails: A State Survey, [PDF] Treatment Advocacy Program. April, 2014. "The number of individuals with serious mental illness in prisons and jails now exceeds the number in state psychiatric hospitals tenfold."

Thursday, April 3 2014:

  • Billion Dollar Divide: Virginia's Sentencing, Corrections and Criminal Justice Challenge, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. April, 2014. "...to understand how Virginia got to where it is today, the Justice Policy Institute has summarized the trends under three major themes: more people serving longer sentences, more people coming into the system and fewer people leaving the system."

Tuesday, April 1 2014:

  • The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws on Crime: Evidence from State Panel Data, 1990-2006, [PDF] Plos One. March, 2014. "...states passing Medical Marijuana Legalization laws experienced reductions in crime and the rate of reduction appears to be steeper for states passing MML laws as compared to others for several crimes such as homicide, robbery, and aggravated assault."
  • Improving Illinois' Response to Sexual Offense Committed by Youth: Recommendations for Law, Policy, and Practice, [PDF] Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission. March, 2014. "Recommendation 3: Remove young people from the state's counter-productive sex offender registry and the application of categorical restrictions and "collateral consequences.""
  • Recidivism Report 2013 [PDF] Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. February, 2013. "...the 1-year reincarceration rates of releases from 2005 to 2011 for those who were paroled to the street were consistently lower than for those paroled to a Community Corrections Center."
  • Victim Gender and the Death Penalty [PDF] Cornell Law School. March, 2014. "...our analyses suggest that victim gender continues to influence capital sentencing decisions."

Friday, March 28 2014:

  • Reaching too far: How Connecticut's large sentencing enhancement zones miss the mark, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2014. "This report shows that the law doesn't work, it cannot possibly work, and that it creates an unfair two-tiered system of justice based on a haphazard distinction between urban and rural areas of the state."

Thursday, March 27 2014:

  • The State Expenditure Report [PDF] National Association of State Budget Officers. July, 1987. "This report provides figures for actual Fiscal Year 1985 expenditures, estimated Fiscal Year 1986 expenditures..., and appropriated Fiscal Year 1987 expenditures."
  • State Expenditure Report Examining Fiscal 2010-2012 State Spending, [PDF] National Association of State Budget Officers. 2012. "Corrections accounted for 3.1 percent of total state expenditures in fiscal 2011 and 7.5 percent of general funds."
  • State Expenditure Report Examining Fiscal 2011-2013 State Spending, [PDF] National Association of State Budget Officers. 2013. "Total corrections spending increased by 3.3 percent in fiscal 2012 and is estimated to have declined slightly by 0.3 percent in fiscal 2013."

Tuesday, March 25 2014:

  • Capital Punishment, 2010- Statistical Tables [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2011. "Of those under sentence of death at yearend, 55% were white and 42% were black. The 388 Hispanic inmates under sentence of death accounted for 14% of inmates with a known ethnicity. 98% of inmates under sentence of death were male, and 2% were female."
  • Prisoners at Yearend 2009-Advance Counts [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2010. "At yearend 2009, state and federal correctional authorities had jurisdiction over 1,613,656 prisoners, an increase of 0.2% (3,897 prisoners) from yearend 2008."
  • Prisoners 1925-81 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 1982. "The average annual growth rate for the prison population during 1925-81 was 2.4 percent; for the residential population of the United States it was 1.2 percent."
  • State and Federal Prisoners, 1925-85 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 1986. "At the end of 1985 the incarceration rate was 201 per 100,000, the highest ever recorded."
  • Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 1991. "The recorded number of black prisoners In 1986 was nearly 9 times larger than the number recorded In 1926 (80,814 In 1986 versus 9,292 in 1926). The recorded number of white prisoners was 3 times larger (100,874 in 1986 versus 33,626 In 1926)..."
  • Kids Doing Time for What's Not a Crime: The Over-Incarceration of Status Offenders, [PDF] Texas Public Policy Foundation. March, 2014. "...there are very compelling reasons to avoid confinement of status offenders. The punishment fails to fit the "crime" since status offenses are simply behaviors that would be legal if committed by adults..."
  • Facilitating Access to Health Care Coverage for Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth, [PDF] Models for Change. December, 2013. "Youth involved in the juvenile justice system have extensive physical and behavior health needs. The majority have at least one mental health condition and substance abuse is also very common."
  • This is a Prison: Glitter is Not Allowed Experiences of Trans and Gender Variant People in Pennsylvania's Prison System, [PDF] Hearts on a Wire Collective. 2011. "Accounts of prison conditions... show the intensity of discrimination, abuse, medical neglect, and punitive isolation... on the inside. Incarcerated T/GV individuals report dismissal, intimidation, or retaliation when attempting to file grievances."

Wednesday, March 19 2014:

  • Strategies for Reducing Gun Violence in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts A Report to Speaker of the House of Representatives Robert DeLeo, [PDF] Committee to Reduce Firearm Violence. February, 2014. "Massachusetts already has some of the strongest gun laws in the nation. For example, over the last few years the Brady Center ranked Massachusetts 3rd among US states in terms of strength of our gun laws."
  • Central California Women's Facility (CCWF) Health Care Evaluation [PDF] Court Medical Experts. December, 2013. "We find that the Central California Women's Facility (CCWF) is not providing adequate medical care, and that there are systemic issues resulting in preventable morbidity and mortality and that present an on-going serious risk of harm to patients."
  • Redefining Indigence: Financial Eligibility Guidelines for Assigned Counsel, [PDF] National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. March, 2014. "A defendant making just above 125 percent of the Federal Poverty Guidelines receives federal assistance to pay for food, heat and medical care for their children but is somehow not regarded by some states as too poor to hire a lawyer."

Tuesday, March 18 2014:

  • Criminal Records, Race, and Redemption [PDF] New York University Journal of Legislation and Public Policy. 2013. "...poor individuals of color disproportionately shoulder the weight of a criminal record."
  • The Color of Corporate Corrections, Part II: Contractual Exemptions and the Overrepresentation of People of Color in Private Prisons, [PDF] Christopher Petrella. February, 2014. "...this study finds that people of color are overrepresented in private minimum and/or medium security private facilities relative to their public counterparts in each of the nine (9) states examined."
  • Voices from the Field: How California Stakeholders View Public Safety Realignment, [PDF] Stanford Criminal Justice Center. January, 2014. "What is the result of California's great prison experiment? Even after conducting 125 interviews with agencies across California, it remains a challenge to adequately summarize the changes that Realignment (AB 109) has wrought across the state."
  • The Degree of Disadvantage: Incarceration and Inequality in Education, [PDF] Stephanie Ewert, Bryan L. Sykes, and Becky Pettit. November, 2013. "Nearly three in ten white male dropouts in the United States can expect to serve time in a state or federal correctional facility in their lifetime, and nearly 60 percent of black male dropouts are imprisoned at some point in their lives..."
  • Reallocation of Responsibility: Changes to the Correctional System in California Post-Realignment, [PDF] Stanford Criminal Justice Center. January, 2014. "California has decarcerated under Realignment. The state prison population has decreased by 29,886 people since 2010, while the jail population has modestly increased by 8,229 people."
  • "Give Us Free": Addressing Racial Disparities In Bail Determinations, [PDF] New York University Journal of Legislation and Public Policy. 2013. "...Seventy-five percent of pretrial detainees are charged with relatively minor property crimes, drug offenses or other non-violent acts, and remain in jail simply because the money bond was set in an amount they cannot afford to pay."
  • Follow the Money: How California Counties Are Spending Their Public Safety Realignment Funds, [PDF] Stanford Criminal Justice Center. January, 2014. "Sheriff and Law Enforcement spending is generally a product of local needs (crime conditions and dedication to law enforcement) and preference for punishment. Programs and Services spending fundamentally revolves around electoral confidence in the Sheriff"
  • Assessing Judicial Sentencing Preferences After Public Safety Realignment: A Survey of California Judges, [PDF] Stanford Criminal Justice Center. January, 2014. "Our study finds that 57% of judges preferred to give an 1170(h) sentence over a felony probation sentence, except when the hypothetical contains information about the offender's substance abuse or mental illness."
  • The New Normal? Prosecutorial Charging in California After Public Safety Realignment, [PDF] Stanford Criminal Justice Center. January, 2014. "As for specific substantive conclusions, the undramatic one is that most charging or recommendation preferences remain consistent with traditional severity factors and do not manifest major alterations in light of AB 109."
  • In Search of Racial Justice: The Role of the Prosecutor, [PDF] New York University Journal of Legislation and Public Policy. 2013. "...one of every three African American males born today can expect to go to prison in his lifetime, as can one of every six Latino males. One of every eighteen African American females and one of every forty-five Hispanic females face a similar fate."

Thursday, March 13 2014:

  • Estimating the Size and Structure of the Underground Commercial Sex Economy [PDF] Urban Institute. March, 2014. "The goals of this study were to: (1) derive a more rigorous estimate of the underground commercial sex economy (UCSE) in eight major US cities and (2) provide an understanding of the structure of this underground economy. To date, no reliable data exist.."
  • Crime and Justice Atlas 1999 Update [PDF] United States Department of Justice. 1999. "Between 1992 and 1997, 35 states, along with the District of Columbia, experienced decreased rates of serious violent crime."
  • Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2014. "Jail churn is particularly high because at any given moment most of the 722,000 people in local jails have not been convicted..."
  • SOCCPN Annuals Survey of Sex Offender Civil Commitment Programs 2013 [PDF] Sex Offender Civil Commitment Programs Network. 2013. "Nationwide census of civilly committed individuals is 4779 among the 18 programs who responded to the 2013 survey."

Thursday, March 6 2014:

  • Investigation of the Drug Laboratory at the William A. Hinton State Laboratory Institute 2002-2012, [PDF] Office of the Inspector General Commonwealth of Massachusetts. March, 2014. "Dookhan admitted to "dry-labbing," or failing to conduct all of the required tests on drug samples that she analyzed, and also to tampering with drug samples to make negative findings into positives."

Tuesday, March 4 2014:

  • Second Chances  Juveniles serving life without parole in Michigan prisons, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union of Michigan. January, 2006. "The majority (221) of juvenile lifers are minority youth, 211 of whom are African-American. The percentage of African-American juvenile lifers (69%) is greatly disproportionate to the general population in Michigan, which is 15% African-American."
  • Mandatory Minimum Sentences Briefing, [PDF] Connecticut General Assembly. December, 2005. "The annual cost of incarceration associated with mandatory minimum sentences is $201.1 million."
  • Minimum Mandatory Sentence Final Report, [PDF] Connecticut General Assembly. December, 2005. "Mandatory minimum sentencing laws were specifically intended to deter offenders and thereby reduce crime (and curb drug use). There is no direct evidence to suggest that the state's mandatory minimum sentencing laws reduced the crime rate (or drug use)."
  • No More Shackles A report on... California's counties under the new law that limits the use of restraints on pregnant prisoners, [PDF] Legal Services for Prisoners with Children. February, 2014. "...specification that a prisoner known to be pregnant or in recovery after delivery shall never be restrained by the use of leg irons, waist chains, or handcuffs from behind the body."

Thursday, February 27 2014:

  • The Crucible of Adversarial Testing Access to counsel in Delaware's criminal courts, [PDF] Sixth Amendment Center. February, 2014. "As such, it is our opinion that Delaware triages justice to the detriment of a large number of defendants that come before its criminal and family courts."
  • Prisoners executed under civil authority in the United States, by year, region, and jurisdiction, 1977-2013., [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2013.
  • How Effective is Correctional Education, and Where Do We Go from Here? The Results of a Comprehensive Evaluation, [PDF] Rand Corporation. February, 2014. "...correctional education for incarcerated adults reduces the risk of post-release reincarceration (by 13 percentage points) and does so cost-effectively (a savings of five dollars on reincarceration costs for every dollar spent on correctional education)"
  • Investigation of the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections' Use of Solitary Confinement on Prisoners with Serious Mental Illness and/or Intellectual Disabilities, [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. February, 2014. "The manner in which PDOC subjects prisoners with SMI to prolonged periods of solitary confinement involves conditions that are often unjustifiably harsh and in which these prisoners routinely have difficulty obtaining adequate mental health care..."
  • Criminal Stigma, Race, Gender, and Employment: An Expanded Assessment of the Consequences of Imprisonment for Employment, [PDF] Arizona State University School of Criminology and Criminal Justice. February, 2014. "A key feature of a successful (crime free) return to society is employment... But prior research shows that the majority of prisoners - particularly blacks and Hispanics - face significant employment hurdles."

Tuesday, February 25 2014:

  • Crimes Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009-2012 -Statistical Tables, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. February, 2014. "Among persons ages 12 to 15, the unadjusted rate of violent victimization was nearly three times higher for persons with disabilities (123 per 1,000) than for persons without disabilities (43 per 1,000) in 2012."
  • Fout's Spring: A Model Approach to Serving High-Risk Youth, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. November, 2013. "This report analyzes a five-year time period regarding youth committed to the program and its ability to serve th[em]... [It] conclude[s] that Fouts Springs produced substantially better public safety results than DJF, in less time and at reduced cost."
  • Stop-and-Frisk: A First Look Six Months of Data on Stop-and-Frisk Practices in Newark, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union of New Jersey. February, 2014. "Although black Newarkers represent 52 percent of the city's population, they make up 75 percent of all stops."
  • Driving While Black: Racial Profiling On Our Nation's Highways, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union. June, 1999. "All the evidence to date suggests that using traffic laws for non-traffic purposes has been a disaster for people of color and has deeply eroded public confidence in law enforcement."

Thursday, February 20 2014:

  • Hate Crime Victimization, 2004-2012 - Statistics, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. February, 2014. "In 2012, victims perceived that the offender was motivated by bias against the victim's ethnicity in 51% of hate crimes... This was a statistically significant increase from 30% of hate crimes motivated by ethnicity bias in 2011 and 22% in 2004."
  • Reducing Gun Violence in America Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis, [PDF] Center for Gun Policy and Research. February, 2014. "Unless we take action, during... four years some 48,000 Americans will be killed with guns - nearly twice as many people as were killed in combat during the entire Vietnam War."
  • Risks of Drug-Related Death, Suicide, and Homicide During the Immediate Post-Release Period Among People Released From New York City Jails, 2001-2005, [PDF] New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. August, 2011. "...formerly incarcerated people in NYC were 8 times more likely to die of drug-related causes and 5 times more likely to die from homicide during the first 2 weeks after release than were nonincarcerated NYC residents in the same 2-week period."

Tuesday, February 18 2014:

  • Solitary Confinement and Risk of Self-Harm Among Jail Inmates [PDF] American Journal of Public Health. March, 2014. "Inmates ...assigned to solitary confinement were 3.2 times as likely to commit an act of self-harm per 1000 days at some time during their incarceration as those never assigned to solitary."
  • Playbook for Change? States Reconsider Mandatory Sentences, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. February, 2014. "...there is little evidence that longer sentences have more than a marginal effect in reducing recidivism-a key performance indicator of a state's correctional system. More than four out of 10 adult offenders still return to prison within three years..."
  • Parolable Lifers in Michigan: Paying the price of unchecked discretion, [PDF] Citizens Alliance on Prisons & Public Spending. February, 2014. "With the average annual cost of incarcerating an aging prisoner at roughly $40,000, each decision to continue a lifer for five years costs taxpayers about $200,000. Research demonstrates that lifers have by far the lowest re-offense rates of all parolees"
  • Michigan's Parolable Lifers: The Cost of a Broken Process, [PDF] Citizens Alliance on Prisons & Public Spending. February, 2014. "When most of today's parole-eligible lifers were sentenced, it was by judges who believed both a life sentence and a 40-year minimum term meant release within 16 years."

Thursday, February 6 2014:

  • Indicators of Labor Trafficking Among North Carolina Migrant Farmworkers [PDF] National Institute of Justice. August, 2013. "...Law enforcement representatives do not view labor trafficking either as a problem or as a law enforcement issue."
  • California's 58 Crime Rates: Realignment and Crime in 2012, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. January, 2014. "he present analysis finds California's 58 counties vary dramatically in their implementation of Realignment and in their respective crime rates."
  • Incarceration is associated with used syringe lending among active injection drug users with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA: a longitudinal analysis, [PDF] BMC Infectious Diseases. December, 2013. "Among people who inject drugs (PWID), exposure to correctional facilities is common and has been consistently associated with heightened risk of sharing used syringes..."
  • Healthcare Not Handcuffs: Putting the Affordable Care Act to Work for Criminal Justice and Drug Policy Reform, [PDF] ACLU. December, 2013. "...the legislation represents an opportunity to recast substance use disorders and drug use as a matter for public health rather than criminal justice..."
  • Third Time the Charm? State Laws on Medical Cannabis Distribution and Department of Justice Guidance on Enforcement, [PDF] Americans for Safe Access. November, 2013. "In fact, the Obama Administration has outspent all predecessors, with enforcement targeting medical cannabis programs and participants that has cost taxpayers over $300 million and destroyed thousands of lives."
  • Redefining Relationships: Explaining the Countervailing Consequences of Paternal Incarceration for Parenting, [PDF] Turney, Kristen. January, 2014. "In this paper, we consider the countervailing consequences of paternal incarceration for a host of family relationships, including fathers' parenting, mothers' parenting, and the relationship between parents."
  • Imprisonment and Disenfranchisement of Disconnected Low-Income Men [PDF] Urban Institute. August, 2013. "When broken out by race and ethnicity, striking differences appear: incarceration rates for African American men are over six times higher than rates for white men and nearly two and a half times higher than rates for Hispanic men..."
  • Demographic Patterns of Cumulative Arrest Prevalence by Ages 18 and 23 [PDF] Brame, Robert. January, 2014. "...about 30% of Black males have experienced at least one arrest by age 18 (vs. about 22% for White males); by age 23 about 49% of Black males have been arrested (vs. about 38% for White males)."
  • A Review of Mental Health Services in Local and Regional Jails [PDF] Virginia Office of the State Inspector General. January, 2014. "Jails lack the capacity to satisfy the current demand for mental health services."
  • A Program Evaluation of In-Prison Components The Colorado Department of Corrections Sex Offender Treatment and Monitoring Program, [PDF] Central Coast Clinical and Forensic Psychology Services, Inc.. January, 2014. "Many sexual offenders who could successfully be managed in the community, had they effectively participated in treatment, may instead spend additional years in prison. This will represent a great cost to the Colorado taxpayer..."
  • Justice Reinvestment Initiative State Assessment Report [PDF] Urban Institute. January, 2014. "Since enacting JRI, all eight states - Arkansas, Hawaii, Louisiana, Kentucky, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, and South Carolina - have experienced reductions in their prison populations since the start of JRI."
  • Realignment Report An Examination of Offenders Released from State Prison in the First Year of Public Safety Realignment, [PDF] California Department of Corrections And Rehabilitation. December, 2013. "...the one-year return to prison rate was substantially less post-Realignment, since most offenders in this cohort were ineligible to return to prison on a parole violation."

Friday, January 24 2014:

Friday, January 3 2014:

  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2013. "Among those offenders who were released from federal prison in 2008 and returned within 3 years, 59% returned for a supervision violation and 39% returned for a new offense."

Tuesday, December 31 2013:

  • Homicide in the U.S. Known to Law Enforcement, 2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2013. "The U.S. homicide rate declined by nearly half (49%), from 9.3 homicides per 100,000 U.S. residents in 1992 to 4.7 in 2011, falling to the lowest level since 1963."

Tuesday, December 24 2013:

  • The Death Penalty in 2013: Year End Report, [PDF] Death Penalty Information Center. December, 2013. "Public support for the death penalty reached its lowest level in 40 years."
  • Prisoners in 2012: Trends in Admissions and Releases, 1991-2012, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2013. "The number of releases from U.S. prisons in 2012 (637,400) exceeded that of admissions for the fourth consecutive year, contributing to the decline in the total U.S. prison population."
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2012 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2013. "Both parole entries (down 9.1%) and exits (down 6.8%) declined between 2011 and 2012."

Friday, December 20 2013:

  • Correctional Populations in the United States, 2012 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2013. "Although the correctional population declined by 0.7% during 2012, this was the slowest rate of decline observed since 2009 when the population first decreased."

Thursday, December 12 2013:

  • Victims of Identity Theft, 2012 [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. December, 2013. "About 7% of persons age 16 or older were victims of identity theft in 2012."
  • From Courts to Communities: The Right Response to Truancy, Running Away, and Other Status Offenses, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. December, 2013. "Youth who run away from home, routinely skip school, and engage in other risky behaviors that are prohibited ...are acting out in ways that should concern the adults in their lives. They need appropriate attention-but not from the juvenile justice system."
  • A Generation Later: What We've Learned about Zero Tolerance in Schools, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. December, 2013. "Among middle school students, black youth are suspended nearly 4 times more often than white youth, and Latino youth are roughly twice as likely to be suspended or expelled than white youth."
  • Assessing Pretrial Risk without a Defendant Interview [PDF] Laura and John Arnold Foundation. November, 2013. "Less than 10% of judicial officers across the country use pretrial risk assessment tools to make these decisions, in part because they require costly and time-consuming defendant interviews."
  • Investigating the Impact of Pretrial Detention on Sentencing Outcomes [PDF] Laura and John Arnold Foundation. November, 2013. "Low-risk defendants who are detained for the entire pretrial period are 5.41 times more likely to be sentenced to jail and 3.76 times more likely to be sentenced to prison when compared to low-risk defendants who are released ... before trial..."
  • The Hidden Costs of Pretrial Detention [PDF] Laura and John Arnold Foundation. November, 2013. "When held 8-14 days, low-risk defendants are 51 percent more likely to commit another crime within two years after completion of their cases than equivalent defendants held no more than 24 hours."
  • Exploring the Impact of Supervision on Pretrial Outcomes [PDF] Laura and John Arnold Foundation. November, 2013. "Defendants supervised pretrial for more than 180 days were 12% to 36% less likely to commit new crimes before case disposition."
  • Local Government Corrections Expenditures, FY 2005-2011 [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. December, 2013. "Local governments spent 1.6% of total expenditures on corrections."
  • The Impact of Parole in New Jersey [PDF] Pew Charitable Trusts. November, 2013. "About 25 percent of parolees released in 2008 committed new crimes and returned to prison within three years, compared with 41 percent of offenders who maxed out their sentences, were released without supervision, and subsequently committed new crimes."

Thursday, December 5 2013:

  • Alone & Afraid Children Held in Solitary Confinement and Isolation in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union. November, 2013. "Solitary confinement and isolation of children in juvenile facilities is psychologically, developmentally, and physically damaging and can result in long-term problems and even suicide."
  • Reforming Funding to Reduce Mass Incarceration [PDF] Brennan Center for Justice. November, 2013. "More than 68 million Americans - a quarter of the nation's population - have criminal records."
  • The Impact of Federal Budget Cuts from FY10-FY13 on State and Local Public Safety, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. November, 2013. "Overall funding for Department of Justice grant programs has dropped by 43 percent since FY10."
  • An Offer You Can't Refuse How US Federal Prosecutors Force Drug Defendants to Plead Guilty, [PDF] Human Rights Watch. December, 2013. "In 2012, the average sentence of federal drug offenders convicted after trial was three times higher (16 years) than that received after a guilty plea (5 years and 4 months)."
  • State Court Organization, 2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2013. "From 1980 to 2011, the number of state trial court judges increased 11%, from 24,784 to 27,570 (figure 1). During the same period, the U.S. population increased 37%, and arrests in the U.S. increased 19%."

Thursday, November 21 2013:

  • Intimate Partner Violence: Attributes of Victimizations, 1993-2011, [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. November, 2013. "From 1994 to 2011, the rate of serious intimate partner violence declined 72% for females and 64% for males."
  • A Lifetime of Punishment: The Impact of the Felony Drug Ban on Welfare Benefits, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. November, 2013. "... there is little reason to believe that barring individuals with felony drug convictions from receiving welfare benefits deters drug use or crime."
  • Impact of Realignment on County Jail Populations [PDF] Public Policy Institute of California. June, 2013. "Between June 2011 and June 2012, the state prison population declined by 26,600 inmates. Concurrently, California's county average daily jail population grew by about 8,600 inmates..."
  • Rethinking the State-Local Relationship [PDF] Public Policy Institute of California. August, 2011. "The legislature has passed and Governor Jerry Brown has signed legislation (AB 109) to send roughly 30,000 prisoners to county jail rather than state prison."
  • Locked Up & Shipped Away: Interstate Prison Transfers and the Private Prison Industry, [PDF] Grassroots Leadership. November, 2013. "Currently, prisoners in out-of-state private facilities are held approximately 450 miles to nearly 3,000 miles from their home states."
  • Funding Public Safety Realignment [PDF] Public Policy Institute of California. November, 2013. "Achieving lower rates of recidivism is a key goal for the state because the share of individuals returning to crime has a direct bearing on the state's ability to reduce prison crowding."

Thursday, November 14 2013:

  • Criminal Justice in the 21st Century: Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Criminal Justice System, [PDF] National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. October, 2013. "We have to question why we are using the long arm of the criminal justice system to arrest... black and Latino men who write their name on a wall, or why we arrest kids for pot in a pocket when we don't arrest other kids for pot."
  • Virginia's Justice System Expensive, Ineffective and Unfair, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. November, 2013. "Virginia's aggressive stance on arresting people for drug violations has had no effect on reducing drug use. In fact, illicit drug use has increased in recent years."
  • Sentencing and Prison Practices in Germany and the Netherlands: Implications for the United States, [PDF] Vera. October, 2013. "Many countries in Northern Europe - such as Germany and the Netherlands - have significantly lower incarceration rates and make much greater use of non-custodial penalties, particularly for nonviolent crimes."
  • Report on Suicide Prevention Practices within the District of Colombia, Department of Corrections' Central Detention Facility, [PDF] DC Department of Corrections. September, 2013. "...correctional officers that are assigned to the mental health unit ...in the Central Detention Facility do not receive any specialized mental health and/or suicide prevention training."
  • A Second Chance Charting a New Course for Re-Entry and Criminal Justice Reform, [PDF] Leadership Conference Education Fund. October, 2013. "...the United States currently incarcerates ...more than 2.2 million individuals. And that's just people who are physically in jail or prison. If we count people on parole and people on probation, that number jumps to almost 7 million."
  • A Living Death Life Without Parole for Nonviolent Offenses, [PDF] ACLU. November, 2013. "About 79 percent of the 3,278 prisoners serving life without parole were sentenced to die in prison for nonviolent drug crimes."

Friday, November 1 2013:

  • Prison Gerrymandering in Massachusetts: How the Census Bureau prison miscount invites phantom constituents to town meeting, Prison Policy Initiative. October, 2013. "Prison gerrymandering distorts local democracy in 7 Massachusetts towns that contain large correctional institutions and use the "representative town meeting" form of government."

Thursday, October 31 2013:

  • Criminals and Campaign Cash The Impact of Judicial Campaign Spending on Criminal Defendants, [PDF] Center for American Progress. October, 2013. "As Illinois voters were bombarded with attack ads featuring violent criminals, the high court ruled in favor of the prosecution in 69 percent of its criminal cases—an 18 percent increase over the previous year."
  • Managing Prison Health Care Spending [PDF] The Pew Charitable Trust, The MacArthur Foundation. October, 2013. "Pew found that prison health care spending in these 44 states totaled $6.5 billion in 2008, out of $36.8 billion in overall institutional correctional expenditures."
  • Smart on Sentencing, Smart on Crime: An Argument for Reforming Louisiana's Determinate Sentencing Laws, [PDF] Reason Foundation, Pelican Institute for Public Policy, Texas Public Policy Foundation, Right on Crime. October, 2013. "Today, Louisiana has the highest incarceration rate in the country, with 868 of every 100,000 of its citizens in prison."

Friday, October 25 2013:

  • Criminal Victimization, 2012 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2013. "The apparent increase in the number and rate of serious violent crime from 2011 to 2012 was not statistically significant."

Thursday, October 24 2013:

  • Safer, Smarter, and More Cost-Efficient Approaches to Reducing Crime in Texas, [PDF] Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. October, 2013. "39% of people in prison (53,810 men and women) were incarcerated for a nonviolent, non-sexually based offense."
  • The Hospital Cost of Firearms [PDF] Urban Institute. September, 2013. "Young males (age 15–24) are the most common firearm assault victims, visiting the ED almost seven times more than the national average."
  • The Cost of Firearm Violence [PDF] Children's Safety Network. 2013. "PIRE researcher Ted Miller estimates annual firearm injury costs average $645 per gun in America."
  • Justice for Immigration's Hidden Population Protecting the Rights of Persons with Mental Disabilities in the Immigration Court and Detention System, [PDF] Texas Appleseed. March, 2010. "Detention often exacerbates mental illness,3 separates immigrants with mental disabilities from therapeutic services and family, frequently leads to misdiagnosis, and interrupts continuity of care."
  • Thinking Outside the Cell Alternatives to Incarceration for Youth with Mental Illness, [PDF] Texas Appleseed. April, 2011. "...youth should be supported close to their families and home environments and that detention should always be a last resort."
  • Restructuring Texas' Juvenile Justice System Saving Money, Saving Communities & Saving Youth, [PDF] Texas Appleseed. March, 2011. "Building a continuum of care – reserving secure facilities for only those youth who cannot be safely treated in the community – provides for quality treatment."
  • State of Recidivism The Revolving Door of America's Prisons, [PDF] Pew Center on the States. April, 2011. "The most recent of those reports, which tracked offenders released from state prison in 1994, concluded that a little more than half of released offenders (51.8 percent) were back in prison within three years..."
  • Improving Discovery in Criminal Cases in Texas: How Best Practices Contribute to Criminal Justice, [PDF] Texas Appleseed. February, 2013. "Witness statements are often crucial to the evaluation and defense of a criminal case. While most states require pre-trial disclosure of witness statements or lists, Texas does not."

Wednesday, October 23 2013:

  • Reclaiming Michigan's Throwaway Kids: Students Trapped in the School-to-Prison Pipeline, [PDF] Michigan ACLU. 2009. "When school administrators refer some student discipline matters to law enforcement agencies, there is a consequent criminalization of many students whose offenses would otherwise have been dealt with entirely by school officials."

Monday, October 21 2013:

  • The Choice is Yours: Early Implementation of a Diversion Program for Felony Offenders, [PDF] Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center. October, 2013. "As of June 30, 2013, of consented participants in the The Choice is Yours (TCY) who progressed beyond orientation and into the full enrollment phase, 4.6 percent (N=3 of 65) have been rearrested"
  • Three Quarter Houses: The View from Inside, [PDF] John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Prisoner Reentry Institute. October, 2013. "Illegal evictions derail recovery and reintegration and can lead to relapse, street homelessness, unemployment, and violations of parole mandates that can result in re-incarceration."

Friday, October 18 2013:

Thursday, October 17 2013:

  • Violent Crime in U.S. Falls to New 32-Year Low [PDF] John Jay College of Criminal Justice. October, 2013. "Compared with trends since 1980, the arrest rate for violent youth crime reached a new low every year from 2009 through 2012."
  • The Impact of the Byrne Justice Assistance Grant Program How Byrne JAG is Changing the Criminal Justice System, [PDF] National Criminal Justice Association. October, 2013. "The Byrne Justice Assistance Grant program... is the nation's cornerstone crime-fighting program, supporting the federal government's crucial role in spurring innovation, as well as testing and replicating evidence-based practices in crime control..."
  • Ending Mass Incarceration: Social Interventions that Work, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. October, 2013. "Evidence based research provides the strongest support for school and community-based interventions in lieu of residential placement."
  • Jail Mental Health Design and Programming "Options and Opportunities", [PDF] National Institute of Corrections, United States Department of Justice. July, 2013. "More people are being booked into the McLean County Detention Facility with more serious criminal charges and they are staying longer."
  • The Health Effects of Conducted Energy Weapons The Expert Panel on the Medical and Physiological Impacts of Conducted Energy Weapons, [PDF] Council of Canadian Academies. 2013. "Since 1998, at least 33 deaths have followed the deployment of a CEW in Canada."

Thursday, October 10 2013:

  • Report of Findings: (investigation of allegations of national origin discrimination), [PDF] Civil Rights Division of the United States Department of Justice. March, 2012. "...AOC policy does not provide interpreters in child custody hearings; child support hearings, civil no-contact order 50C proceedings, foreclosures, and divorce proceedings"
  • Drug Testing and Crime-Related Restrictions in TANF, SNAP, and Housing Assistance, [PDF] Congressional Research Service. September, 2013. "The 1996 welfare reform law gave states the option of requiring drug tests for TANF recipients and penalizing those who fail such tests."
  • The Missouri Model Reinventing the Practice of Rehabilitating Youthful Offenders, [PDF] Annie E. Casey Foundation. 2010. "For instance, the average length of stay in North Carolina juvenile facilities was 386 days in 2007,18 while California youth average three years in confinement."
  • State Trends Legislative Victories 2011-2013 Removing Youth from the Adult Criminal Justice System, [PDF] Campaign for Youth Justice. 2013. ""[e]ighty-five percent of youth sentenced to life without parole are people of color, with 75 percent of all cases in California being African American or Hispanic youth."

Thursday, October 3 2013:

  • Report of the Sentencing Project to the UN Human Rights Committee Regarding Racial Disparities in the United States Criminal Justice System, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. August, 2013. "If current trends continue, one of every three black American males born today can expect to go to prison in his lifetime, as can one of every six Latino males—compared to one of every seventeen white males."
  • More Prisoners Versus More Crime is the Wrong Question [PDF] Brookings Institution. 2013. "...America's current approach to crime control is woefully inefficient. Much greater crime control could be achieved at lower human and financial cost."
  • Turning the Corner on Mass Incarceration? [PDF] Georgetown University Law Center. 2011. "Criminal justice policies and practices are largely determined at the state and local levels, and practices vary widely among the states and even among cities, towns, and counties within a single state."
  • Democracy Imprisoned A Review of the Prevalence and Impact of Felony Disenfranchisement Laws in the United States, [PDF] The Sentencing Project et al.. September, 2013. "In three states, at least one out of every five African-American adults is disenfranchised: Florida (23%), Kentucky (22%), and Virginia (20%)."
  • The Relationship Between Gun Ownership and Firearm Homicide Rates in the US 1981-2010, [PDF] American Journal of Public Health. September, 2013. "..we found that states with higher levels of gun ownership had disproportionately large numbers of deaths from firearm-related homicides."
  • Changing Course Preventing Gang Membership, [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2013. "The complex interplay between poverty, competition over scarce resources and crime creates environments that are conducive to the formation of gangs and their attractiveness to youth."
  • Prisoner Reentry Experiences of Adult Males Characteristics, Service Receipt, and Outcome of Participants in the SVORI Multi-Site Evaluation, [PDF] Pamela K. Lattimore, Danielle M. Steffey, Christy A. Visher. September, 2009. "SVORI program participation greatly increased the likelihood of receiving a wide range of services, but levels of participation were less than reported needs."
  • An Epidemic of Prosecutor Misconduct [PDF] Center for Prosecutor Integrity. 2013. "An analysis by the Northern California Innocence Project found out of 707 cases of court-identified misconduct, only six prosecutors (fewer than 1%) were disciplined by the State Bar."

Wednesday, October 2 2013:

  • The 2% Death Penalty: How a Minority of Counties Produce Most Death Cases At Enormous Costs to All, [PDF] Death Penalty Information Center. October, 2013. "All of the state executions since the death penalty was reinstated stem from cases in just 15% of the counties in the U.S. All of the 3,125 inmates on death row as of January 1, 2013 came from just 20% of the counties."

Tuesday, October 1 2013:

  • When Men Murder Women: An Analysis of 2011 Homicide Data, [PDF] Violence Policy Center. September, 2013. "For homicides in which the victim to offender relationship could be identified, 94 percent of female victims (1,509 out of 1,601) were murdered by a male they knew."
  • Are Immigration Detainer Practices Rational? [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. September, 2013. "According to these data, an undocumented foreign national with a traffic offense is more likely to be booked into ICE detention than one with a homicide, forcible rape, robbery, or aggravated assault offense."

Wednesday, September 25 2013:

  • Police Behavior during Traffic and Street Stops, 2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2013. "Of those involved in traffic and street stops, a smaller percentage of blacks than whites believed the police behaved properly during the stop."
  • Requests for Police Assistance, 2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2013. "An estimated 1 in 8 U.S. residents age 16 or older, or 31.4 million persons, requested assistance from police at least once, most commonly to report a crime, suspicious activity, or neighborhood disturbance."
  • Colorado Department of Corrections Administrative Segregation and Classification Review, [PDF] National Institute of Corrections. October, 2011. "Currently about 7% (1,427) of the prison population is in administrative segregation, which is significantly above the national average of 1-2 %."

Friday, September 20 2013:

  • Realigning the Revolving Door: An Analysis of California Counties' AB 109 2011-2012 Implementation Plans, [PDF] Stanford Law School Criminal Justice Center. September, 2013. "Sheriff's departments were allocated the largest amount of funding at $125,655,502, or 34.9 percent of all expenditure."
  • Coming of Age with Stop and Frisk: Experiences, Perceptions, and Public Safety Implications, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. September, 2013. "Young people who have been stopped more often are less willing to report crimes, even when they are the victims. Each additional stop in the span of a year is associated with an 8% drop in the person's likelihood of reporting a violent crime."
  • State Spending for Corrections: Long-Term Trends and Recent Criminal Justice Policy Reforms, [PDF] National Association of State Budget Officers. September, 2013. "State spending for corrections reached $52.4 billion in fiscal 2012 and has been higher than 7.0 percent of overall general fund expenditures every year since fiscal 2008."

Thursday, September 19 2013:

  • 2001 Court Commitments to the Massachusetts Department of Correction [PDF] Massachusetts Department of Correction. March, 2003. "Inmates were committed in 2001 for the following offense groups: Person (31%), Drug (31%), Property (16%), "Other" (15%), Sex (7%)."
  • The Missouri Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Missouri's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. April, 2012. "Of those sixty-eight inmates who were executed...Fifty-two ...were sentenced to death for murdering a white victim, while sixteen were sentenced to death for murdering an African-American victim."
  • The Ohio Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Ohio's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. September, 2007. "...the chances of a death sentence in Hamilton County are 2.7 times higher than in the rest of the state, 3.7 times higher than in Cuyahoga County, and 6.2 times higher than in Franklin County."
  • The Pennsylvania Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Pennsylvania's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. October, 2007. "The study found that defendants were more than twice as likely to receive the death penalty when the jury was composed of six or more white male jurors..."
  • The Tennessee Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Tennessee's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. March, 2007. "Often, however, jury instructions are poorly written and poorly conveyed, which confuses jurors about the applicable law and the extent of their responsibilities."
  • The Texas Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Texas's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. September, 2013. "...since 1992, Texas has paid over $60 million to those it has wrongfully imprisoned..."
  • Criminal: How Lockup Quotas and "Low-Crime Taxes" Guarantee Profits for Private Prison Corporations, [PDF] In the Public Interest. September, 2013. "Essentially, the state would have to guarantee that its prison would be 90 percent filled for the next 20 years (a quota), or pay the company for unused prison beds if the number of inmates dipped below 90 percent capacity at any point..."
  • Administrative Investigation The facts and circumstances surrounding the events, which Inmate John Geoghan's death on August 23, 2003, [PDF] Massachusetts Administrative Investigation Panel. 2003. "...the known ability of inmates to prevent staff from opening the cell doors in SBCC... also played a role."

Wednesday, September 18 2013:

  • Life Goes On: The Historic Rise in Life Sentences in America, [PDF] Sentencing Project. September, 2013. "As of 2012, there were 159,520 people serving life sentences, an 11.8% rise since 2008."

Thursday, September 12 2013:

  • The Alabama Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Alabama's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. June, 2006. "...the State of Alabama does not require that an indigent individual charged with or convicted of a capital felony be appointed counsel and provided with resources for experts and investigators at every stage of the proceedings."
  • The Arizona Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Arizona's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. June, 2006. "The State of Arizona provides only one to two percent of the funding for the cost of capital representation, significantly underfunding these indigent defense services."
  • The Florida Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Florida's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. September, 2006. "Since 1973, the State of Florida has exonerated twenty-two death-row inmates, which is more than any other state in the nation."
  • The Georgia Death Penalty Report An Analysis of Georgia's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. January, 2006. "...as of August 1998, fifty-five of the 119 inmates on Georgia's death row were black and of the 88 persons awaiting death penalty trial, 53 were black males, 26 were white males, 2 were black females, 4 were white females, and 3 were Hispanic males."
  • The Indiana Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Indiana's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. February, 2007. "...white offenders received harsher sentences for murder than offenders belonging to racial or ethnic minority groups"
  • The Kentucky Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Kentucky's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. December, 2011. "Kentucky does not require the accreditation of its forensic laboratories, MEO, or any of the 120 county coroner offices."

Tuesday, September 10 2013:

  • Technology, Teen Dating, Violence and Abuse, and Bullying [PDF] Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center. August, 2013. "26% of youth in a relationship said they experienced some form of cyber dating abuse victimization in the prior year. Females were twice as likely as males to report being a victim of sexual cyber dating abuse in the prior year."
  • Progress Report: Three Strikes Reform (Proposition 36) [PDF] Stanford Law School Three Strikes Project and NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund. September, 2013. "Fewer than 2% of the prisoners released under Prop 36 have been charged with new crimes, according to state and county records. The average recidivism rate over a similar period of time for non-Prop 36 inmates leaving California prisons is 16%."

Friday, September 6 2013:

  • The Virginia Death Penalty Assessment Report An Analysis of Virginia's Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices, [PDF] American Bar Association. August, 2013. "Between 1989 and 2013, at least 18 people in Virginia whose convictions were based largely on eyewitness misidentifications have been exonerated of serious violent felonies following DNA testing or the discovery of new evidence."

Thursday, September 5 2013:

  • Measuring the Prevalence of Crime with the National Crime Victimization Survey, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2013. "The percentage of violent crime victims who experienced two or more victimizations during a year declined from 23% in 1993 to 17% in 2010. In 2010, this 17% accounted for more than half (54%) of all violent victimizations."
  • Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, [PDF] Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. September, 2013. "Among adults aged 50 to 64, the rate of current illicit drug use increased during the past decade. For adults aged 50-54, the rate increased from 3.4% in 2002 to 7.2% in 2012, and among those aged 55-59 it increased from 1.9% in 2002 to 6.6% in 2012."

Wednesday, September 4 2013:

  • Highlights of the 2011 National Youth Gang Survey [PDF] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. September, 2013. "Change estimates from 2010 to 2011 indicate a measurable increase in gangs and gang members and a nearly 8-percent drop in the number of recorded gang-related homicides."

Wednesday, August 28 2013:

  • Improvements Needed in Bureau of Prisons' Monitoring and Evaluation of Impact of Segregated Housing, [PDF] Government Accountability Office. May, 2013. "Without an assessment of the impact of segregation on institutional safety or study of the long-term impact of segregated housing on inmates, BOP cannot determine the extent to which segregated housing achieves its stated purpose."

Monday, August 26 2013:

Thursday, August 22 2013:

  • Evaluating the Effectiveness of Correctional Education A Meta-Analysis of Programs That Provide Education to Incarcerated Adults, [PDF] RAND Corporation. August, 2013. "On average, inmates who participated in correctional education programs had 43% lower odds of recidivating than inmates who did not, and the odds of obtaining employment postrelease was 13% higher than those who had not participated."

Tuesday, August 20 2013:

  • International Growth Trends in Prison Privatization [PDF] Sentencing Project. August, 2013. "Prison privatization is most concentrated and most fully privatized in a handful of predominantly English-speaking countries. These include Australia, Scotland, England and Wales, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States."
  • Motivation for Treatment Among Women Offenders in Prison-Based Treatment and Longitudinal Outcomes Among Those Who Participate in Community Aftercare, [PDF] National Institutes of Health. September, 2011. "Participants who completed the aftercare program, or who had longer treatment duration, and those who had participated in an in-prison program prior to parole had reduced risk of recidivism."

Friday, August 16 2013:

  • Crime in California 2012 [PDF] California Attorney General and California Department of Justice. August, 2013. "The homicide rate remained at a rate 18 percent lower than the average homicide rate for the prior ten years."

Thursday, August 15 2013:

  • Treatment of the Highest-risk Offenders Can Avoid Costs [PDF] Oregon Secretary of State. August, 2013. "Oregon taxpayers and victims could have avoided about $21.6 million in costs if substance abuse treatment had been provided to all of the highest-risk offenders."
  • Re-Entry Policy Study Commission report Indianapolis-Marion County City-County Council, [PDF] Indianapolis-Marion County City-County Council Re-Entry Policy Study Commission. August, 2013. "Employment was the number one predictor of recidivism. The recidivism rate among the unemployed offenders was 42.4%; recidivism among the employed offenders was 26.2%."

Tuesday, August 6 2013:

  • The Effect of Immigration Detainers in a Post-Realignment California [PDF] CJCJ. August, 2013. "89 percent of said non-criminal ICE detentions in California are in local jails and facilities. These detentions cost taxpayers approximately $16.3 million for local jail holds during the 30-month period studied"
  • Recidivism in Delaware: An Analysis of Prisoners Released in 2008 and 2009, [PDF] Delaware Criminal Justice Council. July, 2013. "Recidivism rates are generally higher for Blacks than for Whites, and higher for males than for females. Additionally, recidivism rates were lower for those who had longer prison sentences (i.e., lengths of stay)."

Thursday, August 1 2013:

  • Wanted: Accurate FBI Background Checks for Employment [PDF] National Employment Law Project. July, 2013. "About 1.8 million workers a year are subject to FBI background checks that include faulty or incomplete information. 600,000 of those workers may be prejudiced in their job search when reports do not include up-to-date/accurate information."

Wednesday, July 31 2013:

  • Preliminary Crack Retroactivity Data Report Fair Sentencing Act, [PDF] U.S. Sentencing Commission. July, 2013. "After federal sentencing guideline changes on crack cocaine were made retroactive, more than 7,300 defendants got on average a 29-month reduction in their sentences."

Monday, July 29 2013:

  • Race, Justifiable Homicide, and Stand Your Ground Laws: Analysis of FBI Supplementary Homicide Report Data, [PDF] Urban Institute. July, 2013. "Regardless of how the data are analyzed, substantial racial disparities exist in the outcomes of cross-race homicides. In addition, the recent expansion of Stand Your Ground laws in two dozen states appears to worsen the disparity."

Thursday, July 25 2013:

  • Prisoners in 2012 - Advance Counts [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2013. "The U.S. prison population declined for the third consecutive year in 2012, from a high of 1,615,487 inmates in 2009 to 1,571,013 at yearend 2012."
  • Racial Disparities in Arrests in the District of Columbia, 2009-2011 [PDF] Washington Lawyers' Committee. July, 2013. "While there are about as many African Americans aged 18 or older (47.6%) as there are adult whites (42%) living in this city, eight out of 10 adults arrested for a crime in Washington are African American."

Wednesday, July 24 2013:

  • Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Colorado's continued warehousing of mentally ill prisoners in solitary confinement, [PDF] ACLU of Colorado. July, 2013. "As of March 2013, CDOC housed at least 87 seriously mentally ill prisoners in solitary confinement, 54 of whom have been living in isolation for over a year and 14 of whom have been in solitary confinement for more than 4 years."
  • A Death Before Dying: Solitary Confinement on Death Row, [PDF] ACLU. July, 2013. "93 percent of states lock up their death row prisoners for 22 or more hours per day. Most of these prisoners live under conditions of extreme social isolation and enforced idleness."

Friday, July 19 2013:

  • The Potential of Community Corrections to Improve Safety and Reduce Incarceration, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. July, 2013. "Community-based supervision has always had the potential to support individual change, help make communities safer, and reduce public costs. Now it's getting more attention due to budget constraints, prison proliferation, and high recidivism rates."

Thursday, July 18 2013:

  • Juvenile Incarceration, Human Capital and Future Crime: Evidence from Randomly-Assigned Judges, [PDF] Brown University, MIT. June, 2013. ""Estimates suggest that juvenile incarceration results in large decreases in the likelihood of high school completion and large increases in the likelihood of adult incarceration.""

Thursday, June 27 2013:

  • Jails in Indian Country, 2012 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2013. "At midyear 2012, a total of 2,364 inmates were confined in Indian country jails—a 5.6% increase from the 2,239 inmates confined at midyear 2011."

Wednesday, June 26 2013:

  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2012, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2013. "In 2011, about 28 percent of 12- to 18-year-old students reported being bullied at school during the school year."

Monday, June 24 2013:

  • Keeping Kids In School and Out of Court: Report and Recommendations, [PDF] New York City School-Justice Partnership Task Force. May, 2013. "During the School Year 2012 there were 882 arrests and 1,666 summonses issued, with over-representation of students of color. Suspension and school arrest patterns are less a function of student misbehavior than a function of the adult response."
  • The Comeback States: Reducing youth incarceration in the United States, [PDF] National Juvenile Justice Network and the Texas Public Policy Foundation. June, 2013. "Six policies encourage reductions in reliance on detention and incarceration, including disallowing incarceration for minor offenses, and increasing the availability of evidence-based alternatives to incarceration."

Friday, June 21 2013:

  • Household Burglary, 1994-2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2013. "The rate of household burglary decreased 56% from 1994 to 2011. During this time period, households with an income of $14,999 or less were victimized at a higher rate than households with higher incomes."

Thursday, June 20 2013:

  • Felony Disenfranchisement: A Primer, [PDF] Sentencing Project. June, 2013. "The 11 most extreme states restrict voting rights even after a person has served his or her prison sentence and is no longer on probation or parole; such individuals in those states make up approximately 45% of the entire disenfranchised population."

Wednesday, June 19 2013:

  • Collecting DNA at Arrest: Policies, Practices, and Implications, [PDF] Urban Institute. May, 2013. "Arrestee DNA laws led to more profiles in CODIS, contributed to additional hits, imposed significant administrative and analytic burdens on many state crime laboratories and collecting agencies, and raised important legal and policy issues."

Monday, June 17 2013:

  • The War on Marijuana in Black and White: Billions of Dollars Waster on Racially Biased Arrests, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union. June, 2013. "On average, a Black person is 3.73 times more likely to be arrested for marijuana possession than a white person, even though Blacks and whites use marijuana at similar rates"
  • Understanding and Addressing Youth Violence in the Texas Juvenile Justice Department, [PDF] Michelle Deitch, Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. May, 2013. "Although they represented 57% of TJJD's youth population, youth ages 17-18 committed only 44% of violations involving violence/escapes or riots/group disturbances in 2012. 14- 15-year olds were 12% of the population but 25% of serious violations."

Thursday, June 13 2013:

  • Priorities for Research to Reduce the Threat of Firearm-Related Violence [PDF] Institute of Medicine. June, 2013. "The complexity and frequency of firearm violence, combined with its impact on the health and safety of Americans, suggest that a public health approach should be incorporated into the strategies used to prevent future harm and injuries."
  • The Pennsylvania Juvenile Justice Recidivism Report: Juveniles with a 2007 Case Closure , [PDF] Pennsylvanie Juvenile Court Judges' Commission. April, 2013. "Juveniles with only one written allegation in their juvenile offending history (i.e., first time offenders) reoffended at a rate of 13%. Conversely, juveniles with four or more previous written allegations re-offended at a rate of 37%."

Monday, June 10 2013:

  • PTSD, Trauma, and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Detained Youth [PDF] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. June, 2013. "Of the study sample, 92.5 percent of youth had experienced at least one trauma, 84 percent had experienced more than one trauma, and 56.8 percent were exposed to trauma six or more times."
  • Sexual Victimization in Juvenile Facilities Reported by Youth, 2012 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2013. "An estimated 9.5% of adjudicated youth in state juvenile facilities and state contract facilities (1,720 youth) reported experiencing one or more incidents of sexual victimization in the past 12 months or since admission, if less than 12 months."

Friday, May 24 2013:

  • Turning Migrants Into Criminals: The Harmful Impact of US Border Prosecutions, [PDF] Human Rights Watch. May, 2013. "But the prosecutions of illegal entry offenses happening today are overbroad... and are thus draining resources that could go to efforts to increase public safety and create a more secure, efficient, and humane immigration system."

Wednesday, May 22 2013:

  • Jail Inmates at Midyear 2012 - Statistical Tables [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 2013. "The average daily population (ADP) in jails remained stable from 735,565 during the 12-month period ending June 30, 2011, and 735,983 during the 12-month period ending June 30, 2012."

Friday, May 17 2013:

  • Realignment Report A One-year Examination of Offenders Released from State Prison in the First Six Months of Public Safety Realignment, [PDF] California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. May, 2013. "The 1-year arrest/conviction rates of offenders released pre and post-Realignment is similar, but the 1-year return to prison rate was substantially less post-Realignment since most offenders in this cohort were ineligible to return on a parole violation."

Thursday, May 16 2013:

  • Report of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence, [PDF] Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence. December, 2012. "It is crucial that incarceration of juveniles not involve sanctions that subject them to additional violence, both to protect them from harm and to avoid teaching them by example that violence is an appropriate means to control other people's behavior."
  • Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2011 - 12 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 2013. "In 2011-12, an estimated 4.0% of state/federal prison inmates and 3.2% of jail inmates reported experiencing one or more incidents of sexual victimization by another inmate or staff in the past 12 months (or since admission to the facility, if <12 mos.)"

Wednesday, May 15 2013:

  • Report to the Governor - 2012 [PDF] Oregon Commission on Public Safety. December, 2012. "Oregon's imprisonment rate has grown at over three times the rate of the national average in the last decade. During that same period, prison admissions have grown to include increasing percentages of nonviolent offenders."

Wednesday, May 8 2013:

  • Firearm Violence, 1993-2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 2013. "Nonfatal firearm crimes declined 69%, from 1.5 million victimizations in 1993 to 467,300 victimizations in 2011."
  • Please Deposit All of Your Money: Kickbacks, Rates, and Hidden Fees in the Jail Phone Industry, [PDF] Prison Policy Initiative. May, 2013. "This report is the first to address in depth the many fees prison phone customers must pay. Fees have an enormous impact on prison phone bills, making up 38% of the $1 billion annual price of calling home."
  • Gun Homicide Rate Down 49% Since 1993 Peak; Public Unaware: Pace of Decline Slows in Past Decade, [PDF] Pew Research Center. May, 2013. "Compared with '93, the peak of U.S. gun homicides, the gun homicide rate was 49% lower in 2010, and there were fewer deaths, even though the nation's population grew. 56% of Americans believe gun crime is higher than in '93, only 12% think it is lower."

Friday, May 3 2013:

  • Blueprint for a Public Health and Safety Approach to Drug Policy [PDF] New York Academy of Medicine and the Drug Policy Alliance. March, 2013. "This report finds two clear themes: 1) structural issues (like income disparities, education, & opportunity) profoundly shape experiences of drug policies; 2) when problematic drug use does occur, our response should involve help instead of sanctions."

Thursday, May 2 2013:

  • The Federal Bureau of Prisons' Compassionate Release Program [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector, General Evaluation and Inspections Division. April, 2013. "Procedures and timeliness standards do not reference the compassionate release program or acknowledge the special circumstances of an inmate requesting compassionate release (particularly those with terminal medical conditions/limited life expectancies)."
  • Lifer Parole Recidivism Report [PDF] California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. January, 2013. "Lifer parolees receive fewer new convictions within three years of being released to parole (4.8 vs. 51.5%, respectively). They also have a markedly lower return to prison recidivism rate than non‐lifer parolees (13.3 vs. 65.1%, respectively)."

Wednesday, May 1 2013:

  • Raised on the Registry: The Irreparable Harm of Placing Children on Sex Offender Registries in the US, Human Rights Watch. April, 2013. "Good public policy should deliver measurable protection to the community and measurable benefit to victims. There is little reason to believe that registering people who commit sexual offenses as children delivers either."

Tuesday, April 30 2013:

  • Effective Approaches for Reducing Prostitution in Texas: Proactive and Cost-Efficient Strategies to Help People Leave the Streets, [PDF] Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. April, 2013. "There have been no studies that have shown prostitution to be a significant danger to public safety, whereas a tradition of punitive responses to prostitution has clearly demonstrated the high social and economic costs."
  • National Prison Rape Elimination Report [PDF] National Prison Rape Elimination Commission. June, 2009. "Many victims cannot safely and easily report sexual abuse, and those who speak out often do so to no avail. Reporting procedures must be improved to instill confidence and protect individuals from retaliation without relying on isolation."

Thursday, April 25 2013:

  • Wisconsin's Mass Incarceration of African American Males: Workforce Challenges for 2013, [PDF] Employment and Training Institute, University of Wisconsin. April, 2013. "From 1990 to 2011 Wisconsin incarcerated 26,222 African American men from Milwaukee County in state correctional facilities. As of January 2012, 20,591 men had been released back into the community and 5,631 were still imprisoned."

Tuesday, April 23 2013:

  • Missouri: Justice Rationed An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Juvenile Defense Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF] National Juvenile Defender Center. April, 2013. "Missouri's indigent defense system is in crisis and has suffers crushing caseloads and inadequate resources. The system remains broken and forced to ration services, and youth are discouraged from and systematically denied counsel throughout the state."

Friday, April 19 2013:

  • Communities, Evictions & Criminal Convictions Public Housing and Disparate Impact: A Model Policy, [PDF] Formerly Incarcerated & Convicted People's Movement. April, 2013. "The focus of this report is to isolate and clarify one element of housing discrimination: excluding people with criminal records, and their whole families, from public housing."

Wednesday, April 17 2013:

  • Ending Mass Incarceration: Charting a New Justice Reinvestment, [PDF] Experts from a coalition of organizations including The Sentencing Project, JFA Institute, the American Civil Liberties Union, and Justice Strategies.. April, 2013. "While JRI has played a significant role in softening the ground and moving the dial on mass incarceration reform, it runs the danger of institutionalizing mass incarceration at current levels."
  • Imported "Constituents": Incarcerated People and Political Clout in Connecticut, Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2013. "Seven of the house districts drawn by the Connecticut General Assembly in 2011 use, to meet their required populations, a substantial number of incarcerated people whose home addresses are in other districts."

Thursday, April 11 2013:

  • Workplace Violence Against Government Employees, 1994-2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2013. "In 2011, excluding law enforcement and security employees, the rate of workplace violence against government employees (8.7 per 1,000) was greater than the rate for private-sector employees (4.7 per 1,000)."
  • Buried Alive: Solitary Confinement in the US Detention System, [PDF] Physicians for Human Rights. April, 2013. "...solitary confinement can cause severe and lasting physiological/psychological harm. Moreover, in many cases, the resulting harm rises to the level of torture or cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment, in violation of domestic and international law."
  • Gideon at 50: Three Reforms to Revive the Right to Counsel, [PDF] Brennan Center for Justice. April, 2013. "Recommendations include: legalizing some petty offenses or reclassifying them into non-jailable civil infractions; increase funding for public defense; Increase effectiveness by funding regular trainings for attorneys and adding social workers."

Wednesday, April 10 2013:

  • Death Sentences and Executions 2012 [PDF] Amnesty International. April, 2013. "While at least 682 people were executed in 2012 - in 2011, 680 executions were recorded - the number of people recorded as sentenced to death fell from 1,923 (in 63 countries) in 2011 to 1,722 (in 58 countries) in 2012."

Tuesday, April 9 2013:

  • New Jersey Jail Population Analysis: Identifying Opportunities to Safely and Responsibly Reduce the Jail Populations, [PDF] Luminosity and Drug Policy Alliance. March, 2013. "Inmates who had been indicted but had not yet had a trial had been in custody on average 314 days. 12% of the entire jail population was held in custody solely due to an inability to pay $2500 or less to secure their release pending disposition."
  • Fostering Change: How investing in D.C.'s child welfare system can keep kids out of the prison pipeline, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. April, 2013. "In 2010, parental incarceration surpassed parental substance abuse as the third highest reason for District children entering care, and in 2010, one in every six kids entering foster care had anincarcerated parent."

Monday, April 8 2013:

Friday, April 5 2013:

  • Investigating the Relationship Between Housing Voucher Use and Crime [PDF] Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy and the Moelis Institution for Affordable Housing Policy. April, 2013. (Our research shows that crime is not following households with vouchers into neighborhoods. However, we do find a relationship between current crime and future voucher use, suggesting that households with vouchers are locating where crime is already high.)
  • The Outskirts of Hope: How Ohio's Debtors' Prisons Are Ruining Lives and Costing Communities, [PDF] ACLU of Ohio. April, 2013. "In the second half of 2012, over 20% of all bookings in the Huron County Jail were related to failure to pay fines. Between July 15 and August 31, 2012 at least 45 people in Cuyahoga County and 57 in Erie County were jailed for failure to pay,"

Thursday, April 4 2013:

  • Effective Approaches for Reducing Graffiti in Texas: Strategies to Save Money and Beautify Communities, [PDF] Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. March, 2013. "Efforts aimed at eradicating graffiti should revolve around diversion of graffitists into positive, artistic endeavors that include communities, while reserving the prosecution of graffitists only for those who are involved in other, more serious crimes."
  • The National Registry of Exonerations: Update 2012, [PDF] National Registry of Exonerations. April, 2013. "For all exonerations, the most common causal factors that we have identified are: perjury or false accusation (52%); official misconduct (43%); and mistaken eyewitness identification (41%)."

Tuesday, March 26 2013:

  • Crime, Cost, and Consequences: Is it Time to Get Smart on Crime?, [PDF] MassInc, Community Resources for Justice. March, 2013. "If Massachusetts continues on the current course, the analysis contained in this report suggests the state will spend more than $2 billion over the next decade on corrections policies that produce limited public safety benefit."

Monday, March 25 2013:

Friday, March 22 2013:

  • Hate Crime Victimization, 2003-2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2013. "The percentage of hate crimes motivated by religious bias more than doubled between 2003-06 and 2007-11 (from 10% to 21%), while the percentage motivated by racial bias dropped slightly (from 63% to 54%)."
  • Massachusetts Department of Correction - 2012 [PDF] Gordon Haas, Norfolk Lifers Group. March, 2013. "Report compares the MA Department of Corrections's stated goals with current practices and outcomes, making suggestions for improvements to promote rehabilitation and reduce recidivism."
  • Rationing Justice: The Underfunding of Assigned Counsel Systems -- A 50-State Survey of Trial Court Assigned Counsel Rates, [PDF] National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. March, 2013. "A combination of low hourly rates, fee limitations and the use of flat fees discourages attorneys from providing zealous representation and can give rise to serious conflicts of interest."

Thursday, March 21 2013:

  • Beyond Realignment: Counties' Large Disparities in Imprisonment Underlie Ongoing Prison Crisis, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. March, 2013. "High-imprisonment, state-dependent jurisdictions consume excessive prison space, contribute to overcrowding and lawsuits, and create higher state taxpayer liabilities than do low-imprisonment, self-reliant counties that manage more offenders locally."

Wednesday, March 20 2013:

  • One Million Police Hours Making 440,000 Marijuana Possession Arrests In New York City, 2002‐2012, [PDF] Drug Policy Alliance. March, 2013. "From 2002 to 2012 police have spend one million hours making 440,000 marijuana possession arrests. That is the equivalent of having 31 police officers working eight hours a day, 365 days a year, for 11 years, making only marijuana possession arrests."

Friday, March 15 2013:

  • Mapping Muslims: NYPD Spying and its Impact on American Muslims, [PDF] The Muslim American Civil Liberties Coalition (MACLC), The Creating Law Enforcement Accountability & Responsibility (CLEAR), The Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (AALDEF).. March, 2013. "Interviewees noted deep apprehension of the NYPD's intentions and practices towards them, including day-to-day interactions with beat-police officers such as filing stolen phone complaints, asking an officer for directions, or reporting hate crimes."

Tuesday, March 12 2013:

  • Predicting Erroneous Convictions: A Social Science Approach to Miscarriages of Justice, [PDF] Jon B. Gould, Julia Carrano, Richard Leo, Joseph Young. 2011. "Results indicate that 10 factors help explain why an innocent defendant, once indicted, ends up erroneously convicted rather than released."

Friday, March 8 2013:

  • Do Foreclosures Cause Crime? [PDF] Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy. February, 2013. "Foreclosure starts have a positive and significant impact on crime. An additional foreclosure start in the prior quarter is associated with a in increase of 0.7% in total crime, 1.5% in violent crime, and 0.8% in public order crimes."

Thursday, March 7 2013:

  • Female Victims of Sexual Violence, 1994-2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2013. "From 1995 to 2010, the estimated annual rate of female rape or sexual assault victimizations declined 58%, from 5.0 victimizations per 1,000 females age 12 or older to 2.1 per 1,000."

Wednesday, March 6 2013:

  • The National Institute of Justice's Evaluation of Second Chance Act Adult Reentry Courts: Program Characteristics and Preliminary Themes from Year 1, [PDF] National Institute of Justice. March, 2013. "Characteristics common across most NESCAARC sites include the emphasis on post-release service delivery, relevant services, case management, court hearings for the purpose of monitoring progress, drug testing, and a team approach to decision-making."

Tuesday, March 5 2013:

  • The Case for Independent Oversight of Texas' Prison System: Pursuing Accountability, Efficiency, and Transparency, [PDF] Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. March, 2013. "For Texas communities and the State, there are clear public safety and cost-savings benefits to developing a system of independent, external oversight for Texas prisons, but those living and working in the prisons on a daily basis will benefit most."

Monday, March 4 2013:

  • Racial Disproportionality in the American Prison Population: Using the Blumstein Method to Address the Critical Race and Justice Issue of the 21st Century, [PDF] Justice Policy Journal. September, 2008. "Two key themes are that a national figure of explained racial disparity in imprisonment is not generalizable to the states and that drug offenses consistently have one of the lowest amounts of disproportionality explained by arrest."
  • Dawson State Jail: The Case for Closure, [PDF] Sentencing Project, Grassroots Leadership. March, 2013. "In recent years there have been reports of horrible conditions in the Dawson State Jail involving medical care and inadequate staffing levels. According to reports by CBS News DFW, DSJ has experienced seven deaths since 2004."

Thursday, February 28 2013:

  • National Study of Jail Suicide: 20 Years Later, [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. April, 2010. "In 2006, the suicide rate in detention facilities was 36 deaths per 100,000 inmates, which is approximately 3 times greater than that in the general population. This rate represents a dramatic decrease in the rate of suicide in detention facilities."
  • Prison Suicide: An Overview and Guide to Prevention, [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. June, 1995. "During the past 10 years, the rate of suicide in prisons throughout the country was 20.6 deaths per 100,000 inmates. States with small prison populations appear to have exceedingly high rates of suicide — often more than 2.5 times the national average."

Wednesday, February 27 2013:

  • Juvenile Justice Reform in Connecticut: How Collaboration and Commitment Have Improved Public Safety and Outcomes for Youth, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. February, 2013. "Connecticut has reduced the under-18 population incarcerated in the state's adult prisons from 403 in January 2007 to 151 in July 2012. The number of youth detained for status offenses has dropped from 493 in 2006-07 to 0 in 2008-09."
  • Reducing Youth Incarceration in the United States a KIDS COUNT Data Snapshot, [PDF] Annie E. Casey Foundation. February, 2013. "Since 1995 the rate of youth in confinement dropped by 41 percent, from 381 per 100,000 youth to 225 per 100,000."
  • Common Ground: Lessons Learned from Five States that Reduced Juvenile Confinement by More than Half, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. February, 2013. "For all states and the District of Columbia, the number of youth in residential placement dropped steadily from its high of 107,493 in 1999 to 70,792 in 2010."
  • Raising the Age of Juvenile Court Jurisdiction The future of 17-year-olds in Illinois' justice system, [PDF] Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission. February, 2013. "Adding 17-year-old misdemeanants to the juvenile justice system in 2010 did not crash it. In fact, due to a sharp decline in juvenile crime, there are currently fewer juvenile arrests than when the General Assembly began debating the change in 2008."
  • The Changing Racial Dynamics of Women's Incarceration [PDF] Sentencing Project. February, 2013. "In 2000 black women were incarcerated at six times the rate of white women. By 2009 that ratio had declined by 53%, to 2.8:1. This shift was a result of both declining incarceration of African American women and rising incarceration of white women."

Monday, February 25 2013:

  • Who Are the Targets of ICE Detainers? [Website] Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse. February, 2013. "In more than two out of three (77.4%) of the detainers issued by ICE, the record shows that the individual who had been identified had no criminal record — either at the time the detainer was issued or subsequently."

Thursday, February 21 2013:

  • The Chicago Lawyers' Committee's Review of Alternatives for Non- Violent Offenders, [PDF] Chicago Lawyers' Committee. 2011. "This article first addresses specific reforms that have been implemented nationwide relating to non-violent offenders, highlights examples of states that have implemented more aggressive aspects of such reforms, and discusses Illinois' policies."

Wednesday, February 20 2013:

  • Eligibility and Capacity Impact Use of Flexibilities to Reduce Inmates' Time, [PDF] Government Accountability Office. February, 2012. "Increased funding would have reduced the Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program wait lists and enabled eligible inmates to enter the program early enough to earn their maximum allowable sentence reductions."
  • Improved Evaluations and Increased Coordination Could Improve Cell Phone Detection, [PDF] Government Accountability Office. September, 2011. "77% of all cell phones confiscated at BOP institutions are found at prison camps, despite the fact that prison camps have accounted for only about 13 percent of BOP's inmate population from fiscal years 2008-2010."

Friday, February 15 2013:

  • The Federal Prison Population Buildup: Overview, Policy Changes, Issues, and Options, [PDF] Congressional Research Service. January, 2013. "The per capita cost of incarceration for all inmates increased from $19,571 in FY2000 to $26,094 in FY2011. During this same period of time, appropriations for the BOP increased from $3.668 billion to $6.381 billion."

Thursday, February 14 2013:

  • Policing and the Economic Downturn Striving for Efficiency Is the New Norm, [PDF] Police Executive Research Forum. February, 2013. "In 2010, 58% of responding agencies said that police services in their community had already declined or would decline with the implementation of recent or planned budget cuts. In 2012 that figure dropped to 44%."

Wednesday, February 13 2013:

  • Justice Re-investment in New Orleans [PDF] Spatial Information Design Lab. February, 2009. "By 2007, the citywide incarceration rate was at 57 percent of its 2003 level, while the overall population was estimated at 71 percent of its pre-Katrina figure."
  • Institution Length of Stay: January 2011, [PDF] Massachusetts Department of Corrections. January, 2011. "This research brief provides an overview of the number of days that inmates spend at each facility—the average institution length of stay."

Tuesday, February 12 2013:

  • Wrong Way for Texas The Driver Responsibility Program: A Texas-Sized Failure, [PDF] Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. February, 2013. "Surcharges levied under the DRP are significantly higher for DWI offenses than those assessed for other traffic offenses. Over the past decade, Texas' rate for alcohol-impaired fatalities has increased compared to other states."
  • The Crisis Continues Inside Police Internal Affairs [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union of New Jersey. February, 2013. "164 of the local police departments we spoke to unlawfully denied complaints by telephone. Only 207 of the 371 New Jersey police departments that our volunteers spoke to indicated that they would allow complaints to be filed by telephone."

Friday, February 8 2013:

  • Does Federal Financial Aid Affect College Enrollment? Evidence from Drug Offenders and the Higher Education Act of 1998, [PDF] Cornell University. February, 2012. "The ban on Federal financial aid increased the amount of time between high school graduation and college enrollment, affected students were less likely to ever enroll in college, and the law did not deter young people from committing drug felonies."
  • Out and Down: The Effects of Incarceration on Psychiatric Disorders and Disability, [PDF] University of Pennsylvania, The Pennsylvania State University, University of Minnesota. February, 2011. "Incarceration has a robust relationship with subsequent mood disorders, related to feeling "down", including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and dysthymia."

Thursday, February 7 2013:

  • How New York City Reduced Mass Incarceration: A Model for Change?, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice, the Brennan Center for Justice, and the JFA Institute. January, 2013. "From 1988 to 2008, the number of felonies reported by New York City to the FBI dropped from 719,887 to 198,419 – a remarkable 72 percent reduction. Outside of New York City, the number of crimes declined by half as much, only 38 percent."
  • Return to Sender: Postcard-only Mail Policies in Jail, [PDF] Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2013. "Postcard-only policies run contrary to prevailing correctional standards and best practices, and the vast majority of jail facilities around the country, as well as all prisons, successfully manage mail systems without postcard-only policies."

Wednesday, February 6 2013:

  • If Not Now, When? A Survey of Juvenile Justice Training in America's Police Academies, [PDF] Strategies for Youth. February, 2013. "Only 2 states' written curricula included training on youth development issues, such as communication techniques with juveniles, understanding the problems adolescents face and recognizing the sources and triggers of their behavior."

Tuesday, February 5 2013:

  • Making the Transition: Rethinking Jail Reentry in Los Angeles County, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. February, 2013. "The most common hurdles that people held in the jail expected to encounter upon release were related to employment, housing, and substance use. Only six people (out of the 80 people interviewed) reported receiving reentry services while in the jail."

Monday, February 4 2013:

  • The War on Drugs: Wasting billions and undermining economies, [PDF] Count the Costs. February, 2013. "Total expenditure on drug law enforcement by the US has been estimated at over $1 trillion during the last 40 years."

Friday, February 1 2013:

  • California's Urban Crime Increase in 2012: Is "Realignment" to Blame?, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. January, 2013. "The 11 counties that realigned offenders at lower rates showed greater increases in violent and property crime than the 10 counties that realigned offenders at higher rates."

Thursday, January 31 2013:

  • Adult and Juvenile Correctional Population Projections Fiscal Years 2013 to 2018, [PDF] State of Texas Legislative Budget Board. January, 2013. "The Texas adult incarceration population is projected to remain relatively flat in fiscal years 2013 and 2014 and begin a gradual increase to reach 156,877 by the end of fiscal year 2018."
  • Onsite Assessment RE Cross-Gender Supervision in Correctional Facilities [Tutwiler Prison for Women], [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. November, 2012. "The facility culture is not psychologically safe for women offenders. The women and staff report that Tutwiler is a repressive and intimidating environment. Inmates reported being in fear of retaliation from staff if they reject staff's sexual advances."

Tuesday, January 29 2013:

  • The State of Sentencing 2012: Developments in Policy and Practice, [PDF] Sentencing Project. January, 2013. "State lawmakers in at least 24 states adopted 41 criminal justice policies that in 2012 may contribute to downscaling prison populations and eliminating barriers to reentry while promoting effective approaches to public safety."

Thursday, January 24 2013:

  • Handcuffs on Success The Extreme School Discipline Crisis in Mississippi Public Schools, [PDF] Advancement Project, American Civil Liberties Union of Mississippi, Mississippi State Conference of the NAACP, Mississippi Coalition for the Prevention of Schoolhouse to Jailhouse. January, 2013. "Extreme and destructive approaches to school discipline not only have directly harmed students and families, but also have caused teachers, law enforcement officials, and community members to have their lives and careers made more difficult."

Tuesday, January 22 2013:

  • Report to the Governor and Legislative Budget Board on the Monitoring of Community Supervision Diversion Funds, [PDF] Texas Department of Criminal Justice. December, 2012. "The felony direct community supervision population increased 5.2% from August 31, 2005 (157,914 offenders) to August 31, 2012 (166,054 offenders), while the number of felony technical revocations decreased 10.9% between FY2005 (13,504) & FY2012 (12,034)."
  • Arrests of and Forced Interventions on Pregnant Women in the United States, 1973-2005: Implications for Women's Legal Status and Public Health, [PDF] National Advocates for Pregnant Women. January, 2013. "Findings confirm that if passed, personhood measures not only would provide a basis for recriminalizing abortion, they would also provide grounds for depriving all pregnant women of their liberty."

Wednesday, January 16 2013:

  • Report of the Special Council on Criminal Justice Reform for Georgians [PDF] Special Council on Criminal Justice Reform for Georgians. November, 2012. "The data shows that most individuals sentenced to prison are drug and property offenders, and these offenders are also staying behind bars for longer periods of time. Drug and property offenders represent almost 60 percent of all admissions."
  • Implementing Proven Programs For juvenile Offenders: Assessing State Progress, [PDF] Association for the Advancement of Evidence-Based Practice. December, 2012. "All of the leading states identified at least one person to become fully informed about the available evidence-based practice options and made the time available for them to do this, including travel to operational sites and training in specific models."

Friday, January 11 2013:

  • Tough on Crime (on the State's Dime): How Violent Crime Does Not Drive California Counties' Incarceration Rates - And Why it Should, [PDF] Georgia State University Law Review. 2011. "California's prison overcrowding is due in large part to county decisions about how to deal with crime. Counties use state prison resources at dramatically different rates, and the counties which use state prisons the most have below-average crime rates."

Thursday, January 10 2013:

  • Effective Approaches to Drug Crimes In Texas: Strategies to Reduce Crime, Save Money, and Treat Addiction, [PDF] Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. January, 2013. "Specifically, policy-makers must support the efforts of practitioners who are seeking to effectively treat those with substance abuse by improving and making more widely available community-based rehabilitation and treatment diversion alternatives."
  • National Indigent Defense Reform: The Solution is Multifaceted, [PDF] National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. January, 2013. "The report discusses 1) front-end reform, 2) the delivery of services, including the importance of standards and commissions, and 3) the need for collaboration and cooperation with others within and outside the criminal justice system."

Tuesday, January 8 2013:

  • Immigration Enforcement in the United States: The Rise of a Formidable Machinery, [PDF] Migration Policy Institute. January, 2013. "the US government spends more on its immigration enforcement agencies than on all its other principal criminal federal law enforcement agencies combined. In fY 2012, spending for the primary immigration enforcement agencies reached nearly $18 billion."

Thursday, January 3 2013:

  • Women's pathways to jail: The roles & intersections of serious mental illness & trauma, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Assistance. September, 2012. "[C]hildhood victimization and adult trauma increased the risk of poor mental health, and poor mental health predicted a greater offending history."

Friday, December 28 2012:

  • The Native Hawaiian Justice Task Force Report 2012, [PDF] The Native Hawaiian Justice Task Force. December, 2012. "Implicit, unconscious bias and disparate treatment on the part of workers at all stages of the criminal justice system may explain a portion of the disproportionate representation of Native Hawaiians in the criminal justice system."
  • The Anatomy of Discretion: An Analysis of Prosecutorial Decision Making, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. December, 2012. "While prosecutorial discretion is generally seen as very broad and unconstrained, prosecutors often rely on a fairly limited array of legal and quasi-legal factors to make decisions, and are further constrained by several contextual factors."

Thursday, December 20 2012:

  • Violent Crime Against Youth, 1994-2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2012. "The rate of serious violent crime against youth ages 12 to 17 involving weapons declined by 80% from 1994 to 2010, and the rate of serious violent crime involving serious injury decreased by 63%."

Wednesday, December 19 2012:

  • Crime Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009-2011 Statistical Tables [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2012. "The average annual age-adjusted rate of violent victimization for persons with disabilities (48 per 1,000 persons with disabilities) was more than twice the rate among persons without disabilities (19 per 1,000 persons without disabilities) in 2011."

Tuesday, December 18 2012:

  • The Death Penalty in 2012: Year End Report, [PDF] Death Penalty Information Center. December, 2012. "The number of new death sentences in 2012 was the second lowest since the death penalty was reinstated in 1976."

Monday, December 17 2012:

  • Prisoners in 2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2012. "Declining for the second consecutive year, state and federal prison populations totaled 1,598,780 at yearend 2011, a decrease of 0.9% (15,023 prisoners) from yearend 2010."

Thursday, December 13 2012:

  • Texas Death Penalty Developments in 2012: The Year in Review, [PDF] Texas Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty. December, 2012. "Seven of the new death row inmates in 2012 are African-American, one is Hispanic, and one is a white female. Over the last five years, nearly 75% of all death sentences in Texas have been imposed on people of color - 46% African-American and 28% Hispanic."
  • "Picking up the Pieces": The Rights and Needs of Children and Families Affected by Imprisonment, [PDF] Irish Penal Reform Trust. November, 2012. "Child impact statements would be one practical approach which would permit the voice of the child to be heard, as outlined under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), when considering putting a parent/parents into custody."
  • Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000-2010 Statistical Tables [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2012. "The suicide rate in local jails declined over time from 49 per 100,000 inmates in 2001 to 36 per 100,000 in 2007. Since 2007, the rate has increased slightly to reach 42 per 100,000 inmates in 2010."

Wednesday, December 12 2012:

Tuesday, December 11 2012:

Monday, December 10 2012:

  • On the Chopping Block 2012: State Prison Closings, [PDF] Sentencing Project. December, 2012. "In 2012, at least six states have closed 20 prison institutions or are contemplating doing so, potentially reducing prison capacity by over 14,100 beds and resulting in an estimated $337 million in savings."
  • Tracked and Trapped: Youth of Color, Gang Databases and Gang Injunctions, [PDF] Youth Justice Coalition RealSearch Actions Research Center. December, 2012. "Currently 291,094 people across California are in the CalGang database. Of these, 94% are male, nearly 20% are African-American, and 66% are Latino."
  • State Corrections Expenditures, FY 1982-2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2012. "Between 1982 and 2001, total state corrections expenditures increased each year, rising from $15.0 billion to $53.5 billion in real dollars."

Thursday, December 6 2012:

  • Who does the Massachusetts juvenile justice system serve? [PDF] Citizens for Juvenile Justice. December, 2012. "The delinquency charging rates in Barnstable and Hampden counties are 2-3 times higher than some other counties, and roughly twice the statewide average. The charging rates in Bristol and Suffolk Counties are 8 and 6 times the state average."
  • Sheriffs' Offices, 2007 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2012. "From 1987 to 2007, the number of full-time employees in sheriffs' offices increased from about 189,000 to more than 346,000"

Wednesday, December 5 2012:

  • The Texas Commission on Jail Standards: The State's Solution for Implementing A Strong County Jail System While Protecting Counties From Liability, [PDF] Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. November, 2012. "Texas Commission on Jail Standards guards Texas counties from damaging lawsuits, specifically by setting constitutional jail standards for counties to follow, conducting facility inspections, and enforcing compliance with rules and procedures."

Monday, December 3 2012:

  • Jails and Jumpsuits: Transforming the U.S. Immigration Detention System-A Two-Year Review, [PDF] Human Rights First. September, 2011. "In July 2009, approximately 50 percent of ICE's population was held in actual correctional facilities that also housed criminal detainees."

Friday, November 30 2012:

  • The Answer is No: Too Little Compassionate Release in US Federal Prisons, [PDF] Human Rights Watch and Families Against Mandatory Minimums. November, 2012. "To satisfy human rights requirements, prisoners should have access to judicial review or review by a similarly independent, objective tribunal that applies basic due process requirements to decisions regarding the lawfulness of their ongoing detention."

Thursday, November 29 2012:

Wednesday, November 28 2012:

  • On The Level: Disproportionate Minority Contact in Minnesota's Juvenile Justice System, [PDF] Minnesota Department of Public Safety. October, 2002. "African American youth, who comprise just 8% of the youth population White but are 34% of juvenile delinquency arrests. On a smaller scale, American Indian youth are 2% of the youth population but account for 4% of juvenile delinquency arrests."

Tuesday, November 27 2012:

  • Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2012. "From 1994 to 2010, the overall rate of intimate partner violence in the United States declined by 64%, from 9.8 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older to 3.6 per 1,000."

Thursday, November 15 2012:

  • The Disparate Treatment of Native Hawaiians In the Criminal Justice System, [PDF] Office of Hawaiian Affairs. November, 2012. "An analysis of data, controlling for age, gender, and type of charge, found that for any given determination of guilt, Native Hawaiians are much more likely to get a prison sentence than almost all other groups, except for Native Americans."
  • Pretrial Release and Misconduct in Federal District Courts, 2008-2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2012. "About half (51%) of defendants with no prior arrest history were released pretrial, compared to 34% of defendants with 2 to 4 prior arrests and 21% of defendants with more than 10 prior arrests."

Wednesday, November 14 2012:

  • Reforming Juvenile Justice A Developmental Approach, National Research Council. November, 2012. "A harsh system of punishing troubled youth can make things worse, while a scientifically based juvenile justice system can make an enduring difference in the lives of many youth who most need the structure and services it can provide."

Tuesday, November 13 2012:

  • The Post-Release Employment and Recidivism Among Different Types of Offenders With A Different Level of Education: A 5-Year Follow-Up Study in Indiana, [PDF] Indiana Department of Corrections and Ball State University. April, 2012. "Offenders who had a lower level of education not only had a higher recidivism rate, but also such uneducated/under-educated offenders were likely to be re-incarcerated earlier than those offenders who had a higher level of education."
  • Engaging Police in Immigrant Communities Promising Practices from the Field, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. October, 2012. "This report describes a variety of approaches to building and maintaining effective police-immigrant relations developed by a diverse group of law enforcement agencies."
  • Roadblocks to Reform Perils for Georgia's Criminal Justice System, [PDF] Southern Center for Human Rights. November, 2012. "The traits endemic in private prisons – poorly trained staff, inadequate services, higher rates of violence and other infractions – dovetail with one another and are mutually reinforcing."
  • Prison Visitation Policies A Fifty State Survey, [PDF] Chesa Boudin, Trevor Stutz & Aaron Littman. November, 2012. (This memorandum presents a summary of the findings from a survey of prison visitation policies in the fifty states and in the system run by the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Note: There is a 2014 version of this paper that is slightly different.)
  • Performance Incentive Funding Aligning Fiscal and Operational Responsibility to Produce More Safety at Less Cost, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. November, 2012. "Community corrections agencies should adopt evidence-based practices that are proven to reduce recidivism and achieve successful offender outcomes. States should return some of the state savings to local agencies when those practices reduce recidivism."

Thursday, November 8 2012:

  • Firearms Stolen during Household Burglaries and Other Property Crimes, 2005-2010, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2012. "On average, firearms were stolen in an annual average of about 4% of the 2.4 million burglaries occurring each year, in 2% of the 529,200 robberies, and in less than 1% of the 13.6 million other crimes involving theft from 2005 through 2010."

Thursday, November 1 2012:

  • California Youth Crime Plunges to All-Time Low Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. October, 2012. "All categories of crime fell substantially among youths in 2011. Felony arrests were down 17%, both violent and property felonies were down 16%, misdemeanor and status offenses were down 21%, and homicide was down 26%."
  • Arrest in the United States, 1990-2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2012. "The number of murder arrests in the U.S. fell by half between 1990 and 2010. The adult and juvenile arrest rates dropped substantially in the 1990s, while both continued to fall about 20% between 2000 and 2010, reaching their lowest levels since at least"

Tuesday, October 30 2012:

  • Families Unlocking Futures Solutions to the Crisis in Juvenile Justice, [PDF] Justice for Families. October, 2012. "The primary problems are: (1) Incarceration doesn't work, as evidenced by recidivism rates and a long record of chronic and shameful abuses; and (2) by and large, probation and other forms of risk management do not help youth succeed in the long-term."
  • Restoration of Rights Project [Website] National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. October, 2012. "54 jurisdictional profiles include provisions on loss and restoration of civil rights and firearms privileges, legal mechanisms for overcoming or mitigating collateral consequences, and provisions addressing non-discrimination in employment and licensing."

Thursday, October 25 2012:

  • Measuring Change in New Jersey's Treatment of Young Offenders [PDF] Advocates for Children of New Jersey. October, 2012. "n 2011, the state locked up nearly 7,000 fewer juveniles in one year than it did prior to JDAI implementation. On any given day, 446 fewer juveniles are spending time in a New Jersey detention center."

Wednesday, October 24 2012:

  • Turning Jails Into Prisons: Collateral Damage from Kentucky's War on Crime, [PDF] Robert G. Lawson (Published in Kentucky Law Journal, Volume 95). 2006.
  • Improving the Juvenile Justice System for Girls Lessons from the States, [PDF] Georgetown Center on Poverty, Inequality, and Public Policy. October, 2012. "The set of challenges that girls often face as they enter the juvenile justice system include trauma, violence, neglect, mental and physical problems, family conflict, pregnancy, residential and academic instability, and school failure."
  • Girls' Experiences in the Texas Juvenile Justice System 2012 Survey Findings, [PDF] Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. October, 2012. "46% of the surveyed girls report that the staff, programs, and treatment in county juvenile facilities did not help them deal with past trauma; an additional 4% said that county facilities actually did more harm than good in dealing with past trauma."
  • Cost-Effective Youth Corrections Rationalizing the Fiscal Architecture of Juvenile Justice Systems, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. March, 2006. "The experience of secure confinement can change the kind of routine law-breaking that is often part of adolescence into a stable pattern that, unfortunately, endures over time. States are actually paying additional money to generate worse outcomes."
  • Law Enforcement Officers in Wake County Schools: The Human, Educational, and Financial Costs, [PDF] Advocates for Children's Services, Legal Aid of North Carolina. February, 2011. (This report examines the effects of the proliferation of police officers in Wake County, NC (Raleigh area) public schools.)
  • Pennsylvania's Motivational Boot Camp 2002 Report to the Legislature, [PDF] Pennsylvania Sentencing Commission. January, 2002.
  • Pennsylvania's Motivational Boot Camp 2003 Report to the Legislature, [PDF] Pennsylvania Sentencing Commission. January, 2004.

Tuesday, October 23 2012:

  • ¿Dónde Está la Justicia? Un llamado a la acción a favor de los jóvenes latinos en el sistema de justicia de los EE.UU. (Spanish), [PDF] Building Blocks for Youth. July, 2002.

Thursday, October 18 2012:

  • You're an Adult Now Youth in Adult Criminal Justice Systems, [PDF] National Institute of Corrections. December, 2011. "Youth transferred to the adult corrections system recidivate at a higher rate than those kept in the juvenile justice system."

Wednesday, October 17 2012:

  • Criminal Victimization, 2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2012. "The rate of violent victimization increased 17%, from 19.3 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older in 2010 to 22.5 in 2011."
  • What Have We Done? Mass Incarceration and the Targeting of Albany's Black Males by Federal, State, and Local Authorities, [PDF] Center for Law and Justice. October, 2012. "Law enforcement officials are now using a new tool to arrest and prosecute drug-related crimes: racketeering laws. Young African-American men from Albany are now being subjected to additional years in prison, in some cases for committing no new crimes."
  • Community Solutions for Youth in Trouble [PDF] Texas Criminal Justice Coalition. October, 2012. "A 2012 survey of county juvenile probation chiefs in Texas found community-based programming to be the second-highest need for increased funding. Texas legislators should expand their investment in community programs."

Tuesday, October 16 2012:

  • Video Visits for Children Whose Parents Are Incarcerated In Whose Best Interest?, [PDF] Sentencing Project. October, 2012. "Children may benefit from video visitation if it increases opportunities for them to communicate with their parents. But video visitation is not a substitute for in-person contact visits, particularly for infants and young children."

Friday, October 12 2012:

  • Juvenile Suicide in Confinement A National Survey, [PDF] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. February, 2009. "Almost half (48.1 percent) the suicides occurred in facilities administered by state agencies, 39.2 percent took place in county facilities, and 12.7 percent occurred in private programs."
  • Lake Erie Correctional Institution Full Internal Management Audit [PDF] Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction. September, 2012. "Employees interviewed could not demonstrate the following: a knowledge of the local fire plan; a knowledge of the rapid release of inmates from cells in locked areas [...] and many simply stated they had no idea what they should do."

Wednesday, October 10 2012:

  • Growing Up Locked Down Youth in Solitary Confinement in Jails and Prisoner Across the United State, [PDF] Human Rights Watch and American Civil Liberties Union. October, 2012. "HRW and ACLU estimate that in 2011, more than 95,000 youth were held in prisons and jails. A significant number of these facilities use solitary confinement to punish, protect, house, or treat some of the young people who are held there."

Tuesday, October 9 2012:

  • Cost-Benefit Analysis of Raising the Age of Juvenile Jurisdiction in North [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. 2011. "Raising the age of juvenile jurisdiction from 16 to 18 for alleged misdemeanants and low-level felons will generate $52.3 million in net benefits, per annual cohort of youth aged 16 and 17, from the combined perspectives of taxpayers, victims, and youth."

Friday, October 5 2012:

  • Tribal Crime Data Collection Activities [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2012. "Suspects investigated for violent offenses in Indian country totaled 23% of all federal investigations for violent offenses in FY 2010."

Wednesday, October 3 2012:

  • Boxed In The True Cost of Extreme Isolation in New York's Prisons, [PDF] New York Civil Liberties Union. September, 2012. "New York has nearly 5,000 SHU beds located in 39 prisons, including two dedicated extreme isolation prisons which cost about $76 million a year. From 2007-11, New York issued more than 68,100 sentences to extreme isolation for violations of prison rules."

Tuesday, October 2 2012:

  • Adults with Behavioral Health Needs Under Correctional Supervision A Shared Framework for Reducing Recidivism and Promoting Recovery, [PDF] Council of State Governments Justice Center, the National Institute of Corrections, and the Bureau of Justice Assistance. 2012. "This paper is written in recognition of the current need for a strategic approach to address the overrepresentation of people with mental health and substance use disorders in the justice system, & the impact their treatment has on public safety & health."

Friday, September 28 2012:

  • Stalking Victims in the United States - Revised [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2012. "Nearly 7 in 10 stalking victims knew their offender in some capacity."
  • Adult Drug Courts Studies Show Courts Reduce Recidivism, but DOJ Could Enhance Future Performance Measure Revision Efforts, [PDF] Government Accountability Office. December, 2011. "GAO's analysis of evaluations reporting relapse data for eight programs showed that drug-court program participants were less likely than comparison group members to use drugs [...] although the difference was not always significant."
  • Addicted to Courts How a Growing Dependence on Drug Courts Impacts People and Communities, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. March, 2011. "Treatment in the community is about 10 times more cost-effective than drug courts; it costs considerably less and is almost equally as effective as drug courts in reducing recidivism."
  • Invisible in Isolation The Use of Segregation and Solitary Confinement in Immigrant Detention, [PDF] Heartland Alliance and Physicians for Human Rights. September, 2012. "This report, the first of its kind, aims to examine the use of segregation and solitary confinement in the immigration detention system, share individual experiences, and provide concrete recommendations to eradicate the use of solitary confinement [...]."

Thursday, September 27 2012:

  • USA: The Edge of Endurance Prison Conditions in California's Security Housing Units, [PDF] Amnesty International. September, 2012. "Studies have found that negative effects from prolonged isolation can continue long after release, including sleep disturbances, depression, anxiety, phobias, anger, impaired memory and problems with normal social interaction."
  • Overview of Federal Criminal Cases Fiscal Year 2011, [PDF] United States Sentencing Commission. 2011. "Immigration cases continued to be the fastest growing segment of cases in the federal system. In fiscal year 2011, there were 29,717 immigration cases reported to the Commission, an increase of 1,213 cases from the prior fiscal year."

Wednesday, September 26 2012:

  • States Report Reductions in Recidivism [PDF] Council of State Governments Justice Center. September, 2012. "This brief highlights significant statewide recidivism reductions achieved in Kansas, Michigan, Mississippi, Ohio, Oregon, Texas, and Vermont."

Tuesday, September 25 2012:

  • Jails in Indian Country, 2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2012. "At midyear 2011, a total of 2,239 inmates were confined in Indian country jails, a 5.7% increase from „ the 2,119 inmates confined at midyear 2010."

Monday, September 24 2012:

  • Prison Bed Profiteers How Corporations Are Reshaping Criminal Justice in the U.S., [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. May, 2012. "Prison industry lobbyists seek to impact sentencing policies as well as the rules and regulations included in government contracts. In 2010, CCA, GEO, and Cornell Companies together spent more than $1.5 million on federal lobbying."
  • Justice Assistance Grant Program, 2012 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2011. "The five largest total state allocations included California ($32.9 million), Texas ($22.7 million), Florida ($19.5 million), New York ($16.0 million), and Illinois ($12.0 million)."
  • Unasked Questions, Unintended Consequences Fifteen Findings and Recommendations on Illinois' Prison Healthcare System, [PDF] John Howard Association of Illinois. September, 2012. "[I]ncarceration is overused as a primary means to manage drug and non- violent offenders [...]. This comes at great cost to taxpayers and has little positive impact on recidivism or public safety."

Friday, September 21 2012:

  • Children on the Outside Voicing the Pain and Human Costs of Parental Incarceration, [PDF] Justice Strategies. January, 2011. "Too often, society dismisses the children of incarcerated parents as future liabilities to public safety while overlooking opportunities to address the pain and trauma with which these children struggle."

Wednesday, September 19 2012:

  • Prevalence of Violent Crime among Households with Children, 1993-2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2012. "A smaller percentage of children ages 0 to 11 (3.4%) than children ages 12 to 17 (4.9%) lived in a household that experienced violent crime during 2010."
  • Realigning Justice Resources A Review of Population and SPending Shifts in Prison and Community Corrections, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. September, 2012. "Between 2009 and 2010, Vera observed a stark downward shift in expenditures across many states and systems of prison and community corrections despite variations in population change—a consequence, perhaps, of shrinking state budgets."

Tuesday, September 18 2012:

  • For Better or for Profit How the Bail Bonding Industry Stands in the Way of Fair and Effective Pretrial Justice, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. September, 2012. "With the personal liberty of accused people held by a profit-driven private industry, for-profit bail bonding is systemically prone to corruption, criminal collusion, and the use of coercion against bonded people."

Monday, September 17 2012:

  • Growing Inmate Crowding Negatively Affects Inmates, Staff, & Infrastructure [PDF] United States Government Accountability Office. September, 2012. "[T]he growth of the federal inmate population and related crowding have negatively affected inmates housed in BOP institutions [and] institutional staff [...] and have contributed to inmate misconduct, which affects staff and inmate security and safety."

Friday, September 14 2012:

  • Survey of Sentencing Practices FY 2011 [PDF] Massachusetts Sentencing Commission. May, 2012. "For state prison sentences, the median minimum state prison sentence was 36.0 months and the median maximum state prison sentence was 48.0 months."

Thursday, September 13 2012:

  • HIV In Prisons, 2001-2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2012. "The rate of HIV/AIDS among state and federal prison inmates declined from 194 cases per 10,000 inmates in 2001 to 146 per 10,000 at yearend 2010."

Wednesday, September 12 2012:

  • Community Reentry After Prison Drug Treatment Learning from Sheridan Therapeutic Community Program participants, [PDF] Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority. January, 2012. "Younger participants engaged in criminal activity and relapsed sooner than older participants. Younger participants also reported being less engaged in the Sheridan program than older participants."
  • 2012 Party Platforms on Criminal Justice Policy [PDF] Sentencing Project. September, 2012. "Though the United States remains the world's leader in incarceration [...], the recently approved Democratic and Republican party platforms indicate ways to make progress on criminal justice reform while increasing public safety."

Tuesday, September 11 2012:

  • Bail Fail Why the U.S. Should End the Practice of Using Money for Bail, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. September, 2012. "Although judges and judicial officers may deny or simply not be aware of any racial bias [...], there is strong evidence that these bail decision makers consider the lost freedom caused by pretrial detention to be a greater loss for whites than for blacks"
  • The Affordable Care Act Implications for Public Safety and Corrections Populations, [PDF] Sentencing Project. September, 2012. "The expansion of Medicaid means that states can essentially use federal Medicaid funds to increase treatment services that could reduce incarceration and recidivism and, in doing so, potentially lower associated local and state corrections expenditures."
  • The Price to Call Home State-Sanctioned Monopolization in the Prison Phone Industry, [PDF] Prison Policy Initiative. September, 2012. "The prison telephone market is structured to be exploitative because it grants monopolies to producers, and because the consumers- the incarcerated persons and their families- have no comparable alternative ways of communicating."

Thursday, September 6 2012:

  • Literacy Behind Bars Results From the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy Prison Survey, [PDF] U.S. Department of Education. May, 2007. "In every age group examined (16-24, 25-39, and 40 or older), incarcerated adults had lower average prose, document, and quantitative literacy than adults in the same age group living in households."

Tuesday, August 28 2012:

  • Representing Girls in the Juvenile Justice System [PDF] North Carolina Office of the Juvenile Defender. August, 2012. "In an effort to provide information to defense counsel, this document provides a compilation of research regarding girls in the juvenile justice system and suggests best practices and strategies for defense counsel representing girls."

Monday, August 27 2012:

  • Religion in Prisons A 50-State Survey of Prison Chaplains, [PDF] Pew Research Center, Forum on Religion & Public Life. March, 2012. "Nearly all chaplains either favor (46%) or strongly favor (46%) dealing with non-violent, 1st-time offenders through other kinds of sentences (such as community service or mandatory substance-abuse counseling) rather than prison terms."

Thursday, August 16 2012:

  • Juvenile Court Statistics 2009 [PDF] National Center for Juvenile Justice. May, 2012. "Between 1997 and 2009, the number of public order offense cases increased 1%, person offense cases and drug law violation cases decreased 13% and 12%, respectively, and property offense cases decreased 35%.."
  • Supportive Housing for Returning Prisoners Outcomes and Impacts of the Returning Home-Ohio Pilot Project, [PDF] Urban Institute. August, 2012. "The Returning Home-Ohio program resulted in clear reductions along several key recidivism measures while also increasing state‐billable service use; the latter outcome is arguably a benefit of program participation."

Friday, August 10 2012:

  • Lifetime Lockdown How Isolation Conditions Impact Prisoner Reentry, [PDF] American Friends Service Committee. August, 2012. "ADC policies limiting visitation and prohibiting maximum-security prisoners from participation in education, treatment, and employment have a negative impact on these prisoners' reentry prospects."

Thursday, August 9 2012:

  • Victimizations Not Reported to the Police, 2006-2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. August, 2012. "From 2006 to 2010, a greater percentage of victimizations perpetrated by someone the victim knew well (62%) went unreported to police, compared to victimizations committed by a stranger (51%)."

Wednesday, August 8 2012:

  • Trends in Juvenile Justice State Legislation 2001-2011 [PDF] National Conference of State Legislatures. June, 2012. "States are reevaluating their juvenile justice systems [to] produce better results for kids at lower cost. This has contributed to a state legislative trend to realign fiscal resources from state institutions toward more effective community-based services"

Tuesday, August 7 2012:

  • Annual Report to the United States Sentencing Commission United States Department of Justice. July, 2011. "In the last 50 years,the United States experienced an extraordinary increase, followed by an equally extraordinary decrease, in the number of Americans victimized by violent crime."

Monday, August 6 2012:

  • Families and Reentry Unpacking How Social Support Matters, [PDF] Urban Institute. June, 2012. "Our analysis [...] shows that while family members' reported that number of activities performed together increases significantly over time, as formerly incarcerated persons are in the community for longer the number of hardships [...] also increases."

Friday, August 3 2012:

  • Does Strengthening Self-Defense Law Deter Crime or Escalate Violence? Evidence from Castle Doctrine, [PDF] Texas A&M University. June, 2012. "[R]esults indicate that castle doctrine laws increase total homicides by around 8 percent. Put differently, the laws induce an additional 600 homicides per year across the 21 states in our sample that enacted castle doctrine laws."
  • Study of Incarcerated Women and Their Children [PDF] Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth. January, 2010. "Over three‐fourths of the women had only a high school education or less. Two‐thirds had been physically and/or sexually abused as a child."

Thursday, August 2 2012:

Monday, July 30 2012:

  • Hot Spots of Juvenile Crime Findings From Seattle, [PDF] US Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. October, 2010. "Juvenile crime was concentrated in public and commercial areas where youth gather—schools, youth centers, shops, malls, and restaurants—rather than residential areas."
  • Juvenile Court Statistics 2008 [PDF] US Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. July, 2011. "Drug offense case rates increased dramatically for all age groups between 1991 and 1998: 229% for juveniles ages 10–12, 165% for youth ages 13–15, 146% for 16-year-olds, and 148% for 17-year-olds."
  • Juvenile Justice Alternative Edu. Programs Performance Assessment Report School Year 2010-2011, [PDF] Texas Juvenile Justice Department. May, 2012. "The average passing rate for reading/ELA was 68.8% compared to 38.2% for math. The overall passing rates are up from 67.6% in reading/ELA and 34.5% for math in school year 2008-2009."
  • Collateral Consequences of Interstate Transfer of Prisoners [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. July, 2012. "In addition to breaches in facility security, out-of-state private prisons create significant barriers to rehabilitation and humane conditions of care."

Thursday, July 26 2012:

  • Closing the Gap Using Criminal Justice and Public Health Data to Improve the Identification of Mental Illness, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. July, 2012. "Most of the cohort members who had mental health needs (83%) were known to at least 1 criminal justice agency as having such a need between 2006-11. Yet the Department of Mental Health knew about only 59% who had mental health needs during that period."

Thursday, July 19 2012:

  • Dollars and Detainees The Growth of For-Profit Detention, [PDF] Sentencing Project. July, 2012. "Between 2002-2010 [...] privately-held ICE and U.S. Marshals Service detainees increased by 206% and 322%, respectively. In contrast there was respective growth of 28% and 67% in the number of state and federal prisoners held in private facilities."

Wednesday, July 18 2012:

  • Immigration Offenders in the Federal Justice System, 2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2012. "Apprehensions for immigration violations peaked at 1.8 million in 2000 but dropped to 516,992 in 2010 — the lowest level since 1972. Between 2004 and 2010, the number of Border Patrol officers nearly doubled, increasing from 10,819 to 20,558."

Monday, July 16 2012:

  • Pioneers of Youth Justice Reform Achieving System Change Using Resolution, Reinvestment, and Realignment Strategies, [PDF] John Jay College of Criminal Justice. July, 2012. "Incarcerated juveniles, especially those low in risk, tend to recidivate at higher rates than youth treated in their homes or communities... many youth courts place juveniles in state facilities for committing non-violent offenses/violating probation."

Friday, July 13 2012:

  • Examination of Cook County Bond Court Report of the Justice Advisory Council, [PDF] Justice Advisory Council of the County of Cook. 2011. "A cash bond for the release of over 66% of pretrial detainees, a full two-thirds, has been set by the Court at a bond hearing. However, the large majority of pretrial detainees, who procedurally have not been adjudicated guilty, are unable to post [bail]."

Thursday, July 12 2012:

Wednesday, July 11 2012:

  • Performance Audit Report Evaluating the Kansas Juvenile Correctional Complex, Part I, [PDF] State of Kansas Legislative Division of Post Audit. July, 2012. "Overall, the environment at KJCC has not been conducive to ensuring the safety and security of juvenile offenders and staff."

Thursday, July 5 2012:

  • Profiting from the Poor A Report on Predatory Probation Companies in Georgia, [PDF] Southern Center for Human Rights. July, 2008. "The privatization of misdemeanor probation has placed unprecedented law enforcement authority in the hands of for-profit companies that act essentially as collection agencies."

Monday, July 2 2012:

  • Three Strikes: The Wrong Way to Justice, [PDF] Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice, Harvard Law School. June, 2012. "By properly limiting the applicability of the habitual offender provisions, Massachusetts will be able to reinvest in its people through education, treatment, training, and community development programs."

Thursday, June 28 2012:

  • PREA Data Collection Activities, 2012 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2012. "An estimated 9.6% of former state prisoners reported one or more incidents of sexual victimization during the most recent period of incarceration in a jail, prison, and post-release community-treatment facility."

Wednesday, June 27 2012:

  • Criminal Justice Interventions for Offenders With Mental Illness Evaluation of Mental Health Courts in Bronx and Brooklyn, New York, [PDF] Urban Institute. 2011. "Findings from the impact analysis indicate that mental health court participants are significantly less likely to recidivate, as compared to similar offenders with mental illness who experience business-as-usual court processing..."

Tuesday, June 26 2012:

  • Do Race and Ethnicity Matter in Prosecution? A Review of Empirical Studies, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. June, 2012. "Most of the 34 studies reviewed here suggest that defendants' or victims' race directly or indirectly influence case outcomes, even when a host of other legal and extra-legal factors are taken into account."
  • Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2012. "From 2004 to 2008, the number of officers employed by Customs and Border Protection increased by more than 9,000 (or 33%), the largest increase at any federal agency."

Tuesday, June 19 2012:

  • Post-Conviction DNA Testing and Wrongful Conviction [PDF] Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center. June, 2012. "This report begins to answer a critical policy question: "What proportion of convicted offenders in serious person crimes with retained forensic evidence could be exonerated if that evidence were DNA tested?""

Wednesday, June 13 2012:

  • Violent Crime against the Elderly Reported by Law Enforcement in Michigan 2005-2009, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2012. "Three out of 10 elderly victims of reported violence were victimized by their own child or grandchild."
  • Reducing the U.S. Demand for Illegal Drugs A Report by the United States Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control, [PDF] United States Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control. June, 2012. "Drug courts have proven to be effective. According to a 2006 study, approximately three-quarters of drug courts – or 78 % – were found to have significantly reduced crime. The personal attention provided in drug courts can have life-changing effects."
  • At America's Expense The Mass Incarceration of the Elderly, [PDF] ACLU. June, 2012. "Based on statistical analyses of available data, this report estimates that releasing an aging prisoner will save states, on average, $66,294 per year per prisoner, including healthcare, other public benefits, parole, and any housing costs or tax revenue."

Monday, June 11 2012:

  • The Costs and Benefits of Community-Based Substance Abuse Treatment in the District of Columbia, [PDF] Urban Institute. April, 2012. "On average, we find there is a 55 percent chance that a community-based substance abuse treatment (CBSAT) program serving 150 people would yield benefits that exceed its costs. The median benefit of CBSAT is $615 per person higher than its costs."
  • Time Served The High Cost, Low Returns of Long Prison Terms, [PDF] Pew Center on the States. June, 2011. "Nationally, the fastest period of growth in time served came between 1995 and 2000. In that period, length of stay rose 28 percent, compared with less than 5 percent in the five-year periods before and after."

Thursday, June 7 2012:

  • Crime and Justice Atlas 1999 Update, [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. 1999. "Since 1980, the numbers of prisoners, new court commitments, and releases from state prisons have risen by a yearly average of 8.1 %, 5.5%, and 7.9%, respectively."
  • Crime and Justice Atlas [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. June, 1998. "The latest rapid increases for both violent crime and violent crime arrest rates occurred during the period 1987-1991. The latest data show violent crime has begun to decline steadily, falling 16% since 1991."

Wednesday, June 6 2012:

  • A Juvenile Justice Reprieve: California's 2012 Mid-Year Budget, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. May, 2012. "Counties cannot continue to oppose both budget triggers which attempt to more realistically balance DJF fees, and juvenile justice realignment, which transitions away from an archaic and dysfunctional state system to build on county successes."

Monday, June 4 2012:

  • Reducing the use of imprisonment What can we learn from Europe?, [PDF] Criminal Justice Alliance. May, 2012. "One of the most dramatic changes in prison numbers over the last few years has been experienced by the Netherlands. Germany, too, has seen a significant reduction in use of custody."
  • One last chance to avoid prison-based gerrymandering in Kansas [PDF] Prison Policy Initiative and Demos. May, 2012. "By taking the simple step of dividing the Leavenworth prisons among different districts rather than concentrating them in one, the federal panel can prevent Kansas from winning the "worst prison gerrymander" award for the 2010 cycle of redistricting."
  • Justice Reinvestment in Pennsylvania A Comprehensive Public Safety Plan for the Commonwealth, [PDF] Council of State Governments Justice Center. May, 2012. (Comprehensive public safety plan that reduces costly inefficiencies in PA's criminal justice system and reinvests savings in law enforcement strategies that deter crime, local diversion efforts that reduce recidivism & services for crime victims.)

Friday, June 1 2012:

  • World Prison Population List (ninth edition), [PDF] International Centre for Prison Studies. April, 2012. "Prison populations have risen in 78% of countries: in 71% of countries in Africa, 82% in the Americas, 80% in Asia, 74% in Europe and 80% in Oceania."
  • Squeeze Play The history of canteen prices and inmate pay, [PDF] The Prison Mirror. May, 2012. "Not since 1960s have Minnesota Inmates been paid so little compared to outside wages. This makes it hard to afford canteen, which ultimately limits the money that could be flowing into programs that ultimately make Minnesota safer."

Thursday, May 24 2012:

  • The Continuing Challenge of CORI Reform Implementing the Groundbreaking 2010 Massachusetts Law, [PDF] The Boston Foundation and The Crime and Justice Institute at CRJ. May, 2012. "This report provides information about reactions to whether the implemented elements of the CORI reform law have had the intended impact, and what the public should expect going forward."
  • A Report on the Massachusetts Department of Corrections - 2011 [PDF] Gordon Haas, Chairman, Norfolk Lifers Group. January, 2012. "The DOC's organizational culture [...] continues to be driven by a penchant for retribution. As a result, what the DOC accomplishes is merely to warehouse prisoners until they are released to become someone else's concern."
  • Life Without Parole A Reconsideration, [PDF] Criminal Justice Policy Coalition and the Norfolk Lifers Group. 2010. "Everyone serving a Life Without Parole sentence in MA, after 25 years should be afforded an opportunity to demonstrate both a rehabilitated character and a low public safety risk through access to a parole hearing and, where appropriate, parole."

Wednesday, May 23 2012:

  • Breaking the Census Redistricting in an Era of Mass Incarceration, [PDF] Article by Peter Wagner in the William Mitchell Law Review. May, 2012. "A new and highly-readable introduction to the problem of prison-based gerrymandering and its remedies."

Tuesday, May 22 2012:

  • Rethinking the Blues How We Police in the U.S. and at What Cost, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. May, 2012. "Crime is at the lowest levels it has been in over 30 years, but funding for police increased 445 percent between 1982 and 2007, with federal funding increasing the most at 729 percent."

Thursday, May 17 2012:

  • Sexual Victimization Reported by Former State Prisoners, 2008 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 2010. "An estimated 9.6% of former state prisoners reported one or more incidents of sexual victimization during the most recent period of incarceration in jail, prison, and post-release community-treatment facility."

Tuesday, May 15 2012:

  • Pennsylvania Parole and Life Imprisonment, [PDF] Jon E. Yount. February, 2004. ([This report] provides an overview of the evolution of parole in Pennsylvania and how this "penological measure" has or has not been applied to terms of life imprisonment.)
  • It's about time Aging Prisoners, Increasing Costs, and Geriatric Release, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. April, 2010. "Given that many state policymakers have expressed an intention to permit the release of elderly inmates who are not a threat to public safety, it is remarkable that geriatric release policies have had little impact."

Friday, May 11 2012:

  • "When I Die, They'll Send Me Home" Youth Sentenced to Life without Parole in California, [PDF] Human Rights Watch. January, 2008. "African American youth arrested for murder are sentenced to life without parole in California at a rate that is 5.83 times that of white youth arrested for murder."

Thursday, May 10 2012:

  • Pre-Trial Detention of Dangerous and Violent Defendants Following Passage of the Omnibus Public Safety Justice Amendment Act of 2009, [PDF] Urban Institute. 2011. "We find a steady increase from 2007 through 2010 in the probability of detention for dangerous and violent defendants without associated weapons charges, on public safety grounds."
  • Which Components of Transitional Jobs Programs Work Best? Analysis of Programs for Former Prisoners in the Transitional Jobs Reentry Demonstration, [PDF] Urban Institute. May, 2012. "TJ program participants who spent 30 workdays or more in a transitional job during the first six months of the follow-up period were 14 percent more likely than other TJ program participants to obtain an unsubsidized job in the subsequent six months."

Wednesday, May 9 2012:

  • Adult Criminal Justice Case Processing in Washington, DC [PDF] Urban Institute. February, 2012. "For every 150 arrests for a felony in the District, 100 have formal charges filed, 53 result in a conviction, 16 result in prison, and 4 result in a "long" prison sentence (≥3 years). Most of these figures are similar in other large urban counties."

Tuesday, May 8 2012:

  • Housing as a Platform for Formerly Incarcerated Persons [PDF] Urban Institute. April, 2012. "While housing for formerly incarcerated persons is a source of necessary shelter and residential stability, it can also serve as the literal and figurative foundation for successful reentry and reintegration for released adults."

Monday, May 7 2012:

  • Falling Through the Cracks A New Look at Ohio Youth in the Adult Criminal Justice System, [PDF] Children's Law Center, Inc.. 2011. "Ohio must begin to shift direction with regard to youth in the adult criminal justice system and move toward a more humane, research-driven approach to these youth."

Thursday, May 3 2012:

  • Arrested Future The Criminalization of School Discipline in Massachusetts' Three Largest School Districts, [PDF] ACLU of Massachusetts. May, 2012. "While there are undoubtedly many reasons why there are more public order arrests in Springfield than in Boston or Worcester, it appears that the manner in which Springfield deploys police officers in its public schools is a contributing factor."

Thursday, April 26 2012:

Monday, April 9 2012:

  • Correctional Populations in the United States, 2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2011. "During 2010, the number of persons under supervision of adult correctional authorities declined by 1.3% (91,700 offenders), reaching 7.1 million at yearend. This was the second consecutive year of decline in the correctional population."
  • Reallocating Justice Resources A Review of 2011 State Sentencing Trends, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. March, 2012. "Early in the current recession, many states focused only on achieving quick cost savings. Now state lawmakers are considering multiple, related policy changes that will have long-term fiscal impacts."
  • Justice Assistance Grant (JAG) Program, 2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2012. "The total 2011 allocation for the JAG funding was approximately $368.3 million, of which $359.4 million went to states and $8.9 million to territories and the District of Columbia."

Friday, April 6 2012:

  • Public Housing transformation and Crime Making the Case for Responsible Relocation, [PDF] Urban Institute. April, 2012. "Overall, our findings show that a substantial majority of neighborhoods [...] were able to absorb public housing relocation voucher households without any adverse effect on neighborhood conditions."
  • Half of Women on Probation or Parole Experience Mental Illness [PDF] SAMHSA. March, 2012. "[A]mong women aged 18 to 49, about half of those who had been on probation (49.4%) or on parole (54.2%) in the past year experienced any mental illness in the past year, compared with 27.5 percent of women who had not been on probation or parole."

Thursday, April 5 2012:

  • Pay Now or Pay Much More Later Law Enforcement Leaders support high-quality early education to cut crime and save money in California, [PDF] Fight Crime: Invest in Kids California. April, 2012. "Research shows that high-quality preschool programs can significantly reduce felony arrests and incarceration rates and return $10 or more in savings for every dollar invested, with nearly 1/2 of the savings coming from lower prison & crime-related costs."
  • Youth in Minnesota Correctional Facilities and the Effects of Trauma Responses to the 2010 Minnesota Students Survey, [PDF] Minnesota Department of Public Safety. March, 2012. "[O]ver half of youth in correctional facilities report at least one form of trauma on the MSS (53%) compared to just over one-quarter of a matched sample of mainstream students (28%)."

Monday, April 2 2012:

Wednesday, March 28 2012:

  • Prevenir la manipulación de los límites de los distritos electorales sobre la base de la población reclusa: qué es lo que hay que evitar, [PDF] Prison Policy Initiative. February, 2011. "Está guía en español le explicará qué es lo que hay que buscar para minimizar el daño de la manipulación de los límites de los distritos electorales sobre la base de la población reclusa."

Thursday, March 22 2012:

  • Public Safety Realignment: California at a Crossroads, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union of California. March, 2012. "Based upon our review, at least 32 of California's 58 counties have plans to expand jail capacity using AB 109 funds or other tax dollars, even though realignment provides more effective and affordable options for addressing jail overcrowding."

Thursday, March 1 2012:

  • The Lives of Juvenile Lifers: Findings from a National Survey, [PDF] Sentencing Project. March, 2011. "The proportion of African Americans serving JLWOP sentences for the killing of a white person (43.4%) is nearly twice the rate at which African American juveniles are arrested for taking a white person's life (23.2%)."

Monday, February 27 2012:

  • The Disproportionate Impact of the Criminal Justice System on People of Color in the Capital Region, [PDF] Center for Law and Justice. February, 2012. "Statewide, from 2000 to 2011 the number of minorities incarcerated dropped by 29%; in Albany County, the number of minorities incarcerated increased by 60% over the same time period."

Thursday, February 23 2012:

  • Indicators Of School Crime And Safety, 2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. February, 2012. "In 2009–10, about 74 percent of public schools recorded one or more violent incidents of crime, 16 percent recorded one or more serious violent incidents, and 44 percent recorded one or more thefts."

Wednesday, February 22 2012:

  • Identity Theft Reported by Households, 2005-2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2011. "The increase in identity theft victimization from 2005 to 2010 was largely attributable to an increase in the misuse or attempted misuse of existing credit card accounts."
  • Homicide Trends In The United States, 1980-2008 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2011. "Males represented 77% of homicide victims and nearly 90% of offenders. The victimization rate for males was 3 times higher than the rate for females. The offending rate for males was almost 9 times higher than the rate for females."
  • Probation And Parole In The United States, 2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2011. "The state parole population declined by 0.3% during 2010. The number of adults on supervised release in the federal system increased by 4.9%, which contributed to the increase in the U.S. parole population."
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2011. "Between 2004 and 2010, the number of inmates held in Indian country jails increased by 21%, from 1,745 to 2,119."
  • Pitfalls and Promises The Real Risks to Residents and Taxpayers of Privatizing Prisons and Prison Services in Michigan, [PDF] Michigan Corrections Organization. February, 2012. "Taxpayers want to save money. Private prisons want to make money. These are inherently opposite interests, since the only way for private prisons to make money is for the government to give it to them. The drive for growth can be counterproductive..."
  • The Impact of CA's Probation Performance Incentive Funding Program [PDF] Pew Center on the States. February, 2012. "In the first year of implementation, the state probation failure rate declined from 7.9 percent during the baseline years of 2006-2008 to 6.1 percent in 2010, a 23 percent reduction in revocations."

Friday, February 17 2012:

  • Juvenile Justice Reform In Arkansas Building a Better Future for Youth, their Families, and the Community, [PDF] Arkansas Division of Youth Services. February, 2012. "Almost all youth committed to DYS are non-violent offenders. During the first 3 quarters of FY 2008, more than 90% of all commitments were for non-violent offenses."

Thursday, February 16 2012:

  • Private Prisons: The Public's Problem, [PDF] American Friends Service Committee. February, 2012. "Between 2008 and 2010, Arizona overpaid for its private prisons by about $10 million. If the requested 2,000 medium security private prison beds are built, Arizona taxpayers can expect to waste at least $6 million on privatization every year."

Wednesday, February 15 2012:

  • The Education of DC How Washington D.C.'s investments in education can help increase public safety, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. February, 2012. "This national trend is seen in D.C. as the funding for the justice system continues to increase at the expense of public education."

Tuesday, February 14 2012:

  • Compounded Disadvantage Race, Incarceration, and Wage Growth, [PDF] National Poverty Center. October, 2008. "Multilevel growth curve models show that black inmates earn considerably less than white inmates, even after considering human capital variables and prior work histories. Furthermore, racial divergence in wages among inmates increases following release..."
  • Parole, Desistance from Crime, and Community Integration [PDF] National Research Council. January, 2007. "Cognitive-behavioral treatment programs reduce recidivism; Peak rates of committing a new crime/violating the terms of parole occur soon after release; Deaths among releasees are very high in the first weeks after release."

Friday, February 10 2012:

  • Collecting DNA from Juveniles [PDF] Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center. April, 2011. "The lack of data about the number and characteristics of juveniles with profiles in CODIS limits the ability of policymakers and researchers to understand the ramifications of collecting DNA from juveniles."

Thursday, February 9 2012:

  • Jail Needs Assessment for San Mateo County: A preliminary analysis, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. December, 2011. "Based on current trends, CJCJ recommends deferring construction of new jail space until alternative pretrial release [...] expanded probation supervision, reduced probation revocation, and expanded community treatment alternatives have been fully explored"
  • The Effects of Parental Incarceration on Children: Needs and Responsive Services, [PDF] Joint State Government Commission, General Assembly of Pennsylvania. December, 2011. "In accordance with the HR 203 and SR 52, the present report focuses on ameliorative intervention, at mitigating the negative impacts of parental incarceration on children, and assisting these children in becoming healthy, productive and responsible adults"

Monday, February 6 2012:

  • Prisons and Prisoners [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. January, 1982. "State prison populations have risen 18% since the 1979 study was conducted without a commensurate increase in prison space. Consequently, space shortages in State prisons are considerably more acute than the 1979 data indicate."

Wednesday, February 1 2012:

  • Positive Trends in State-Level Sentencing and Corrections Policy [PDF] Families Against Mandatory Minimums. November, 2003. "Texas policymakers introduced parole reforms in 2000. The parole board's approval rate for non-violent offenders rose, parole revocations fell sharply, and prison populations dropped by 7,698 from September 2000 to December 2001."

Monday, January 30 2012:

  • Turning the Corner Opportunities for Effective Sentencing and Correctional Practices in Arizona, [PDF] Justice Strategies. January, 2011. "Arizona policymakers can restore judicial discretion to sentence people to more effective, less costly correctional supervision and treatment options in lieu of prison in cases where such measures would clearly better serve both justice and public safety."

Friday, January 27 2012:

  • Communities Inmates Released to in 2009 [PDF] Massachusetts Department of Correction. October, 2010. "Massachusetts Department of Correction Releases to the Street 2009: Top Ten Release Address (Cities/Towns)"
  • 2009 Annual Report Massachusetts Department of Correction, [PDF] Massachusetts Department of Correction. December, 2009. "2009 Releases to the Street from Massachusetts Department of Correction: Top 10 Cities"
  • Survey of Sentencing Practices FY 2010 [PDF] Massachusetts Sentencing Commission. April, 2011. "Includes a statistical summary of the last known address of defendants for cities and towns in Massachusetts."
  • The State of Sentencing 2011 [PDF] Sentencing Project. February, 2012. "During 2011, state legislatures in at least 29 states adopted 55 criminal justice policies that may contribute to continued population reductions and address the collateral consequences associated with felony convictions."
  • Old Behind Bars the Aging Prison Population in the United States, [PDF] Human Rights Watch. January, 2012. "Between 1995 and 2010, the number of state and federal prisoners age 55 or older nearly quadrupled (increasing 282 percent), while the number of all prisoners grew by less than half (increasing 42 percent). There are now 124,400 prisoners age 55+."

Thursday, January 26 2012:

  • The Price of Prisons What Incarceration Costs Taxpayers, [PDF] Vera Institute. January, 2012. "[T]he total taxpayer cost of prisons in the 40 states that participated in this study was 13.9 percent higher than the cost reflected in those states' combined corrections budgets. The total price to taxpayers was $38.8 billion..."

Wednesday, January 25 2012:

  • Missouri Working Group on Sentencing and Corrections Consensus Report [PDF] Missouri Working Group on Sentencing and Corrections. December, 2011. "The Working Group conducted extensive analysis of state data and trends and has reached consensus on a package of reforms that will improve public safety, hold offenders accountable, and contain corrections costs by strengthening community supervision."
  • Jail Inmates at Midyear 2009 Statistical Tables [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2010. "During the 12 months ending June 30, 2009, the number of male (-1.7%), female (-6.0%), and adult (-2.2%) inmates declined."
  • Prison Inmates at Midyear 2009 Statistical Tables [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2010. "Of the 16 states reporting decreases, California (down 3,644), Texas (down 2,347), and Michigan (down 1,554) reported the largest decreases."
  • Too Good to be True Private Prisons in America, [PDF] Sentencing Project. January, 2012. "Finally, private prison companies' dependence on ensuring a large prison population to maintain profits provides inappropriate incentives to lobby government officials for policies that will place more people in prison."
  • 2011 Adult Institutions Outcome Evaluation Report [PDF] State of California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. November, 2011. (Participation in in-prison substance abuse programs, combined with post-release community-based aftercare results in recidivism rates (29.3 %) that are much lower than those that did not participate in any substance abuse treatment program (65.3 %).)
  • Improving Budget Analysis of State Criminal Justice Reforms A Strategy for Better Outcomes and Saving Money, [PDF] Center on Budget and Policy Priorities and the American Civil Liberties UNion. January, 2012. "States did not write fiscal notes for about 40 percent of the bills. Two states, Delaware and Hawaii, never write fiscal notes for criminal justice bills. Others, including South Dakota and Vermont, rarely write them."
  • Correctional Spending Trends Budget Information Report, [PDF] Oregon Legislative Fiscal Office. September, 2011. "The Department of Correction's budget is one of the largest commitments of resources in the state budget representing roughly 9.1% of the combined General Fund and Lottery Funds in the 2011-13 legislatively adopted budget."
  • Receipt of A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccine by Prisons and Jails United States, 2009-10 Influenza Season, [PDF] Center for Desease Control. January, 2012. "This report summarizes the results of that survey, which found that 55% of jails did not receive A(H1N1) pdm09 vaccine during the pandemic period, whereas only 14% of federal prisons and 11% of state prisons did not receive the vaccine."
  • PREA Data Collection Activities, 2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 2011. "State prison administrators reported 589 substantiated incidents of sexual victimization in 2008, up 28% from 459 in 2005."
  • Continued Majority Support for Death Penalty More Concern among Opponents about Wrongful Convictions, [PDF] Pew Research Center. January, 2012. "Public opinion about the death penalty has changed only modestly in recent years, but there continues to be far less support for the death penalty than there was in the mid-1990s."
  • The Effects of Prison Visitation on Offender Recidivism [PDF] Minnesota Department of Corrections. November, 2011. "Using multiple measures of visitation and recidivism, the study found that visitation significantly decreased the risk of recidivism. The results also showed that visits from siblings, in-laws, fathers, and clergy were the most beneficial..."

Friday, January 13 2012:

  • Primer for reporters on county or municipal redistricting & prison-based gerrymandering, [PDF] Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2011. "With one exception, whenever the public has learned that local districts are being based on prison populations, there was public outcry and the county decided to avoid prison-based gerrymandering by adjusting the census."
  • Preventing Prison-Based Gerrymandering in Redistricting What to Watch For, [PDF] Prison Policy Initiative and Demos. February, 2011. (This guide will tell you what to look for in [redistricting] data and the state's proposed plan in order to minimize the harm of prison-based gerrymandering.)
  • Importing Constituents Prisoners and Political Clout in Pennsylvania, [PDF] Prison Policy Initiative. June, 2009. "The legislative commission that drew Pennsylvania's districts in 2001 met the federal standard of population equality, but only because prisoners were counted in the wrong place."

Thursday, December 22 2011:

  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2009 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2011. "from 2000 to 2006, the rate of arrests made by federal law enforcement increased at 8 times the rate of arrests by state and local law enforcement."
  • Census of Jail Facilities, 2006 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2011. "A total of 3,283 jail facilities, including jails in the federal system, were operating in 2006, down 93 from 3,376 in 1999."
  • Who's in Prison? The Changing Demographics of Incarceration, [PDF] Public Policy Institute of California. August, 2006. "Forty-four percent of California prisoners do not have a high school diploma or GED; the comparable number for the general California adult population is 21 percent."
  • Juvenile Arrests 2009 [PDF] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. December, 2011. "The number of juvenile violent crime arrests in 2009 was less than any year in the 1990s, and 14% less than the number of such arrests in 2006."

Friday, December 16 2011:

  • Prisoners in 2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2011. (During 2010, prison releases (708,677) exceeded prison admissions (703,798) for the first time since BJS began collecting jurisdictional data in 1977.)
  • Correctional Population in the United States, 2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2011. "The decline in the number of jail inmates (down 18,700) accounted for 20% of the decrease in the total correctional population."

Thursday, December 15 2011:

  • The Private Sector and Prison Industries [PDF] National Institute of Justice. August, 1985. "As of January 1985, there were 26 projects in which the private sector was involved with State-level prison industries. There has been a gradual growth [...] until 1980, when a marked increase occurred at a rate that continues to grow today."
  • The State of Corrections in Massachusetts: A Warning, [PDF] Massachusetts Correctional Legal Services. January, 1997. "[T]he Department of Correction and many county jail administrations have increased the use of segregation and punishment as the primary method of control. Ironically, these policies which purportedly increase security do the opposite."

Wednesday, December 14 2011:

  • Moving Beyond Sides The Power and Potential of a New Public Safety Policy Paradigm, [PDF] Partnership for Safety and Justice. December, 2011. "The goal of the paper is to explore the untapped potential of a more holistic analysis and strategy that connects traditional criminal justice reform organizations with victim-oriented advocacy groups to work for progressive public safety policy."
  • Understanding the Experiences and Needs of Children of Incarcerated Parents Views from Mentors, [PDF] Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center. February, 2008. "Stigma and shame represented an experience shared by most children of incarcerated parents that distinguished them from other at-risk peers."
  • Baltimore Behind Bars How to Reduce the Jail Population, Save Money, and Improve Public Safety, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. June, 2010. "9 out of 10 people in the [Baltimore] jail are awaiting trial, compared to about 2 out of 3 in the rest of the country. [Reducing] the number of people held pretrial in a safe and effective way can greatly reduce the jail population & associated costs."
  • Gender-Responsive Programs Addressing the Needs of Female Offenders, [PDF] American Correctional Association (Mary L. Livers and Tomi Hiers). August, 2007. "Surveys taken of staff [...] indicated that [gender-responsive] training taught them awareness of the pathways of women into prison, how to effectively communicate with female offenders, sensitivity training, and the importance of family contacts and ties"

Tuesday, December 13 2011:

  • Drug Courts Are Not the Answer Toward a Health-Centered Approach to Drug Use, [PDF] Drug Policy Alliance. March, 2011. "Incarceration, when used to punish continued drug use or relapse, is [...] at odds with a health approach [...]. In a treatment setting, relapse is met with more intensive services. In drug court, relapse is often met with [...] removal of treatment..."
  • Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties, 2006 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 2010. "About a fourth of felony defendants were charged with a violent offense in 2006."

Monday, December 12 2011:

  • Cybercrime against Businesses [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2004. "Nearly 75% of companies with computers detected at least one incident."
  • Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties, 1994 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. January, 1998. (About 2 in 3 defendants were charged with either a drug (35%) or property (31%) offense.)
  • Guide to the BJS website [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2002.
  • The Effect of Earning a GED on Recidivism Rates [PDF] State of New York Department of Correctional Services. September, 2003. "[T]hose inmates who earned a GED while incarcerated returned to custody within three years at a significantly lower rate than offender who did not earn a GED while incarcerated."
  • Presale Handgun Checks, 1996 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 1997. "Overall, 2.7% of all handgun purchases had their application for purchase rejected during 1996. About 68% of the rejections were for a prior felony conviction or a current felony indictment."
  • Prisoners in 1996 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 1997. "On December 31, 1996, State prisons were operating at between 16% and 24% above capacity, while Federal prisoners were operating at 25% over capacity."
  • Justice Expenditure and Employment, 1990 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 1992. "Federal Government spending on justice increased 128% in constant dollars per capita from 1971 to 1990, more than twice as fast as the 54.5% increase among State and local governments."
  • HIV in Prisons and Jails, 1995 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. August, 1997. "Between 1991 and 1995 about 1 in 3 inmate deaths were attributable to AIDS-related causes."
  • Felony Sentences in the United States, 1994 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2007. "Between 1992 and 1994 the number of felony convictions decreased 2% in State courts and 5% in Federal courts."

Wednesday, November 30 2011:

Tuesday, November 29 2011:

Monday, November 28 2011:

Wednesday, November 23 2011:

  • Iowa Prison Population Forecast FY2011-2021 [PDF] Iowa Department of Human Rights Division of Criminal and Juvenile Justice Planning. November, 2011. "If current offender behaviors and justice system trends, policies, and practices continue, Iowa's prison population may be expected to increase from 8,787 inmates on June 30, 2011 to about 11,300 inmates on June 30, 2021 [29%]."

Friday, November 18 2011:

  • Breakthrough in U.S. Drug Sentencing Reform The Fair Sentencing Act and the Unfinished Reform Agenda, [PDF] Sentencing Project. November, 2011. "Efforts are underway among the advocacy community to build upon the sentence reduction embraced by the Fair Sentencing Act and to capitalize on the reform movement that has been gaining momentum at the state level."

Thursday, November 17 2011:

  • Forensic DNA Database Expansion Growing Racial Inequities, Eroding Civil Liberties and Diminishing Returns, [PDF] Generations Ahead. November, 2011. "Given the existing racial bias in other aspects of the criminal justice system, we need to ensure that DNA databases do not unfairly and disproportionately affect communities of color."

Wednesday, November 16 2011:

  • Profile of Inmate Population Under Custody on January 1, 2008 (New York) [PDF] State of New York Department of Correctional Services. March, 2008. "The majority of inmates (52.1%) were committed from New York City. An additional 11.4% were committed from suburban New York."
  • Profile of Inmate Population Under Custody on January 1, 2009 (New York) State of New York Department of Correctional Services. June, 2007. "The majority of inmates under custody (59.2%) report at least one living child. Approximately 11% of under custody inmates reported four or more living children."
  • Profile of Inmate Population Under Custody on January 1, 2007 (New York) [PDF] State of New York Department of Correctional Services. June, 2007. "Of the 63,473 inmates under custody on February 17, 2007, 33,496 (52.8%) had a verified GED, high school diploma or higher degree, and 29,977 (47.2%) were without verified academic degrees."
  • Profile of Inmate Population Under Custody on January 1, 2010 (New York) [PDF] State of New York Department of Correctional Services. May, 2010. "Forty percent (40%) of female inmates were serving a sentence for a Violent Felony crime compared to 61% for male inmates. In contrast, 24% of female inmates were sentenced for a drug crime compared to 17% percent of male inmates."
  • Profile of Inmate Population Under Custody on January 1, 2011 [PDF] State of New York Department of Corrections and Community Supervision. April, 2011. "The majority of inmates under custody (60%) self-reported at the time of admission to the Department that they had at least one living child."
  • Profile of Inmates Under Custody on January 1, 2000 [PDF] New York Department of Correctional Services. January, 2000. "Only 32,689 (45.8%) of under custody inmates had at least a high school diploma or equivalent out of 71,356 inmates."
  • Life in Limbo An Examination of Parole Release for Prisoners Serving Life Sentences with the Possibility of Parole in California, [PDF] Stanford Criminal Justice Center. September, 2011. "When victims attend hearings, the grant rate is less than half the rate when victims do not attend."

Tuesday, November 15 2011:

  • Report to Congress Mandatory Minimum Penalties in the Federal Criminal Justice System, [PDF] United States Sentencing Commission. October, 2011. "[C]ertain mandatory minimum provisions apply too broadly, are set too high, or both, to warrant the prescribed minimum penalty for the full range of offenders who could be prosecuted under the particular criminal statute."
  • Education Under Arrest The Case Against Police in Schools, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. November, 2011. "[School resource officers] and law enforcement in schools are not needed to keep kids safe, especially when youth pay the price of becoming involved in the juvenile justice system and suffer a lifetime of negative effects as a result."

Thursday, November 10 2011:

  • Disproportionate Imprisonment of Blacks in the United States: Policy, Practice, Impact, and Change, [PDF] Prepared by Scott Christianson for the National Association of Blacks in Criminal Justice. March, 1982. "This report seeks to promote a better understanding of the problem of racially differential imprisonment and attempts to offer some specific goals and strategies for reducing racial disparities in American criminal justice."

Thursday, November 3 2011:

  • Banking on Bondage Private Prisons and Mass Incarceration, [PDF] ACLU. 2011. (The evidence that private prisons provide savings compared to publicly operated facilities is highly questionable, and certain studies point to worse conditions in for-profit facilities.)

Monday, October 24 2011:

Wednesday, October 12 2011:

  • When Treatment is Punishment The Effects of Maryland's Incompetency to Stand Trial Policies and Practices, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. October, 2011. "Too many people found not competent to stand trial are unnecessarily locked in a secure setting for treatment and, on average, confined for longer periods than research demonstrates is clinically reasonable."

Monday, October 10 2011:

  • Criminal Victimization, 2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2011. "the rate of total violent crime victimizations declined by 13% in 2010, which was about three times the average annual decrease observed from 2001 through 2009 (4%)."
  • Use Of Victim Service Agencies By Victims Of Serious Violent Crime '93-'09 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. August, 2011. "From 2000 to 2009, a greater percentage of female (15%) than male (6%) victims of serious violent crime received assistance from a victim service agency."
  • Tribal Crime Dala Collection Activities [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2011. "For the first time, the Bureau of Indian Affairs' (BIA) submissions to the Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR) were disaggregated by tribe and reported in Crime in the U.S., 2009."
  • Arrest In The United States, 1980-2009 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2011. "The U.S. murder arrest rate in 2009 was about half of what it was in the early 1980s. Over the 30-year period ending in 2009, the adult arrest rate for murder fell 57%, while the juvenile arrest rate fell 44%."
  • Contacts between Police and the Public, 2008 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2011. "Black drivers were about three times as likely as white drivers and about two times as likely as Hispanic drivers to be searched during a traffic stop."
  • Census Of State And Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2008 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2011. "From 2004 to 2008, state and local law enforcement agencies added about 9,500 more full-time sworn personnel than during the previous 4-year period."
  • Tribal Law Enforcement, 2008 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2011. "Eleven of the 25 largest tribal law enforcement agencies served jurisdictions covering more than 1,000 square miles."
  • Appeals Of Civil Trials Concluded In 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2011. "The trial court verdict or judgment was fully or partly reversed in 35% of civil appeals decided on the merits."
  • State Prosecutors' Offices with Jurisdiction in Indian Country, 2007 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2011. "Seventy-three percent of offices with jurisdiction in Indian country reported prosecuting at least one felony case committed in Indian country."

Thursday, October 6 2011:

  • No Place for Kids The Case for Reducing Juvenile Incarceration, [PDF] Annie E. Casey Foundation. October, 2011. "The time has come for states to embrace a [...] different orientation to treating adolescent offenders—an approach grounded in evidence that promises to be far more humane, cost-effective, & protective of public safety than [juvenile incarceration]."

Wednesday, October 5 2011:

Monday, October 3 2011:

  • Oregon Corrections Population Forecast (updated regularly) [PDF] State of Oregon Office of Economic Analysis. October, 2011. "The number of inmates housed in Oregon's prisons, currently about 14,000, is expected grow to 16,000 inmates by the end of the decade, with much of that growth occurring over the next four years."

Monday, September 12 2011:

  • Tribal Youth in the Federal Justice System [PDF] Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center. May, 2011. "Tribal youth represented about 40-55% of all juveniles in the federal system, depending on the stage in the system."

Wednesday, September 7 2011:

  • Inmate Fees as a Source of Revenue Source of Challenges, [PDF] Massachusetts Executive Office of Public Safety and Security. July, 2011. "[A]dditional fees would increase the number of inmates qualifying as indigent, increase the financial burdens on the inmate and their family, and jeopardize inmates' opportunities for successful reentry."

Friday, August 26 2011:

  • Texas' School-to-Prison Pipeline Ticketing, Arrest & Use of Force in Schools, [PDF] Texas Appleseed. December, 2010. "Where a child attends school, and not the nature of the offense, is the great determining factor in whether a student will be arrested at school."

Wednesday, August 24 2011:

  • Misguided Measures The Outcomes and Impacts of Measure 11 on Oregon's Youth, [PDF] Partnership for Safety and Justice. July, 2011. "Over the three-year period from 2006 to 2008, data from the 36 Oregon counties show no discernible pattern between the number of young people charged with a Measure 11 offense and the juvenile crime rate."
  • Preventable Error A Report on Prosecutorial Misconduct in California 1997 - 2009, [PDF] Northern California Innocence Project, Santa Clara University School of Law. October, 2010. "[This report] is the most comprehensive, up-to-date, quantitative and actionable study on the extent of prosecutorial misconduct in CA, how the justice system identifies and addresses it, and its cost and consequences, including [wrongful convictions]."

Thursday, August 18 2011:

  • Crisis in the Courts Defining the Problem, [PDF] American Bar Association. August, 2011. "[T]he Legal Services Corportation Budget for FY2011 was reduced an additional 3.8% half way through that budget cycle, even as the number of Americans eligible for civil legal aid was pushed by the Recession to an all-time high of 57 Million."

Wednesday, August 17 2011:

  • The State of Sentencing 2009 Developments in Policy and Practice, [PDF] Sentencing Project. January, 2010. "During 2009 state legislatures in at least 19 states enacted policies that hold the potential to reduce prison populations and/or promote more effective approaches to public safety."

Tuesday, August 16 2011:

  • Smart Reform is Possible States Reducing Incarceration Rates and Costs While Protecting Communities, [PDF] ACLU. August, 2011. "As states across the country are realizing that reducing prison populations and corrections budgets is a necessity, they can look to the examples in this report as ways to reform their criminal justice systems with promising results."

Thursday, August 4 2011:

  • Prison Count 2010 State Population Declines for the First Time in 38 Years, [PDF] Pew Center on the States. April, 2010. "[A]s of January 1, 2010, there were 1,404,053 persons under the jurisdiction of state prison authorities, 4,777 (0.3 percent) fewer than there were on December 31, 2008. This marks the first year-to-year drop in the state prison population since 1972."

Wednesday, July 27 2011:

  • Voting Behind Bars An Argument for Voting by Prisoners, [PDF] Sentencing Project. July, 2011. "Twenty-three states have enacted some type of reform to their felony disenfranchisement practices since 1997—a remarkable pace of activity in a relatively short time frame."
  • System Overload The Costs of Under-Resourcing Public Defense, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. July, 2011. "In state-based public defender offices, 15 of the 19 reporting state programs exceeded the maximum recommended limit of felony or misdemeanor cases per attorney."

Monday, July 25 2011:

  • Accuracy Counts Incarcerated People & the Census, [PDF] Brennan Center for Justice. January, 2004. "Counting incarcerated people according to their home of record is the fairest and most accurate way to assess the true size and needs of urban communities, and to ensure equitable distribution of population-based funding and political power."

Friday, July 15 2011:

  • Workplace Violence, 1993-2009 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2011. "From 2002 to 2009, the rate of nonfatal workplace violence has declined by 35%, following a 62% decline in the rate from 1993 to 2002."
  • Crime Against People with Disabilities, 2008 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2010. "Persons with disabilities age 12 or older experienced violent crime at age-adjusted rates that were 2 to 3 times that of persons without disabilities for each violent crime measured (rape/sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault."
  • Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2008 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2009. "Forty-eight States, the District of Columbia, and Guam reported the total number of persons in their criminal history files as 92,329,600, of which 85,836,300 were automated."
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2009 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. February, 2011. "Over the 12 months ending June 2009, the average daily jail population in Indian country increased by 12%, and the percentage of occupied bed space increased from 64.2% to 73.5%."
  • Justice Assistance Grant (JAG) Program 2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2011. "The five states eligible to receive the largest total state allocation included California ($51.1 million), Texas ($34.0 million), Florida ($30.9 million), New York ($24.8 million), and Illinois ($18.9 million)."
  • Punitive Damage Awards In State Courts, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2011. "Punitive damages were awarded in 700 (5%) of the 14,359 trials where plaintiffs prevailed."

Thursday, July 14 2011:

  • Federal Firearms Cases, FY 2008 [PDF] Ronald J. Frandsen, Michael N. Bowling, Ph.D.. January, 2010. "The mean prison sentence for defendants convicted in FY2008 and FY2007 pursuant to the Gun Control Act of 1968 was 90 months."
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2010. "In 2008, among students 12-18, there were about 1.2 million victims of nonfatal crimes at school, including 619,000 thefts and 629,800 violent crimes."
  • Criminal Victimization, 2009 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2010. "The overall victimization rate for violent crimes declined from 19.3 to 17.1 victimizations per 1,000 persons between 2008 and 2009."
  • Gang Units In Large Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2007 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2010. "Of the 337 gang units that reported their year of establishment, 35% were formed between 2004 and 2007. The year 2006 marked the peak of gang unit formation with 43 new units created."
  • Victimization During Household Burglary [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2010. "Offenders were known to their victims in 65% of violent burglaries; offenders were strangers in 28%."
  • Victims Of Identity Theft, 2008 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2010. "The unauthorized misuse or attempted misuse of an existing credit card was the most prevalent type of identity theft (53% of all victims)."
  • PREA Data Collection Activities, 2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2010. "Among youth victimized by staff, 5% reported physical injury; fewer than 1% had sought medical attention."
  • Prisoners in 2009 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2010. "The imprisonment rate—the number of sentenced prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents—declined for the second straight year, falling to 502 per 100,000 from 506 per 100,000 in 2007."
  • Correctional Populations In The United States, 2009 Bureau of Justice Statistics, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2010. "The rate of decline in the jail population during 2009 was the highest rate of change observed among all four correctional populations, including the probation, parole, jail, and prison populations."
  • Local Police Departments, 2007 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2010. "In 2007, 75% of local police officers were employed by departments that authorized the use of conducted energy devices such as Tasers, compared to 47% in 2003"
  • Women in Law Enforcement 1987-2008 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2010. "Overall, the precent of sworn federal law enforcement officers who were women increased slightly from 1998 to 2008."
  • Mortality in Local Jails 2000-2007 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2010. "Suicide was the single leading cause of unnatural deaths in local jails, accounting for 29% of all jail deaths between 2000 and 2007, but the suicide rate declined from 48 to 36 deaths per 100,000 inmates."
  • Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2008-09 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. August, 2010. "An estimated 4.4% of prison inmates and 3.1% of jail inmates reported experiencing one or more incidents of sexual victimization by another inmate or facility staff in the past 12 months or since admission to the facility if less than 12 months."
  • Sexual Victimization Reported by Adult Correctional Authorities, 2007-2008 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. January, 2011. (Female inmates were disproportionately victimized by both other inmates and staff in federal and state prisons, as well as local jails.)
  • Probation And Parole In The United States, 2009 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2010. "During 2009, the number of offenders on probation or parole-community supervision population declined (down 0.9%) for the first time since the BJS began its Annual Probation Survey and Annual Parole Survey in 1980."
  • County-Based And Local Public Defender Offices, 2007 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2010. (About three-quarters (73%) of county-based public defender offices exceeded the maximum recommended limit of cases received per attorney in 2007.)
  • State Public Defender Programs, 2007 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2010. (Fifteen state programs exceeded the recommended number of felony and misdemeanor cases per attorney.)

Friday, July 8 2011:

  • Healing Invisible Wounds Why Investing in Trauma-Informed Care for Children Makes Sense, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. July, 2010. "Joseph Tulman between 75 and 93 percent of youth entering the juvenile justice system annually in this country have experienced some degree of trauma."

Tuesday, July 5 2011:

  • Think Before You Plea Juvenile Collateral Consequences in the United States (A guide to 50 states), [Website] American Bar Association. 2011. (State-by-state analysis of the procedures and consequences of the juvenile justice system.)

Friday, July 1 2011:

  • The Costs of Crime to Victims [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. January, 1994. "Economic loss of some kind occurred in 71% of all personal crimes in 1992."

Thursday, June 30 2011:

  • Justice for All? Challenging Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System, [PDF] Sentencing Project. June, 2011. "[The] data generated by the U.S. Department of Justice project that if current trends continue, one of every three black males born today will go to prison in his lifetime, as will one of every six Latino males."
  • Hate Crime, 2003-2009 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2011. "In nearly 90% of hate crime victimizations occurring between 2003 and 2009, the victim suspected the off ender was motivated by racial or ethnic prejudice or both."
  • Prison Rape Elimination Act Data Collection Activities, 2011 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2011.
  • Cracked Justice [PDF] Sentencing Project. March, 2011. "In Missouri, a defendant convicted of selling six grams of crack cocaine faces the same prison term –a ten-year mandatory minimum – as someone who sells 450 grams of powder cocaine, or 75 times that amount."
  • Voting Behind Bars: An Argument for Voting by Prisoners Marc Mauer, [PDF] Sentencing Project. June, 2011. "The extreme nature of U.S. disenfranchisement policies can be seen in the fact that to the extent there is debate about this issue elsewhere, the only significant distinction is whether any restrictions at all should be placed on people [w/ convictions]."
  • Gaming the System: How the Political Strategies of Private Prison Companies [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. June, 2011. "While private prison companies may try to present themselves as just meeting existing"
  • Balancing Punishment and Treatment Alternatives to Incarceration in New York City, [PDF] VERA Institute of Justice. May, 2011. "For those concerned about public safety, these results are good news; they show that many felony offenders can be sent to rigorous community programs rather than jail without increasing the risk to the public."
  • Piloting a Tool for Reentry A Promising Approach to Engaging Family Members, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. March, 2011. (To facilitate productive conversations about incarcerated individuals' positive social supports, the Vera Institute of Justice's Family Justice Program helps agencies implement the Relational Inquiry Tool (RIT) for use by corrections reentry staff.)
  • Sentencing Reform Amid Mass Incarceration - Guarded Optimism, [PDF] Sentencing Project. May, 2011. "A number of state have scaled back mandatory sentencing policies..."

Monday, June 27 2011:

  • Incarceration and Social Inequality [PDF] Bruce Western & Becky Pettit. August, 2010. "The social inequality produced by mass incarceration is sizable and enduring for three reasons: it is invisible, it is cumulative, and it is intergenerational."

Monday, June 20 2011:

  • FY 2010 Operating Per Capita Cost Report Cost Identification and Comparison of State and Private Contract Beds, [PDF] ARIZONA DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS. April, 2011. "An inmate health care cost factor is identified and deducted due to the limitations imposed by the private contractors [...][because] unlike the private contractors, the ADC is required to provide medical and mental health services to inmates [...]."
  • Medicine and the Epidemic of Incarceration in the United States [PDF] New England Journal of Medicine. June, 2011. "[The Affordable Care Act] could redirect many people with serious illness away from the revolving door of the criminal justice system, thereby improving overall public health in the communities to which prisoners return and decreasing [recidivism] costs."
  • Due South Looking to the South for Criminal Justice Innovations, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. May, 2011. "Recognizing the significant costs associated with [...] high incarceration rates, a number of [Southern] states have recently implemented innovative strategies for reducing their prison populations and ensuring better outcomes [...]."
  • Creating the Roadmap for Reduction Reducing the Number of Women in Prison in Alabama, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. April, 2011. "In the summer of 2009, Corrections and JPI staff recognized the opportunity to expedite the reclassification of currently-incarcerated women using the new classification module and the need to add capacity to identify women who can be safely released."

Friday, April 29 2011:

  • Characteristics Of Suspected Human Trafficking Incidents, 2008-2010 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2011. "About 8 in 10 of the suspected incidents of human trafficking were classified as sex trafficking, and about 1 in 10 incidents were classified as labor trafficking."
  • Misplaced Priorities Over Incarcerate, Under Educate, [PDF] NAACP. April, 2011. "During the last two decades, as the criminal justice system came to assume a larger proportion of state discretionary dollars, state spending on prisons grew at six times the rate of state spending on higher education."

Tuesday, April 12 2011:

  • America's Problem-Solving Courts The Criminal Costs of Treatment and the Case for Reform, [PDF] National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. September, 2009. "Conditioning treatment on an arrest and entry in the criminal justice system sends a perverse message to the person and is an enormous waste of scarce public and court resources."
  • The Consequences of Dropping Out of High School Joblessness and Jailing for High School Dropouts and the High Cost for Taxpayers, [PDF] Center for Labor Market Studies, Northeastern University. October, 2009. "Nearly 1 of every 10 young male high school dropouts was institutionalized on a given day in 2006-2007 versus fewer than 1 of 33 high school graduates."
  • Prisoner Petitions in the Federal Courts, 1980-96 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 1997. "Between 1980 and 1996, the number of prisoner petitions appealed increased from 3,675 to 17,002."
  • Michigan Breaks the Political Logjam A New Model for Reducing Prison Populations, [PDF] ACLU. November, 2009. "[Michigan's] new policies are designed to provide offenders with individualized programing in prison, and re-entry services upon release, that are most likely to assure success on parole, based on evidence of what works to reduce crime and save money."
  • Release from Prison A High Risk of Death for Former Inmates, [PDF] New England Journal of Medicine. January, 2007. "The mortality rate among former inmates was 3.5 times (95% CI, 3.2 to 3.8) that among state residents of the same age, sex, and race. The attributable-risk percentage was 71%, amounting to 316 excess deaths."
  • HIV/AIDS among Inmates of & Releasees from US Correctional Facilities 2006 Declining Share of Epidemic but Persistent Public Health Opportunity, [PDF] PLoS One. November, 2009. ". Although the proportional share of HIV/AIDS borne by those passing through CFs has declined since 1997, the total number of HIV infected persons who are in this flow has remained steady at roughly 150,000 individuals."
  • Mothers, Infants and Imprisonment A National Look at Prison Nurseries and Community-Based Alternatives, [PDF] Women's Prison Association. May, 2009. "Though every state has seen a dramatic rise in its women's prison population over the past three decades, only nine states have prison nursery programs in operation or under development."

Tuesday, March 22 2011:

Friday, March 4 2011:

  • Captive Constituents Prison-Based Gerrymandering and the Distortion of Our Democracy, [PDF] NAACP. July, 2010. "Prison-based gerrymandering uses people's bodies to count against their interests."

Tuesday, March 1 2011:

  • The State of Sentencing 2010 Developments in Policy and Practice, [PDF] Sentencing Project. February, 2011. "During 2010, state legislatures in at least 23 states and the District of Columbia adopted 35 [...] policies that may contribute to reductions in the prison population and eliminate barriers to reentry while promoting effective approaches to public safety"

Friday, February 18 2011:

  • Fact Sheet on President Obama's FY2012 Budge Doing the Same Thing and Expecting Different Results, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. February, 2011. "[The] continued funding pattern will likely result in increased costs to states for incarceration that will outweigh the increased federal revenue for local law enforcement, with marginal public safety benefits."

Friday, February 11 2011:

  • Comparing Homicides to Capital Cases East Baton Rouge Parish, 1990-2008, [PDF] Timothy Lyman. November, 2010. ([T]here is a less than one-in-ten-thousand chance that the prosecuted cases were a racially random sample drawn from the homicide group.)
  • Separate but Unequal The Federal Criminal Justice System in Indian County, [PDF] University of Colorado Law Review. December, 2010. "The "separate but unequal" federal criminal justice system systematically discriminates against Native American crime victims and offenders alike. There is a constitutional imperative to end the federal government's role in Indian country [...]."
  • The Racial Geography of the Federal Death Penalty [PDF] Washington Law Review Association. December, 2010. "Federal death sentences are sought disproportionately where the expansion of the venire from the county to the district level has a dramatic demographic impact on the racial make-up of the jury."
  • Illinois Disproportionate Justice Impact Study Commission Final Report, [PDF] Illinois Disproportionate Justice Impact Study Commission. December, 2010. "Statewide, among defendants with a Class 4 possession charge, African-Americans were sentenced to prison at a rate almost five times greater than whites: 19 percent of African-American defendants compared with 4 percent of white defendants."
  • Immigration Detention and the Law U.S. Policy and Legal Framework, Global Detention Project. August, 2010. "The major factor driving the overall increase has been the sharp rise in individuals prosecuted for immigration offenses. Last year immigration prosecutions jumped 15.7 percent—from 79,431 during FY 2008 to 91,899 in FY 2009."
  • Smart on Crime Recommendations for the Administration and Congress, [PDF] The Smart on Crime Coalition. February, 2011. "Smart on Crime seeks to provide federal policymakers in both Congress and the Administration a comprehensive, systematic analysis of the current challenges facing state and federal criminal justice systems and recommendations to address those challenges."
  • The Intersectionality of Race, Gender, and Reentry Challenges for African-American Women, [PDF] American Constitution Society for Law and Policy. November, 2010. "African-American women offenders face collateral attacks on their motherhood, on their ability to secure housing and employment, and on their ability to reintegrate. Reentry programs must have a race and gender focus that confronts intersectionality."

Tuesday, February 8 2011:

  • Foreign Nationals in Michigan Prisons an examination of the costs, [PDF] Citizens Alliance on Prisons and Public Spending. April, 2006. "The Governor should appoint an independent panel to review all alien prisoners, making recommendations for commutation and culling those who are eligible for removal before serving their entire sentence. The Governor should then request their removal."
  • Denying parole at first eligibility How much public safety does it actually buy?, [PDF] Citizens Alliance on Prisons and Public Spending. August, 2009. "Substantially increasing the rate of parole on the earliest release date would reduce the prisoner population without threatening public safety."

Friday, January 28 2011:

  • When More is Less How a Larger Women's Jail in Baltimore will Reduce Public Safety and Diminish Resources for Positive Social Investments, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. January, 2011. "Given that research indicates that increased incarceration does not equal less crime—it actually is the opposite — the negative public safety, economic and community impacts of the planned expansion are not justifiable."

Friday, December 10 2010:

  • Political Consequences of the Carceral State [PDF] Vesla M. Weaver, Amy E. Lerman. September, 2010. "Encounters with criminal justice institutions can negatively affect perceptions of government, rates of political participation and engagement in civic life."
  • Collateral Costs Incarceration's Effect on Economic Mobility, [PDF] Pew Charitable Trust, Economic Mobility Project. September, 2010. "Serving time reduces hourly wages for men by approximately 11 percent, annual employment by 9 weeks and annual earnings by 40 percent."
  • No Better Off An Update on Swanson Center for Youth, [PDF] Juvenile Justice Project of Louisiana. November, 2010. "Lack or programming in the facility and on overreliance on lockdown result in youth's being "warehoused" at Swanson, rather than developing meaningful skills that would allow for successful transitions upon release."
  • The Price of Freedom Bail and Pretrial Detention of Low Income Nonfelony Defendants in New York City, [PDF] Human Rights Watch. December, 2010. "People should not have to endure jail simply because they are too poor to buy their way out, particularly when there are other ways of ensuring that such defendants make their scheduled court appearances."
  • Department of Corrections-Prison Population Growth A Report to the Arizona Legislature, [PDF] State of Arizona Office of the Auditor General. September, 2010. "The State paid more per inmate in private prisons that for equivalent services in state facilities."
  • Ex-offenders and the Labor Market [PDF] Center for Economic and Policy Research. November, 2010. "Given our estimates of the number of ex-offenders and the best outside estimates of the associated reduction in employment suffered by ex-offenders, our calculations suggest that in 2008 the U.S. economy lost the equivalent of 1.5 to 1.7 million workers."
  • In For a Penny The Rise of America's New Debtors' Prisons, [PDF] American Civil Liberties Union. October, 2010. "Incarcerating indigent defendants unable to pay their legal financial obligations often ends up costing much more than states and counties can ever hope to recover."
  • The Hidden Costs of Criminal Justice Debt [PDF] Brennan Center for Justice. October, 2010. "Although"
  • The Continuing Fiscal Crisis in Corrections Setting a New Course, [PDF] The Vera Institute of Justice. October, 2010. "Officials are recognizing—in large part due to 30 years of trial and error, backed up by data—that it is possible to reduce corrections spending while also enhancing public safety."
  • Mothers Behind Bars State-by-state report card and analysis of federal policies on conditions of confinement for pregnant & parenting women, [PDF] The Rebecca Project for Human Rights, The National Women's Law Center. October, 2010. "38 states received failing grades for their failure to institute adequate policies, or any policies at all, requiring that incarcerated pregnant women receive adequate prenatal care, despite the fact that many women in prison have higher-risk pregnancies."

Thursday, December 2 2010:

  • California Sentencing Institute Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. November, 2010. "comprehensive analysis of sentencing policies and practices in all of California's 58 counties." (Contains detailed county-level statistics)

Friday, November 12 2010:

  • Importing Constituents Incarcerated People and Political Clout in Maryland, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2010. "In Somerset County, a large prison is 64% of the 1st Commission District, giving each resident in that district 2.7 times as much influence as residents in other districts."
  • Fixing prison-based gerrymandering after the 2010 Census A 50 state guide, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2010. "[A State-by-state] summary of how the prison miscount harms state and local democracy, how each state defines residence for incarcerated people, and the status of reform efforts."
  • Importing Constituents Prisoners and Political Clout in Connecticut, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2010. "In seven Connecticut's house districts more than 5% of the population is actually disenfranchised people who are legal residents of other parts of the state."
  • Importing Constituents Prisoners and Political Clout in California, Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2010. "There are 12 California counties where a large percentage of their "residents" are actually people incarcerated at prisons that happen to be located in the county."

Friday, October 22 2010:

  • Expanding the Vote: State Felony Disenfranchisement Reform, 1997-2010, [PDF] Sentencing Project. October, 2010. "Since 1997, 23 states have amended felony disenfranchisement policies in an effort to reduce their restrictiveness and expand voter eligibility."
  • State Recidivism Studies [PDF] Sentencing Project. June, 2010. "This database provides references for 99 recidivism studies conducted between 1995-2009 in all 50 states and the District of Columbia."

Tuesday, June 15 2010:

Tuesday, May 18 2010:

Tuesday, April 6 2010:

Sunday, April 4 2010:

Wednesday, February 10 2010:

  • Importing Constituents: Prisoners and Political Clout in Illinois, Prison Policy Initiative. February, 2010. "Illinois' reliance on flawed Census data is responsible for a large shift in political clout from the Chicago area to downstate regions and a significant distortion of power within counties that contain prisons."

Thursday, February 4 2010:

  • Bearing Witness Baltimore City's Residents Give Voice to What's Needed to Fix the Criminal Justice System, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. April, 2009. (Bearing Witness captures the perspectives of the people of Baltimore City impacted by the criminal justice system and their suggestions for alternatives to addressing social problems.)
  • Fact Sheet Response to 2008 FBI Uniform Crime Report, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. September, 2009. (The 2008 FBI Uniform Crime Report shows that during 2008, at a time in which prison and jail growth rates dropped, the United States experienced a 1.9 percent decline in violent crimes and a 0.8 percent decline in property crimes reported.)
  • Recommendations to the UN Forum on Minority Issues Human Rights Council [PDF] Sentencing Project. November, 2009. "The felony disenfranchisement laws, policies and practices of the United States deny the right to vote to a large segment of its minority population in a manner inconsistent with the general principles of international human rights law."
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2008 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2009. "The report includes data on the number of adults and juveniles held, type of offense, number of persons confined on the last weekday of each month, average daily population, peak population, and admissions in June 2008."
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2009. "The report examines… changes in the probation and parole populations, such as the number of entries and exits, the rate at which probationers and parolees exit supervision, changes in the populations within jurisdictions, and compositional changes."
  • Prisoners in 2008 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2009. "These are the only comprehensive national-level data on prison admissions and releases."
  • Integration Debate Two Tiered Justice, [PDF] Marc Mauer, Sentencing Project. January, 2010. "[I]n the most profound betrayal of the promise of integration and opportunity, the United States has created a world-record prison population, fueled by policies that have exposed substantial portions of African Americans to the.. criminal justice system."
  • Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System [PDF] Sentencing Project. October, 2009. ([An] overview of the factors that contribute to racial disparity in the justice system, and recommend[ed] changes in policy and practice that could reduce these disparities without compromising public safety.)
  • Fact Sheet DOJ Report on Prisoners 2008, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. December, 2009. (The report shows that although the growth in imprisonment is down, the number of people in prison is still increasing, up more than 12,000 people from last year. This number continues to grow even as crime goes down.)
  • Pruning Prisons How Cutting Corrections Can Save Money and Protect Public Safety, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. May, 2009. (The United States spends spend billions to incarcerate people in prisons and jails with little impact on public safety, but redirecting funds to community-based alternatives will decrease prison populations, save money, and preserve public safety.)
  • Fact Sheet on FY2010 Department of Justice Budget [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. May, 2009. (The Factsheet on 2010 Department of Justice Budget finds that the 2010 DOJ budget directs more money to law enforcement than prevention with the likely long-term outcome being increased arrests, incarceration, and money spent on corrections.)
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2009 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2009. "This annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It... provides the most current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools and school environments and responses to violence and crime."
  • Sexual Victimization in Juvenile Facilities Reported by Youth, 2008-09 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. January, 2010. "The report provides national-level and facility-level estimates of sexual victimization by type of activity, including youth-on-youth sexual contact, staff sexual misconduct, and level of coercion."
  • Back on Track Supporting Youth Reentry from Out-of-Home Placement to the Community, [PDF] Sentencing Project. November, 2009. "Presents promising practices and recommendations for federal leadership on youth reentry."
  • The Costs of Confinement Why Good Juvenile Justice Policies Make Good Fiscal Sense, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. May, 2009. (Cost of Confinement shows that states spend billions to imprison youth in secure facilities, but could save money, preserve public safety, and improve life outcomes for individual youth by redirecting the money to community-based alternatives.)
  • HIV in Prisons, 2007-08 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2009. "Findings include the number of AIDS-related deaths in state and federal prisons, a profile of those inmates who died in state prison, and a comparison of AIDS rates between prison inmates and the general population."

Thursday, December 3 2009:

  • Locked Up Far Away: The Transfer of Immigrants to Remote Detention Centers in the United States, [PDF] Human Rights Watch. December, 2009.

Friday, November 20 2009:

Thursday, November 19 2009:

  • World Prison Population List (Eighth Edition), [PDF] Roy Walmsley, International Centre for Prison Studies, King's College London. February, 2007. "Over 9.8 million people are incarcerated, with over 30% held in the Unites States."

Thursday, November 5 2009:

  • Do More Prisoners Equal Less Crime? A Response to George Will Sentencing Project. June, 2008. "Will's selective use of data and limited vision provide an inaccurate portrayal of current criminal justice policy and its effects. [This piece] is an assessment of some of the key arguments raised in the column."
  • One in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections, [PDF] The Pew Center on the States. March, 2009. "For eight geographically diverse states [...] 88% of the increase in corrections spending was directed towards prisons, which now consume nearly nine out of every ten state corrections dollars."
  • African Americas, Health Disparities, and HIV/AIDS Recommendations for Confronting the Epidemic in Black America, [PDF] National Minority AIDS Council. December, 2006. "The U.S. Department of Justice found that in 2003 the AIDS rate among U.S. prisoners was three times that of the general population."
  • Minor Crimes, Major Waste: The Terrible Toll of America's Broken Misdemeanor Courts, [PDF] National Association of Criminal defense Lawyers. April, 2009. "...literally millions of accused misdemeanants, particularly those unable to hire private counsel, and disproportionately people of color, routinely are denied the due process to which the Constitution entitles them."

Thursday, October 29 2009:

  • Reaching too far, coming up short: How large sentencing enhancement zones miss the mark, Prison Policy Initiative. January, 2009. "Massachusetts cannot afford to preserve a law that fails to protect children while draining the state coffers and incarcerating Latinos and Blacks at a rate 26 to 30 times as frequently as Whites."
  • Importing Constituents: Prisoners and Political Clout in Massachusetts, Prison Policy Initiative. October, 2009. "Five of Massachusetts' House districts meet federal minimal population requirements only because the state treats prisoners as residents of the district with the prison."
  • Importing Constituents: Prisoners and Political Clout in Oklahoma, Prison Policy Initiative. September, 2009. ([B]y relying on Census Bureau counts of prison populations to pad out legislative districts with prisons, Oklahoma is inflating the votes of residents who live near prisons at the expense of every other resident in the state.)
  • Phantom Constituents in Maine's Regional School Unit 13: How the Census Bureau's outdated method of counting prisoners harms democracy, Prison Policy Initiative. January, 2009. "The designers of the school board's weighted voting system have given every group of 10 residents of Thomaston the same power over school district decisions as each group of 11 residents in the other towns."
  • Growth in Michigan's Corrections System: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, [PDF] Citizen's Research Counsel of Michigan. June, 2008. "Michigan's prison population growth is the product of a combination of several different factors including: increases in felony dispositions, swelling prison commitments, higher recidivism rates, and an increased average prisoner length of stay."

Thursday, October 22 2009:

  • Moving Target A Decade of Resistance to the Prison Industrial Complex, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. September, 2009. "All modern day struggles for justice are implicated in criminal justice reform efforts because the current system magnifies all the ways in which the United States of America fails many of the people who live within its borders."
  • A Report on the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions in Maryland [PDF] University of Maryland School of Law. 2009. "Despite the lasting and sometimes permanent effects that collateral consequences impose upon ex-offenders and their families, no formal mechanism exists for defendants in Maryland, or any other state, to be informed of these consequences."
  • Female Victims of Violence [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2009. "The rate of intimate partner violence against females declined 53% between 1993 and 2008, from 9.4 victimizations per 1,000 females age 12 or older to 4.3 per 1,000. Against males, the rate declined 54%."
  • Crime Against People with Disabilities, 2007 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2009. "Age-adjusted rate of nonfatal violent crime against persons with disabilities was 1.5 times higher than the rate for persons without disabilities."
  • Profile of Intimate Partner Violence Cases in Large Urban Counties [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2009. (Most cases of intimate partner violence involved a charge of assault, either aggravated (12%) or simple (78%); an additional 5% were charged with intimidation, including stalking.)
  • Incarcerated Parents and their Children Trends 1991-2007, [PDF] Sentencing Project. February, 2009. "In 2007, 1.7 million minor children had a parent in prison, an 82% increase since 1991."
  • Report Submitted to Inter-American Commission on Human Rights [PDF] Sentencing Project. September, 2009. "In the United States, nearly two million African Americans – or 8.25 percent of the African American population – are disenfranchised, a rate three times the national average."
  • The Modern-Day Poll Tax How Economic Sanctions Block Access to the Polls, [PDF] Sentencing Project. May, 2007. "Low-income individuals face felon voting bans when they are required to pay all the legal financial obligations associated with a conviction before regaining the right to vote, resulting in the de facto disenfranchisement of countless individuals."
  • Challenges to Felony Disenfranchisement Laws Past, Present, and Future, [PDF] Alabama Law Review. May, 2007. "[T]he best way to achieve the goal of abolition is to generate press and harness public outrage to bring about legislative change."
  • Barriers to Democracy A Petition to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights for a Thematic Hearing on Felony Disenfranchisement Practice, [PDF] Sentencing Project. May, 2007. "The time is long overdue for the United States to follow the lead of its hemispheric neighbors and the broader international community, uphold treaties to which the United States is obligated, and take steps toward universal suffrage by reforming its crim"
  • Felon Disenfranchisement in Alaska and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 [PDF] Alaska Law Review. December, 2006. "[A] case brought in Alaska [...] may well invalidate the state's practice of disenfranchising felons on the basis of its racially disproportionate impact."
  • The Release Valve: Parole in Maryland, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. March, 2009. "[I]n 2007 [Maryland] spent approximately $1,422 per person on parole or probation, and $33,310 per person incarcerated."
  • Jailing Communities The Impact of Jail Expansion and Effective Public Safety Strategies, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. April, 2009. "In 2006, prison population growth was half what it was in 1996, but in recent years, jail population growth has exceeded that of prisons."
  • Judging Maryland Baltimore Judges on Effective Solutions to Working with Substance Abusers in the Criminal Justice System, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. March, 2009. "Judges recommend an increase in or expansion of residential care facilities and a more holistic approach to helping substance abusers caught up in the criminal justice system."
  • Registering Harm How Sex Offense Registries Fail Youth Communities, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. November, 2008. "Continued investments in registries put our families in danger with short-sighted policies that alienate people who are trying to safely re-enter the community." (See also the Wash Act Briefing Book here: http://www.justicepolicy.org/content-hmID=1811&smID=1581&ssmID=80.htm)
  • Contract Bench and Jury Trials in State Courts, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2009. "Contract trials in 2005 most commonly involved an individual suing a business (33%), followed by a business suing another business (25%)."

Thursday, October 8 2009:

  • Until They Die A Natural Death Youth Sentenced to Life Without Parole in Massachusetts, [PDF] Children's Law Center of Massachusetts. September, 2009. "Massachusetts [...] stands apart in giving the adult court exclusive jurisdiction over murder cases against children as young as 14 and then imposing a mandatory life without parole sentence for all first degree murder convictions."

Friday, October 2 2009:

Thursday, October 1 2009:

  • Interstate Transfer of Prison Inmates in the United States [PDF] National Institute of Corrections. February, 2006. "2,089 state-sentenced inmates were transferred between state prison systems, 345 transferred to the Federal Bureau of Prisons, and 2,466 transferred to privately operated prisons located outside the sending state as of July 1 2005."

Thursday, September 24 2009:

  • Criminal Victimization, 2008 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2009. "The violent crime rate declined by 41% and the property crime rate fell by 32% over the 10-year period."
  • PREA Data Collection Activities, 2009 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2009. "The National Inmate Survey (NIS) gathers data directly from inmates on the incidence of sexual assault in correctional facilities."
  • Expanding the Vote State Felony Disenfranchisement Reform, 1997-2008, [PDF] Sentencing Project. September, 2009. "A reform movement across the United States over the past eleven years has resulted in more than 760,000 citizens having regained their right to vote."
  • Smart on Crime Recommendations for the Next Administration and Congress, [PDF] 2009 Criminal Justice Transition Coalition. November, 2008. "The 2009 Criminal Justice Transition Coalition's collaborative report identifying critical needs for federal policy reform for President-elect Barack Obama's agenda."
  • Criminal Justice Primer 2009 [PDF] Sentencing Project. February, 2009. "An overview of nine policy priorities in criminal and juvenile justice reform that address issues of reentry, sentencing, racial disparity and crime prevention."
  • No Exit: The Expanding Use of Life Sentences in America Sentencing Project. July, 2009. "A record 140,610 individuals are now serving life sentences in state and federal prisons, 6,807 of whom were juveniles at the time of the crime."
  • The Changing Racial Dynamics of the War on Drugs [PDF] Sentencing Project. April, 2009. "Reports a sharp decline in black incarceration for drug offenses for the first time in 25 years."
  • A Call to Action for Juvenile Justice [PDF] American Bar Association. October, 2008. "Juvenile justice advocates' transition document offers suggestions to the new admininstration."
  • Aviation Units in Large Law Enforcement Agencies, 2007 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2009. "In 2007, 92% of aviation units engaged in vehicle pursuits. Almost 90% of units performed counternarcotics missions, and about 80% conducted counterterrorism missions. Nearly 70% of units engaged in firefighting activities"
  • The State of Sentencing 2008 Developments in Policy and Practice, [PDF] Sentencing Project. February, 2009. "A nationwide budget crisis coupled with widespread prison overcrowding has led many states to address critical challenges in the areas such as sentencing, drug policy, parole revocation, racial justice, disenfranchisement, juvenile justice, and education."

Sunday, May 10 2009:

  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Victims of Crime [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2009. "From 2002 through 2006, the average annual rate of nonfatal violent victimization against Asians was about 11 violent victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older, compared to 24 per 1,000 persons for non-Asians."
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2008 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2009. "During the 2005–06 school year, 86 percent of public schools reported that at least one violent crime, theft, or other crime occurred at their school."
  • Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2008. "The 3,247 businesses that incurred monetary loss from cybercrime lost a total of $867 million"
  • Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2006 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2008.
  • The Rockefeller Drug Laws: Unjust, Irrational, Ineffective, [PDF] New York Civil Liberties Union. March, 2009. "New York's mandatory-minimum drug sentencing scheme has [...] not reduced the availability of drugs or deterred their use; it has not made us safer." (This report documents the harms of mandatory-sentencing drug laws, focusing on their ineffectiveness and racial and fiscal impact. This report suggests a that rehabilitative approach to drug policy would be more sucessful.)
  • Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. August, 2008. "Parents held in the nation's prisons—52% of state inmates and 63% of federal inmates—reported having an estimated 1,706,600 minor children, accounting for 2.3% of the U.S. resident population under age 18."
  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2008. "In 2005, immigration (27%) was the most prevalent arrest offense followed by drug (24%) and supervision violations (17%)."
  • State and Local Law Enforcement Training Academies, 2006 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. February, 2009. "Of an estimated 57,000 recruits who entered basic training programs during 2005, 86% or 49,000, successfully completed their program and graduated from the academy."
  • Characteristics of State Parole Supervising Agencies, 2006 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. March, 2009. "Up to 16% of at-risk parolees in some agencies were re-incarcerated for a failed drug test."

Friday, April 24 2009:

  • Criminal Victimization, 2007 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2008. "Violent crime rates in 2007 (20.7 per 1,000 persons age 12 or older) were not significantly different from those in 2005 (21.1 per 1,000 persons)."
  • Stalking Victimization in the United States [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. January, 2009. "About half (46%) of stalking victims experienced at least one unwanted contact per week, and 11% of victims said they had been stalked for 5 years or more."
  • Characteristics of Suspected Human Trafficking Incidents, 2007-08 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. January, 2009. "Most (83%) of the reported incidents involved allegations of sex trafficking. Labor trafficking accounted for 12% of incidents, and other or unknown forms of human trafficking made up 5%."
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2007 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2008. "Eighty-three jails in Indian country held an estimated 2,163 inmates at midyear 2007, up from 1,745 inmates held in 68 facilities at midyear 2004."
  • Prisoners in 2007 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2008. "At yearend 2007, federal and state prisons and local jails held just under 2.3 million inmates (2,293,157). The number of inmates incarcerated in prison or jail increased by 1.5% during the year."

Friday, April 17 2009:

  • Drug Courts: A Review of the Evidence, [PDF] Sentencing Project. April, 2009. "An analysis of research findings from 76 drug courts found a 10% reduction in rearrest."
  • Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2008. "The number of prisoners held in custody in state and federal correctional facilities increased 10% from 1,305,253 in 2000 to 1,430,208 in 2005."
  • Civil Bench and Jury Trials in State Courts, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2008. "The total number of civil trials declined by over 50% from 1992 to 2005 in the nation's 75 most populous counties."

Friday, January 2 2009:

  • The Massachusetts Furlough Program: Position Paper, [PDF] Massachusetts Department of Corrections. May, 1987.
  • The Effect of Community Reintegration on Rates of Recidivism: A Statistical Overview of Data for the Years 1971 Through 1985, [PDF] Massachusetts Department of Corrections. July, 1988. "individuals who had experienced a furlough prior to release from prison had significantly lower rates of recidivism than did individuals who had not experienced a furlough prior to release."

Wednesday, November 5 2008:

Friday, August 8 2008:

  • The Geography of Punishment: How Huge Sentencing Enhancement Zones Harm Communities, Fail to Protect Children, Prison Policy Initiative. July, 2008. "Our analysis found that less than a third (29%) of White Hampden County residents live in enhancement zones, but that more than half (52%) of Black and Latino residents live in school zones." (Finds zone law fails to move drug crimes away from schools while increasing racial disparities in sentencing.)
  • Sexual Violence Reported by Juvenile Correctional Authorities, 2005-06 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2008. "Sexual misconduct involving staff-on-youth accounted for 28 percent of all substantiated incidents, while staff sexual harassment of youth accounted for 8 percent." (Males were more likely to be victims of youth-on-youth sexual violence (73%) than victims of staff sexual violence (49%). Females were more likely to be victims of staff sexual violence (51%) than victims of youth-on-youth sexual violence (27%).)
  • Sexual Victimization in Local Jails Reported by Inmates, 2007 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2008. "An estimated 5.1% of female inmates, compared to 2.9% of male inmates, said they had experienced one or more incidents of sexual victimization."

Thursday, June 12 2008:

  • Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties, 2004 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2008. "More than three-fourths of felony defendants had a prior arrest history, with 53% having at least five prior arrest charges."
  • Disparity By Geography: The War on Drugs in America's Cities, The Sentencing Project. May, 2008. "Documents the growth in drug arrests at the city-level between 1980 and 2003 and the role of the "war on drugs" in expanding racial disparity in the criminal justice system."
  • Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2008. "The total rated capacity of local jails at midyear 2007 reached 813,502 beds, up from an estimated 677,787 beds at midyear 2000."
  • Prison Inmates at Midyear 2007 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2008. "Between January and June 2007, the prison population increased by 1.6% (or 24,919 prisoners), compared to a 2% increase during the first six months of 2006."
  • Kids Count 2008 Data Book, [PDF] The Annie E. Casey Foundation. June, 2008. "[In 2006] the ratio of rates of youth of color to white youth in custody was 3:1; and two out of three (66 percent) of all youth in custody were there due to a non-violent offense."
  • Medical Problems of Prisoners [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2008. "An estimated 44% of state inmates and 39% of federal inmates reported a current medical problem other than a cold or virus."
  • HIV in Prisons, 2006 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2008. "The overall rate of estimated confirmed AIDS among the prison population (0.46%) was more than 2½ times the rate in the U.S. general population (0.17%)."

Sunday, March 23 2008:

  • Report to U.S. Committee for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination that U.S. Census practices dilute votes of minority populations, Demos and Prison Policy Initiative. December, 2007. (A report to the Committee for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination in Geneva on racially discriminatory redistricting practices violating Article 5 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.)
  • Phantom Constituents in Tennessee's Boards of County Commissioners Prison Policy Initiative; Peter Wagner and JooHye DellaRocco. February, 2008. "[This report] identifies 10 Tennessee counties in which the use of flawed Census data to draw county commissioner districts has created substantial inequities in political power within the counties."

Thursday, February 28 2008:

  • One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008, [PDF] The Pew Center on the States. February, 2008. "[F]or the first time in history, more than one in every 100 adults in America are in jail or prison-a fact that significantly impacts state budgets without delivering a clear return on public safety."
  • Campus Law Enforcement, 2004-05 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. February, 2008. "Three-quarters of campus law enforcement agencies used sworn officers with full arrest powers."

Wednesday, February 27 2008:

  • Crime, Corrections, and California: What Does Immigration Have to Do with It?, Public Policy Institute of California. February, 2008. "Immigrants are far less likely than the average U.S. native to commit crime in California.... Such findings suggest that longstanding fears of immigration as a threat to public safety are unjustified."

Tuesday, February 26 2008:

Sunday, February 17 2008:

  • How Crime in the United States Is Measured [PDF] Congressional Research Service. January, 2008. (An overview of crime data collection programs "used by Congress to inform policy decisions and allocate federal criminal justice funding to states.")
  • The Death Penalty in 2007: Year End Report, [PDF] Death Penalty Information Center. December, 2007. "Almost all (86%) of the executions in 2007 were in the South, and 62% of the executions took place in one state, Texas. Executions have declined 57% since 1999."
  • The State of Sentencing 2007: Developments in Policy and Practice, The Sentencing Project. January, 2008. "Confronted with the high cost of continued prison growth, policymakers in 18 states took steps during 2007 to review the effectiveness of their criminal justice systems or institute reforms to limit recidivism and sentence lengths..."
  • State Court Processing of Domestic Violence Cases [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. February, 2008. "Prosecuted domestic sexual assault defendants had a higher overall conviction rate (98%) than prosecuted non-domestic sexual assault defendants (87%)."

Monday, December 31 2007:

  • Race and Incarceration in Delaware: A Preliminary Consideration, [PDF] Thomas P. Eichler, Published by Delaware Center for Justice and Metropolitan Wilmington Urban League. 2005. "Delaware's criminal justice system treats Blacks differently and far less favorably than similarly situated Whites. The data shows that the racial disparities in the criminal justice system are increasing."

Sunday, December 30 2007:

  • Criminal Victimization, 2006 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2007. "Males experienced higher levels of victimization than females. The rate of violent victimization for males was 26 violent victimizations per 1,000 males age 12 or older. Females experienced 23 violent victimizations per 1,000 females age 12 or older."
  • Federal Prosecution of Child Sex Exploitation Offenders, 2006 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2007. "The main sex exploitation offense referred to U.S. attorneys shifted from sex abuse (73%) in 1994 to child pornography (69%) in 2006."
  • The Death Penalty in 2007: Year End Report, Death Penalty Information Center. December, 2007. "Almost all (86%) of the executions in 2007 were in the South, and 62% of the executions took place in one state, Texas. Executions have declined 57% since 1999."
  • The Vortex: The Concentrated Racial Impact of Drug Imprisonment and the Characteristics of Punitive Counties, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. December, 2007. "The report documents racial disparities in the use of prison for drug offenses in 193 of the 198 counties that reported to government entities."
  • Prisoners in 2006 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2007. "During 2006 the number of women in prison increased by 4.5%, reaching 112,498 prisoners."
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2007 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2007. "In 2005, 10 percent of male students in grades 9–12 reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property in the past year, compared to 6 percent of female students."
  • Sexual Victimization in State and Federal Prisons Reported by Inmates, 2007 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2007. "Nationwide, about 2.1% of inmates reported an incident involving another inmate and 2.9% reported an incident involving staff."
  • Expert Report by Dr. Noel on Medical Care at Ely State Prison American Civil Liberties Union. December, 2007. "[T]he medical care provided at Ely State Prison amounts to the grossest possible medical malpractice, and the most shocking and callous disregard for human life and human suffering, that I have ever encountered in the medical profession..."
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2006 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2007. "The number of adult men and women in the United States who were being supervised on probation or parole at the end of 2006 reached 5,035,225. In 2006 the combined probation and parole populations grew by 1.8% or 87,852 persons."

Saturday, December 1 2007:

  • I'd rather be Hanged for a Sheep than a Lamb The Unintended Consequences of 'Three-Strikes' Laws, [PDF] Radha Iyengar, Harvard University. October, 2007. "Among third-strike eligible offenders, the probability of committing violent crimes increased by 9 percentage points."
  • Justice, Where Art Thou? A Framework for the Future, Council on Crime and Justice. October, 2007. (This report analysies past and current incarceration trends in Minnesotra and makes projection through the year 2030.)
  • Housing and Public Safety Justice Policy Institute. November, 2007. "For populations who are the most at-risk for criminal justice system involvement, supportive or affordable housing has been shown to be a cost effective public investment."
  • Unlocking America: Why and How to Reduce America's Prison Population, [PDF] JFA Institute. November, 2007. "Not only are our lengths of imprisonment significantly longer than they were in earlier periods in our penal history, but they are considerably longer than in most Western nations."
  • America's Cradle to Prison Pipeline [PDF] Children's Defense Fund. October, 2007. "A Black boy born in 2001 has a 1 in 3 chance of going to prison in his lifetime; a Latino boy a 1 in 6 chance; and a White boy a 1 in 17 chance."
  • Cruel and Unusual: Sentencing 13- and 14-Year-Old Children to Die in Prison, [PDF] Equal Justice Initiative. November, 2007. "In many states, 13- and 14-year-olds are subjected to the harshest possible prison sentence... In most of these cases, the judges who imposed death in prison sentences on young children had no other legal option."
  • Real Impacts: The actual results of Rhode Island's new policy that charges 17-year-olds as adults, [PDF] Rhode Island Family Life Center. October, 2007. "[A]lthough it was not an explicit intention of the bill, one of the most important outcomes is that these juveniles will now have adult records, seriously limiting them as they become adults."
  • Juvenile Court Statistics 2003-2004 National Center for Juvenile Justice. March, 2007. "This Report describes delinquency cases handled between 1985 and 2004 by U.S. courts with juvenile jurisdiction and status offense cases handled between 1995 and 2004."
  • Jailing Juveniles: The Dangers of Incarcerating Youth in Adult Jails in America, [PDF] Campaign for Youth Justice. November, 2007. "The report "Jailing Juveniles" shows how difficult is it to keep children safe in adult jails. In fact, youth have the highest suicide rates of all inmates in jails... Youth in adult jails are also at great risk of physical and sexual assault."
  • Corrections Department: Review of Facility Planning Efforts and Oversight of Private Prisons and Health Programs, [PDF] Legislative Finance Committee (New Mexico). May, 2007. "Nationally, New Mexico places the highest percentage, about 42-44 percent, of inmates in private prisons. The national average is 6.5 percent."
  • An Analysis of the Performance of Federal Indigent Defense Counsel [PDF] National Bureau of Economic Research. June, 2007. "The federal indigent defense system relies on both salaried government workers... and hourly-wage earning court-appointed private [CJA] attorneys.... Defendants with CJA ... attorneys are... more likely to be found guilty and... receive longer sentences."

Friday, November 30 2007:

  • State Funding for Corrections in FY 2006 and FY 2007 [PDF] National Conference of State Legislatures. May, 2007. "Nationally, FY 2006 general fund corrections spending grew 10 percent above FY 2005 levels."
  • Repaying Debts [PDF] Justice Center. October, 2007. "Financial pressures and paycheck garnishment resulting from unpaid debt can increase participation in the underground economy and discourage legitimate employment."

Monday, November 26 2007:

  • Identity Theft, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2007. "Ten percent of the households with incomes of $75,000 or higher experienced identity theft; that was about twice the percentage of households earning less than $50,000."
  • Arrest-Related Deaths in the United States, 2003-2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2007. "Three-quarters of the law enforcement homicides reported to DCRP involved arrests for a violent crime. Public-order offenders accounted for 8% of homicides, followed by property (4%) and drug offenders (2%)."
  • Pretrial Release of Felony Defendants in State Courts [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2007. "Presents findings on the pretrial release phase of the criminal justice process using data collected from a representative sample of felony cases filed in the 75 largest U.S. counties in May during even-numbered years from 1990 to 2004." ("About 3 in 5 felony defendants in the 75 largest counties were released prior to the disposition of their case.")
  • No Easy Answers: Sex Offender Laws in the US [PDF] Human Rights Watch. September, 2007. "The evidence is overwhelming, as detailed in this report, that these laws cause great harm to the people subject to them. On the other hand, proponents of these laws are not able to point to convincing evidence of public safety gains from them."
  • State Court Organization, 1987-2004 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2007. "The report examines changes in the organization and operations of the Nation's state trial and appellate courts [from 1987-2004]."

Monday, October 1 2007:

  • HIV in Prisons, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2007. "There were 22,480 state and federal inmates who were HIV infected or had confirmed AIDS on Dec. 31, 2005, which was a decrease from 22,936 at the end of 2004... [t]he 2005 decline was the sixth consecutive year the number has fallen."

Thursday, September 27 2007:

  • Death Penalty Sentencing: Research Indicates Pattern of Racial Disparities, [PDF] Government Accountability Office. February, 1990. "Our synthesis of the 28 studies shows a pattern of evidence indicating racial disparities in the charging, sentencing, and imposition of the death penalty...."
  • Washington State's Drug Courts for Adult Defendants: Outcome Evaluation and Cost-Benefit Analysis, Washington State Institute for Public Policy. March, 2003. "We found that the five adult drug courts generate $1.74 in benefits for each dollar of costs. Thus, adult drug courts appear to be cost-effective additions to Washington’s criminal justice system."
  • Criminal Justice in Massachusetts: Putting Crime Control First, [PDF] BOTEC Analysis Corporation of Cambridge. October, 1996. "Opportunities to reduce crime are systematically neglected, as policy making is dominated by the need to appease the public's justifiable fear and anger and by a wide variety of organizational and professional interests and ideological postures."
  • The Criminal Justice System in Washington State: Incarceration Rates, Taxpayer Costs, Crime Rates, and Prison Economics, Washington State Institute for Public Policy. 2007. (In Washington state increasing the rate of incarceration reduces crime rates, however because of diminishing returns, the proportional decrease in crime is much lower now than it was in the 1980's.)
  • Driving Forces Behind Prison Growth: The Mass Media, Thomas Mathiesen, Professor of Sociology of Law at the University of Oslo. February, 1996. "Today, rationality is limited to 'the secluded corners of the professional journals and meetings' while the media flood the public debate 'with dire warnings by the police and sensational crime stories.'"
  • Evidence-Based Juvenile Offender Programs: Program Description, Quality Assurance, and Cost, Washington State Institute for Public Policy. June, 2007. "Six juvenile offender programs identified by Institute as evidence-based are profiled through program descriptions, quality assurance information, and cost-benefit figures."
  • Benefits and Costs of Prevention and Early Intervention Programs for Youth Washington State Institute for Public Policy. July, 2004. "[S]ome prevention and early intervention programs for youth can give taxpayers a good return on their dollar."
  • Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising, [PDF] National Institute of Justice. July, 1998.
  • Evidence-based Treatment of Alcohol, Drug, and Mental Health Disorders: Potential Benefits, Costs, and Fiscal Impacts for Washington State, Washington State Institute for Public Policy. June, 2006. "Per dollar of treatment cost, we estimate that evidence-based treatment generates about $3.77 in benefits for people in Washington. Expressed as a return on investment, this is equivalent to roughly a 56 percent rate of return."
  • Correctional Industries Programs for Adult Offenders in Prison: Estimates of Benefits and Costs, Washington State Institute for Public Policy. January, 2005. "We find that correctional industries programs for adult offenders in prison can achieve a statistically significant reduction in recidivism rates, and that a reasonably priced program generates about $6.70 in benefits per dollar of cost."
  • Washington's Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative: An Evaluation of Benefits and Costs, [PDF] Washington State Institute for Public Policy. January, 2005. "[O]ur overall finding is that [Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative] is an effective criminal justice policy for drug offenders but neutral for drug-involved property offenders."

Thursday, September 20 2007:

  • A 25-Year Quagmire: The War on Drugs and Its Impact on American Society, Sentencing Project. September, 2007. "Four of five (81.7%) drug arrests were for possession offenses, and 42.6% were for marijuana charges in 2005." ("Drug offenders in prisons and jails have increased 1100% since 1980. Nearly a half-million (493,800) persons are in state or federal prison or local jail for a drug offense...")

Wednesday, September 19 2007:

  • Education and Public Safety Policy Brief [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. August, 2007. "Graduation rates were associated with positive public safety outcomes. Researchers have found that a 5 percent increase in male high school graduation rates would produce an annual savings of almost $5 billion in crime-related expenses."
  • Strengthening Criminal Justice System Practices in Chemung County, NY [PDF] Center for Governmental Research, Inc.. May, 2006. "[A]bout 125 defendants a year are released from jail after 45 days due to lack of timely prosecution. If the jail time for these individuals could be cut in half, almost 8 fewer persons would need to be housed in jail every night."

Tuesday, September 18 2007:

  • Black Victims of Violent Crime [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. August, 2007. "Blacks accounted for 13% of the U.S. population in 2005, but were victims in 15% of all nonfatal violent crimes and nearly half of all homicides."
  • Improving Criminal History Records in Indian Country, 2004-2006 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2007. "Describes the achievements of the Tribal Criminal History Records Improvement Program (T-CHRIP) which provides grants to federally recognized tribes to improve data sharing across tribal, state and national criminal records systems."
  • Who Survives on Death Row? An Individual and Contextual Analysis, American Civil Liberties Union. August, 2007. "The findings show that despite efforts to transcend an unfortunate racial past, residues of this fierce discrimination evidently still linger, at least when the most morally critical decision about punishment is decided."
  • Felony Sentences in State Courts, 2004 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2007. "Between 1994 and 2004, the number of felony convictions in State courts increased 24%."
  • The Whitaker Committee Report 20 Years On - Lessons Learned or Lessons Forgotten?, [PDF] Irish Penal Reform Trust. July, 2007. "It seems that it is not just the penal system, but the whole social system, that needs attention..."
  • Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities, 2006 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. August, 2007. "There were 2.91 allegations of sexual violence per 1,000 inmates held in prison, jail, and other adult correctional facilities in 2006, up from 2.46 per 1,000 inmates in 2004."
  • Parole, Desistance from Crime, and Community Integration (2007) National Research Council of the National Academies. July, 2007. "[T]he first days and weeks out of prison are the riskiest for both releasees and the general public."

Sunday, September 16 2007:

Sunday, July 22 2007:

  • Implementation of "Kendra's Law" Is Severely Biased [PDF] New York Lawyers For The Public Interest, Inc.. April, 2005. "There are major racial, ethnic, and geographic disparities throughout New York State in the implementation of "Kendra's Law" [,which allows courts to mandate outpatient treatment for some people with mental illness]."

Saturday, July 21 2007:

  • Gang Wars: The Failure of Enforcement Tactics and the Need for Effective Public Safety Strategies, Justice Policy Institute. July, 2007. (There are fewer gang members in the United States today than there were a decade ago, and there is no evidence that gang activity is growing.)

Wednesday, July 18 2007:

Tuesday, July 10 2007:

Monday, July 2 2007:

  • Veterans in State and Federal Prison, 2004 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 2007. "The percentage of veterans among State and Federal prisoners has steadily declined over the past three decades, according to national surveys of prison inmates conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics."
  • Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2007. "For the 12 months ending June 30, 2006, State systems reported a larger increase than the Federal system in the number of inmates housed in private prisons."
  • Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2004 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2006. "Although local police employment was up slightly nationwide from 2000 to 2004, 20 of the nation's 50 largest local police departments saw a decline in sworn personnel during this period, including 6 of the 7 largest."

Sunday, July 1 2007:

  • Prisoner-assisted homicide: more 'volunteer' executions loom, [PDF] Amnesty International. May, 2007. "Race and mental health appear to be the strongest predictors of who will waive their appeals - most"
  • Death Penalty on the Decline Amnesty International. 2007. "The Annual Death Penalty Statistics... show a worldwide trend towards abolition with an encouraging 25 per cent decrease in executions and death sentences in 2006." (Overview of wold trends, includes links to facts and statistics.)
  • Cocaine and Federal Sentencing Policy [PDF] United States Sentencing Commission. May, 2007. "Federal cocaine sentencing policy... continues to come under almost universal criticism... and inaction in this area is of increasing concern to many, including the Commission."
  • Task Force on California Prison Crowding [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. August, 2006. "Essential services, procedures, and structures designed to reduce recidivism, break the intergenerational cycle of violence, and save taxpayer dollars for more positive expenditures will reduc[e] crime in our communities and enhanc[e] public safety."
  • California Corrections at the Crossroads [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. March, 2005. "California was once a leader in innovative corrections legislation and programming. However... the last twenty years... have left California with a huge and dysfunctional criminal justice system in woeful need of reform."
  • US Rates of Incarceration: A Global Perspective, [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. November, 2006. "Some individual US states imprison up to six times as many people as do."
  • Attitudes of US Voters toward Youth Crime and the Justice System [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. February, 2007. "Approximately 7 in 10 feel that putting youth under age 18 in adult correctional facilities makes them more likely to commit future crime."
  • Youth Under Age 18 in the Adult Criminal Justice System [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. May, 2006. "Youth held in adult facilities are more likely to recidivate than similar offenders."
  • Hidden Challenges: Juvenile Justice and Education Issues Affecting Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Youth in Richmond, California, [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. March, 2006. "The intent of [this] report is to provide a detailed assessment of the status of Southeast Asian youth in Richmond. To this end, the report contains data from the areas of juvenile justice and education, with relevant demographic data provided for context"
  • Reforming Juvenile Justice Through Comprehensive Community Planning [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. March, 2004. "The experience [with Comprehensive Community Planning] suggests that there are productive ways in which the federal government can interact with and assist local initiatives."
  • Juvenile Justice in Florida: What Kind of Future?, [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. March, 2004. "The National Council on Crime and Delinquency (NCCD) conducted a study to determine the potential benefits to Florida of adopting a data-driven approach to juvenile corrections that is based on the best national research."
  • Stopping Sexual Assaults in Juvenile Corrections Facilities: A Case Study of the California Division of Juvenile Justice, [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. June, 2006. "Unchecked violence and sexual assault in juvenile facilities will lead to more tragedies and victims in the community." (Barry Krisberg, Ph.D.'s Testimony Before the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission)
  • Impacts of Jail Expansion in New York State: A Hidden Burden, [PDF] Center for Constitutional Rights. May, 2007. "The growth in the number of people held in jail has not been caused by an increase in crime, as index crime reports decreased by 30 percent in the last decade in upstate and suburban New York overall." (Construction of new prisons in New York poses a financial, employment and environmental burden on communities.)
  • Community Survey on Public Safety [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. June, 2006. "Forty-three percent (43.8%) of survey respondents report feeling somewhat unsafe or unsafe in their neighborhood."
  • Attitudes of Californians Toward Effective Correctional Policies [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. June, 2004. "By almost an 8 to 1 margin (63% to 8%), Californians favor using state funds to rehabilitate prisoners both during incarceration and after their release from prison as opposed to punishment only."
  • Attitudes of US Voters toward Prisoner Rehabilitation [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. April, 2006. "By strong majorities, US voters feel that a lack of life skills, the experience of being in prison, and obstacles to reentry are major factors in the rearrest of prisoners after release. Few thought that criminality is inherent."
  • Access Denied in Oregon [PDF] Partnership for Safety and Justice. November, 2006. "The astronomical growth of incarceration in the U.S. over the past 25 years has created a wide range of social challenges, not least of which is how to respond to formerly incarcerated people upon their re-entry into the community."
  • Reducing the Incarceration of Women: Community-Based Alternatives, [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. December, 2006. "Typically nonviolent low-level offenders, women have been hit particularly hard by California's sentencing and correctional policies and practices."
  • A Rallying Cry for Change: Charting a New Direction in the State of Florida's Response to Girls in the Juvenile Justice System, [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. July, 2006. "Depression, trauma, anger, self-destructive behavior, or other mental health/clinical diagnoses were a factor for 79% of girls in residential and 84% of girls in non-residential programs."
  • The Spiral of Risk: Health Care Provision to Incarcerated Women, [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. March, 2006. "Female offenders commonly face a wide range of serious health problems.... Their health problems typically predate their involvement in the justice system, are often exacerbated while they are imprisoned, and continue to deteriorate after release."
  • Women in the Criminal Justice System Briefing Sheets, [PDF] Sentencing Project. May, 2007. "In state prisons in 1998, 23.6% of women were identified as mentally ill, compared to 15.8% of men, while in federal prisons the proportions were 12.5% of women and 7% of men."
  • The Nation's Most Punitive States for Women [PDF] National Council on Crime and Delinquency. July, 2007. "This Fact Sheet reports the latest state and national data available for women and girls involved in local and state corrections systems across the nation."

Wednesday, May 23 2007:

  • Through a Different Lens: Shifting the Focus on Illinois Drug Policy, An examination of states' solutions and applicability to Illinois, [PDF] Roosevelt University - Institute for Metropolitan Affairs. May, 2007. "[I]f $20 million of Illinois state dollars were invested in the model alternative to incarceration program, Illinois taxpayers have the potential to save between $50 and $150 million per year." (An overview of 20 years of changes in Illinois drug laws and how they led to ever-increasing levels of incarceration.)

Friday, May 11 2007:

  • New Jersey's Drug Courts, Special Probation and Proposal for Reform [PDF] The New Jersey Commission to Review Criminal Sentencing. April, 2007. "[P]rograms that combine comprehensive treatment, intensive supervision and judicial oversight cost substantially less than prolonged periods of imprisonment... the public benefits not only from the reduction in crime, but also from significant savings..."
  • Supplemental Report on New Jersey's Drug Free Zone Crimes & Proposal For Reform, [PDF] The New Jersey Commission to Review Criminal Sentencing. April, 2007. (The commission restates its findings from last year's report, emphasizing their reliability and significance. Adding new arguments, it urges the legislature to act on its recommendations to reduce the size of the drug free zones in New Jersey.)
  • Felony Disenfranchisement Laws in The United States Sentencing Project. August, 2012. "Overview of felony disenfranchisement policy and implications, includes state-by-state table illustrating the categories of persons disenfranchised due to a felony conviction."

Sunday, May 6 2007:

Sunday, April 29 2007:

  • Contacts between Police and the Public, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2007. "In 2005 police searched 9.5 percent of stopped blacks and 8.8 percent of stopped Hispanics, compared to 3.6 percent of white motorists."

Wednesday, April 25 2007:

  • One Year Out: Experiences of Prisoners Returning to Cleveland, Urban Institute. April, 2007. "[D]escribes the lives of nearly 300 former prisoners at least [1 year] after release, including their ability to find stable housing and reunite with family, and identifies factors associated with getting a job, and avoiding substance use and [recidivism]"

Sunday, April 22 2007:

  • The high cost of denying parole: an analysis of prisoners eligible for release, [PDF] Citizens Alliance on Prisons & Public Spending. November, 2003. "Although other important factors exist, the single biggest reason for prison growth has been changed parole practices. Far more people who have served their minimum sentences and are, by law, eligible for release, are being denied parole."
  • No way out Michigan's parole board redefines the meaning of, [PDF] Citizens Alliance on Prisons & Public Spending. September, 2004. (When judges imposed a life sentence, they assumed that the prisoner would be parolled in 10-15 years, but in the 1990's the parol board started denying parol, in effect changing the sentence, contributing to overcrowding and increasing costs of prisons.)
  • When A Historical Analysis of Life Sentences Imposed in Michigan Since 1900, [PDF] Citizens Alliance on Prisons & Public Spending. September, 2006. "The historical record makes it indisputably clear that a life sentence in Michigan did not always mean"
  • Penny-Wise & Pound-Foolish: Assaultive offender programming and Michigan's prison costs, [PDF] Citizens Alliance on Prisons and Public Spending and American Friends Service Committee, Criminal Justice Program. April, 2005. (Michigan Department of Corrections offers assaultive offender programming for people in prison for assault, the report examines the administrative shortfalls of this program and proposes solutions.)

Thursday, April 19 2007:

  • Crime and the Nation's Households, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2007. "Households in the West were more likely to experience one or more crimes compared to households in other regions."
  • Barriers to Employment: Prison Time, [PDF] Employment and Training Institute, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. 2007. "The stigma of being an ex-inmate alone and the limitations it places on those released and expected to become gainfully employed are compounded by further legal sanctions placed on those who have spent time in correctional facilities."

Wednesday, April 11 2007:

  • Breaking the Barriers for Women on Parole [PDF] Little Hoover Commission. December, 2004. "At the time of their arrest, half of these women were taking care of their children; two-thirds of those women were single parents." (This report looks at incarceration patterns for women in California and proposes solutions for the problems identified.)

Tuesday, April 10 2007:

  • Changing Direction? State Sentencing Reforms 2004-2006, [PDF] The Sentencing Project. March, 2007. "The report... identifies that the most popular approach for reducing prison crowding -- implemented by 13 states -- was the diversion of low-level drug offenders from prison to drug treatment programs."
  • The Housing Landscape for Returning Prisoners in the District Urban Institute. March, 2007. "This report examines the housing landscape of prisoner reentry in the District of Columbia through an analysis of neighborhoods that had high rates of returning prisoners and a survey of housing-related providers."
  • Impact and Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Maryland Reentry Partnership Initiative, Urban Institute. February, 2007. "This study evaluates the impact of the Maryland Reentry Partnership Initiative (REP) on crime in Baltimore between 2001 and 2005."
  • Informing and Engaging Communities Through Reentry Mapping Urban Institute. January, 2007. "This brief is designed to equip organizations with strategies for effectively disseminating local reentry-related mapping and analysis findings and engaging community members on the topic of reentry."

Friday, March 23 2007:

  • The Consequences Aren't Minor: The Impact of Trying Youth as Adults and Strategies for Reform, [PDF] Campaign for Youth Justice. March, 2007. "Despite the data, surveys report that the public believes the juvenile crime rate is increasing and that youth account for a large proportion of overall crime. In reality, national statistics show that more than 80% of all crimes are committed by adults."

Sunday, March 11 2007:

  • Georgia's Aging Inmate Population [PDF] Georgia Department of Corrections. June, 2004. "Georgia, with a prison population in excess of 47,000 inmates has the sixth largest prison system in the nation. At the end of FY 2002 4,025 inmates, or nearly one in ten were 50 or older."
  • Solving California's Corrections Crisis: Time is Running Out, [PDF] Little Hoover Commission. January, 2007. "California's correctional system is in a tailspin that threatens public safety and raises the risk of fiscal disaster." (An overview of the current state of the California corrections system, with recommendations.)
  • Public Safety, Public Spending: Forecasting America's Prison Population 2007-2011, [PDF] Public Safety Performance Project of The Pew Charitable Trusts. February, 2007. "This report provides forecasts for prison populations and incarceration rates for all 50 states."
  • Reconsidering Incarceration: New Directions for Reducing Crime, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. January, 2007. "An increase in the number of police per capita, a reduction in unemployment, and increases in real wage rates and education have all been shown to be associated with lower rates of crime."
  • The Myth of Immigrant Criminality and the Paradox of Assimilation: Incarceration Rates among Native and Foreign-Born Men, [PDF] American Immigration Law Foundation. February, 2007. "[F]or every ethnic group without exception, incarceration rates among young men are lowest for immigrants, even those who are the least educated."
  • Addressing Key Criminal Justice Issues in the 21st Century [PDF] Correctional Association of New York. February, 2007. "This special report presents some of our top reform proposals for the state's new administration to consider and the benefits they will provide for people caught up in the criminal justice system and for society as a whole."
  • And Justice for Some: Differential Treatment of Youth of Color in the Justice System, [PDF] The National Council on Crime and Delinquency. January, 2007. "This report details the accumulated disadvantage for youth of color as they move through the juvenile justice system and, too often, into the adult system."
  • Understanding California Corrections [PDF] California Policy Research Center. May, 2006. (An overview of the current trends in the California corrections system, with recommendations.)

Sunday, January 21 2007:

Saturday, January 13 2007:

  • New Jersey Death Penalty Study Commision Report [PDF] New Jersey Death Penalty Study Commision. January, 2007. "There is no compelling evidence that the New Jersey death penalty rationally serves a legitimate penological intent."
  • The Culture of Prison Sexual Violence [PDF] National Institute of Justice; Mark S. Fleisher, Jessie L. Krienert. November, 2006. "A majority of inmates reported that inmates' safety -- protection from physical and sexual assault, was the personal responsibility of inmates, independent of institution efforts to protect them."
  • Governor's Ex-Offender Final Report [PDF] Governor's Ex-Offender Task Force (Florida). November, 2006. "Within three years of release, over a quarter of those people will go back to prison for a new crime. This rate of recidivism is unacceptably high and unacceptably expensive."

Friday, December 29 2006:

  • 2006 Crime and Justice Index [PDF] Chicago Metropolis 2020. October, 2006. "This Index presents data on crime trends and justice patterns in the region over time. It also explores specific policy issues and some promising practices intended to address seemingly intractable problems in the criminal justice systems."

Thursday, December 28 2006:

Friday, December 22 2006:

  • Models for Change: Building Momentum for Juvenile Justice Reform, Justice Policy Institute. December, 2006. "This brief tells the story of how the four Models for Change states -- Pennsylvania, Illinois, Louisiana, and Washington -- are already moving to reform and reshape their own state juvenile justice systems."
  • Testing Incapacitation Theory: Youth Crime and Incarceration in California, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. July, 2006. "Between 1980 and 2004, the rate of juvenile incarceration in California fell by nearly 50 percent."
  • Restructuring Juvenile Corrections in California: A Report to the State Legislature, [PDF] Center on Juvenile & Criminal Justice. September, 2005. "This report... present[s] research findings showing how structural changes require closing structurally outdated large correctional institutions in favor of smaller county or regionally based facilities."

Thursday, December 21 2006:

  • The Death Penalty in 2006: Year End Report, [PDF] Death Penalty Information Center. December, 2006. "Executions dropped to their lowest level in 10 years as many states grappled with problems related to wrongful convictions and the lethal injection process."
  • Defining the Disparity -Taking A Closer Look: Do Drug Use Patterns Explain Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Drug Arrests in Minnesota, [PDF] Council on Crime and Justice. April, 2002. "For African American males the reported drug use rate was 51% greater than White males, while the arrest rate was 400% higher nationally and 1000% higher in Minnesota."
  • Children of Incarcerated Parents [PDF] Council on Crime and Justice. January, 2006. "Results indicate that children and caregivers often had limited support systems, faced social isolation and encountered barriers with the criminal justice system and correctional institutions."
  • The Collateral Effects of Incarceration on Fathers, Families, and Communities, [PDF] Council on Crime and Justice. April, 2006. "Incarcerating large numbers of men from one community is seen as a threat to both individual and community economic stability."
  • African American Males in the Criminal Justice System [PDF] Council on Crime and Justice. 2002. "In 2000, 37.2% of the state's prisoners were African American. By comparison only 3.5% of the population of Minnesota was African American."
  • Searching for Justice: American Indian Perspectives on Disparities in Minnesota's Criminal Justice System, [PDF] Council on Crime and Justice. August, 2005. "This report indicates that in one county, while American Indians make up only 11.5% of the population, they account for over 50% of the arrest rates."
  • Hennepin County Disproportionate Minority Contact Study Examining Extended Jurisdiction Juvenile and Adult Certification Cases, [PDF] Council on Crime and Justice. October, 2005. "[R]ace was not significant when considering the disposition of Extended Jurisdiction Juvenile or Adult Certification motioning. Instead, weapons and firearms appear to be the most influential factor in both motioning and dispositions."
  • Reducing Racial Disparity While Enhancing Public Safety: Key Findings and Recommendations, [PDF] Council on Crime and Justice. 2006. "The racial disparity in Minnesota's justice system is exceptionally high compared to other states. From arrest to imprisonment, the disparity is over twice the national average."
  • An Analysis of Racial Disproportionality in Juvenile Confinement An Analysis of Disproportionate Minority Confinement in the Hennepin County Juvenile Detention Center, [PDF] Council on Crime and Justice. August, 2006. "The major findings show that all nine police departments studied refer a disproportionate number of minority juveniles to the JDC."
  • Root Causes and Solutions to Disparities for Hispanics/Latinos in the Juvenile Justice System, [PDF] Council on Crime and Justice. May, 2005. "Statistical analysis indicated that Hispanic/Latino youth were over represented in the juvenile system by 227% in 1990 and by 92% in 2000."
  • The Juvenile Offender Study: A Retrospective Examination of Youth Offenders, [PDF] Council on Crime and Justice. April, 2006. "This study was undertaken to identify and examine interventions with juvenile offenders whose criminal behavior continued into adulthood."
  • Minnesota Statewide Racial Profiling Study [PDF] Council on Crime and Justice. September, 2003. "Results show that law enforcement officers stopped and searched Black, Latino, and American Indian drivers at greater rates than White drivers, yet found contraband on Blacks, Latinos, and American Indians at lower rates than in searches of White drivers."
  • Traffic Stop Audit Project An Institutional Ethnography of Traffic Stop Policy and Practice in the Minneapolis Police Department, [PDF] Council on Crime and Justice. April, 2006. "The distinction between traffic law enforcement stops (e.g. speeding) and investigative stops is often blurred. Law enforcement stops are often made for investigative purposes rather than expressed criminal intent."
  • Low Level Offenses in Minneapolis: An Analysis of Arrests and their Outcomes, [PDF] Council on Crime and Justice. October, 2004. (The diperate treatment of Black and White people is greater at the hand of the police than in the courts.)
  • Identifying the HIV/AIDS/STD-related Needs of African American Ex-Offenders [PDF] Council on Crime and Justice. April, 2003. "Health effects associated with incarceration exacerbate existing health disparities in the larger African American community."
  • East Side of St. Paul: Crime Related Needs Assessment, [PDF] Council on Crime and Justice. February, 2003. "In order to assess the needs of racial/ethnic communities experiencing heightened criminal activity within their neighborhoods, five focus groups were undertaken: African American, Hmong, Hispanic/Latino, Native American, and Caucasian."

Monday, December 18 2006:

  • Education as Crime Prevention: The Case for Reinstating Pell Grant Eligibility for the Incarcerated, [PDF] Bard Prison Initiative. 2003. "This report illustrates the overwhelming consensus among public officials that postsecondary education is the most successful and cost-effective method of preventing crime."

Sunday, December 17 2006:

  • Evaluation of Milwaukee's Judicial Oversight Demonstration Urban Institute. May, 2006. "Judicial Oversight Demonstration (JOD) was associated with a reduced rate of arrest for domestic violence, an indication of gains in victim safety."
  • Addressing Sexual Violence in Prisons Urban Institute. October, 2006.
  • Mapping Prisoner Reentry: An Action Research Guidebook, Urban Institute. November, 2006. "This guidebook provides information on how interested parties can understand and address prisoner reentry at the local level through mapping and data analysis."
  • Prisoner Reentry: Addressing the Challenges in Weed and Seed Communities, Urban Institute. September, 2006. "This report [illustrates] the various ways that Weed and Seed sites are focusing on prisoner reentry and working with partner organizations to reduce recidivism and create safer, healthier communities."
  • Instituting Lasting Reforms for Prisoner Reentry in Philadelphia Urban Institute. June, 2006. "Those with multiple periods of incarceration were more likely to be black, single and have more dependents."
  • Prisoner Reentry and Community Policing Urban Institute. April, 2006. "[D]espite the fact that correctional spending has increased from approximately $9 billion to $60 billion during the past 20 years, prisoners are less prepared for reentry than in the past..."
  • Cleveland Prisoners' Experiences Returning Home Urban Institute. September, 2006. "This research brief is intended to serve as a foundation for policy discussions about how released prisoners can successfully reintegrate into their communities, whether in Cleveland or in similar cities around the country."
  • Community Residents' Perceptions of Prisoner Reentry in Selected Cleveland Urban Institute. March, 2006. "This report presents findings from community focus group discussions in three Cleveland neighborhoods that are home to a large number of returning prisoners."
  • Ohio Prisoners' Reflections on Returning Home Urban Institute. January, 2006. "The Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction released 28,177 individuals from prisons across the state in 2004, nearly six times the number of prisoners released in 1980."
  • Texas Prisoners' Reflections Returning Home Urban Institute. October, 2005. "In 2002, the Texas Department of Criminal Justice released 58,949 people from prisons and state jails across the state, nearly six times the number of prisoners released in 1980."

Sunday, December 10 2006:

  • Capital Punishment, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. December, 2006. "Of those under sentence of death, 56% were white, 42% were black, and 2% were of other races. Fifty-two women were under sentence of death in 2005, up from 47 in 1995."

Sunday, December 3 2006:

  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2006 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics and National Center for Education Statistics. December, 2006. "The percentage of public schools experiencing one or more violent incidents increased between the 1999-2000 and 2003-04 school years, from 71 to 81 percent."

Saturday, December 2 2006:

  • Survey of State Procedures Related to Firearm Transfers, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2006. "The report summarizes issues about State procedures, including persons prohibited from purchasing firearms, restoration of rights of purchase to prohibited persons, permits, prohibited firearms, waiting periods, fees, and appeals."

Friday, December 1 2006:

  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2006. "In 2005 the Nation's parole population grew 1.6%. This was an increase of 12,556 parolees during the year."
  • Prisoners in 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2006. "State prisons were operating between 1% below and 14% above capacity; Federal prisons were operating at 34% above capacity."
  • Recent Trends in New Hampshire's Prison Population [PDF] New Hampshire Center for Public Policy Studies. June, 2006. "Parole revocation is the main factor driving prison admissions, and most revocations are not due to new crimes. In 2002... 66 percent were for technical violations."
  • Evidence-Based Public Policy Options to Reduce Future Prison Construction, Criminal Justice Costs, and Crime Rates, Washington State Institute for Public Policy. October, 2006. "We find that some evidence-based programs can reduce crime, but others cannot. Per dollar of spending, several of the successful programs produce favorable returns on investment."
  • Estimated Prevalence of Felons Among the Oklahoma Adult Population [PDF] Oklahoma Criminal Justice Resource Center. September, 2006. "Nearly one in seven adult males and one in every 30 adult females in Oklahoma have either been to prison or supervised on probation."
  • Alabama Sentencing Commission 2006 Report [PDF] Alabama Sentencing Commission. January, 2006. "Of Alabama's inmate population, almost 1 out of 3 inmates are sentenced as an habitual offender."
  • Jails in Indian Country, 2004 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2006. "At midyear 2004 jails in Indian country held 1,745 inmates; 39% of inmates were confined for a violent offense."
  • Welfare and Punishment: The relationship between welfare spending and imprisonment, [PDF] Crime and Society Foundation. 2006. "[W]e find that countries that spend a greater proportion of GDP on welfare have lower imprisonment rates and that this relationship has become stronger over the last 15 years."
  • The Dangers of Detention: The Impact of Incarcerating Youth in Detention and Other Secure Facilities, Justice Policy Institute. November, 2006. "[I]ncarcerated youth have higher recidivism rates than youth supervised in other kinds of settings."
  • Benefit-Cost in the California Treatment Outcome Project Does Substance Abuse Treatment, [PDF] Susan L. Ettner, David Huange, Elizabeth Evans, et. al. (Published in Health Services Research, Volume 41). January, 2006. "Our best estimate is that on average, substance abuse treatment costs $1,583 and is associated with a societal benefit of $11,487, representing a 7:1 ratio of benefits to costs."

Monday, November 20 2006:

  • HIV in Prisons, 2004 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2006. "The overall rate of confirmed AIDS among the prison population (0.50%) was more than 3 times the rate in the U.S. general population (0.15%)." (Although the percentage of prisoners with HIV has decresed, problems remain.)
  • Medical Problems of Jail Inmates [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2006. "More than a third of jail inmates reported having a current medical problem."

Thursday, November 16 2006:

  • Background Checks for Firearm Transfers, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2006. "The Firearm Inquiry Statistics Program is an ongoing data collection effort focusing on the procedures and statistics related to background checks in selected States."

Wednesday, November 8 2006:

  • Toxic Sweatshops: How UNICOR Prison Recycling Harms Workers, Communities, the Environment, and the Recycling Industry, [PDF] Prison Activist Resource Center. October, 2006. "UNICOR facilities repeatedly failed to provide proper recycling procedures to captive laborers and staff supervisors."

Tuesday, November 7 2006:

  • Felony Disenfranchisement in the Commonwealth of Kentucky [PDF] League of Women Voters of Kentucky. October, 2006. "Kentucky has the highest African American disenfranchisement rate in the country with nearly one of every 4 African Americans ineligible to vote. This rate is nearly triple the national African American disenfranchisement rate."

Monday, October 30 2006:

  • Cracks in the System: Twenty Years of the Unjust Federal Crack Cocaine Law, [PDF] ACLU. October, 2006. "Although there are more white cocaine users, national drug enforcement and prosecutorial policies and practices have resulted in inner city communities of color being targeted almost exclusively."

Saturday, October 28 2006:

  • Evaluating Fairness and Accuracy in State Death Penalty Systems: The Florida Death Penalty Assessment Report, [PDF] American Bar Association. September, 2006. "[R]esearch establishes that many Florida capital jurors do not understand their role and responsibilities when deciding whether to impose a death sentence."
  • Correctional Officer Recruits and the Prison Environment: A Research Framework, [PDF] Correctional Service of Canada. January, 2004. "This study is based... on ground-breaking, large-scale research, which is a first in this corrections related field." (Part 1 in a 3-Part report series following Canadian Correctional Officers through training and first year on the job.)
  • Correctional Officer Recruits During the College Training Period: An Examination, [PDF] Correctional Service of Canada. October, 2005. "[A]n interest in interpersonal relations appears to be the best motivation for anyone wishing to engage in correctional work." (Part 2 in a 3-Part report series following Canadian Correctional Officers through training and first year on the job.)
  • Correctional Officers and Their First Year: An Empirical Investigation, [PDF] Correctional Service of Canada. November, 2005. (Part 3 in a 3-Part report series following Canadian Correctional Officers through training and first year on the job.)

Thursday, October 12 2006:

  • Drug Use and Dependence, State and Federal Prisoners, 2004 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2006. "Among drug dependent or abusing prisoners, 40% of State and 49% of Federal inmates took part in drug abuse treatment or programs since admission to prison." (Presents data from the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities on prisoners' prior use, dependence, and abuse of illegal drugs.)
  • Ethical Considerations for Research Involving Prisoners Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Board on Health Sciences Policy. 2006. (A review of current research practices regarding prison subjects with recommendations.)
  • Cruel and Degrading: The Use of Dogs for Cell Extractions in U.S. Prisons, Human Rights Watch. October, 2006. "The use of dogs to threaten and attack prisoners to facilitate cell extractions has been a well-kept secret, even in the world of corrections."

Wednesday, October 11 2006:

Tuesday, October 3 2006:

  • Federal Prosecution of Human Trafficking, 2001-2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. October, 2006. "Between 2001 and 2005, U.S. attorneys investigated 555 suspects in matters involving violations of Federal human trafficking statutes."
  • When Men Murder Women: An Analysis of 2004 Homicide Data, [PDF] The Violence Policy Center. September, 2006. "[O]ffers both national and state-by-state statistics from FBI Supplementary Homicide Report data including charts listing the number and rate of female homicides by state and a chart ranking each state by rate."

Saturday, September 30 2006:

  • Progress and Challenges: An analysis of drug treatment and imprisonment in Maryland from 2000 to 2005, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. September, 2006. "Crime trends since 2000 appear to support the argument that treatment does more than imprisonment to reduce crime."

Friday, September 29 2006:

  • Custody and Control Conditions of Confinement in New York's Juvenile Prisons for Girls, Human Rights Watch. September, 2006. "[G]irls experience abusive physical restraints and other forms of abuse and neglect, and are denied the mental health, educational, and other rehabilitative services they need."
  • California Youth Crime Declines: The Untold Story, [PDF] Center on Juvenile & Criminal Justice. September, 2006. "Juvenile crime rates in California are at 30-year lows."

Tuesday, September 19 2006:

  • Re-Entry and Reintegration: The Road to Public Safety [PDF] New York State Bar Association, Special Committee on Collateral Consequences of Criminal Proceedings. May, 2006. "Countless families are affected: over ten million children have parents who were imprisoned at some point in the children's lives. In addition, disparate racial and economic impacts are well-documented."

Friday, September 15 2006:

Monday, September 11 2006:

  • Criminal Victimization, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2006. "For most crimes, aggregated rates for the period 2004-05 were unchanged from the previous two year period 2002-03, while minor declines were seen for some forms of robbery and simple assault without injury."

Friday, September 8 2006:

  • Saving Futures, Saving Dollars The Impact of Education on Crime Reduction and Earnings, [PDF] Alliance for Excellent Education. September, 2006. "[A]bout 75 percent of America's state prison inmates,almost 59 percent of federal inmates, and 69 percent of jail inmates did not complete high school."

Thursday, September 7 2006:

  • World Female Imprisonment List (Women and girls in penal institutions, including pre-trial detainees/remand prisoners), [PDF] International Centre for Prison Studies, King's College. September, 2006. "More than half a million women and girls are held in penal institutions throughout the world... [a]bout a third of these are in the United States of America."
  • Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2006. "Female inmates had higher rates of mental health problems than male inmates (State prisons: 73% of females and 55% of males; Federal prisons: 61% of females and 44% of males; local jails: 75% of females and 63% of males)."

Tuesday, September 5 2006:

Friday, August 11 2006:

  • Abandoned & Abused: Orleans Parish Prison in the Wake of Hurricane Katrina, ACLU National Prison Project. August, 2006.

Tuesday, August 8 2006:

  • Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2004 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. August, 2006. "Women accounted for 16% of Federal officers in 2004. A third of Federal officers were members of a racial or ethnic minority in 2004. This included 17.7% who were Hispanic and Latino, and 11.4% who were black or African American."

Monday, August 7 2006:

  • Violent Felons in Large Urban Counties [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. August, 2006. "Eight-one percent of violent felons were sentenced to incarceration with 50% going to prison and 31% to jail. Nineteen percent received a probation term without incarceration."

Wednesday, August 2 2006:

  • Prosecutors in State Courts, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2006. "Most prosecutors (95%) relied on State operated forensic laboratories to perform DNA analysis, with about a third (34%) also using privately operated DNA labs."

Tuesday, August 1 2006:

  • Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 40 of the Covenant, [PDF] United Nations - Human Rights Committee. July, 2006. (The UN expresses numerous concerns about the state of civil and political rights in the United States)
  • Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2006. "[There were] 885 [substantiated] incidents of sexual violence in 2005... 38% of allegations involved staff sexual misconduct; 35% inmate-on-inmate nonconsensual sexual acts; 17%, staff sexual harassment; and 10% inmate-on-inmate abusive sexual contact."

Sunday, July 30 2006:

  • Evaluating the Effectiveness of Supermax Prisons Urban Institute. March, 2006. "[This report] suggests grounds for skepticism as well as concerns about the fiscal and human costs of [supermax prisons]. At the same time, it is clear that states and wardens believe supermax prisons can be effective correctional management tools..."
  • Supermax Prisons: Overview and General Considerations, [PDF] National Institute of Corrections. January, 1999.

Monday, July 24 2006:

Sunday, July 23 2006:

Thursday, July 13 2006:

Sunday, June 25 2006:

  • Citizen Complaints about Police Use of Force [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2006. "Large State and local law enforcement agencies... received more than 26,000 citizen complaints about officer use of force during 2002. This total figure resulted in [an] overall rate[] 6.6 complaints per 100 full-time sworn officers."

Friday, June 23 2006:

  • Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2002: Selected Findings, [PDF] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. June, 2006. "13% of facilities did not have an in-house mental health professional evaluate youth."

Monday, June 19 2006:

Wednesday, June 14 2006:

  • Drugs and crime in Ireland Overview 3, [PDF] Health Research Board. May, 2006. (The report examines the perceived and actual links between drugs and crime in Ireland.)
  • The Next Big Thing? Methamphetamine In the United States, [PDF] Sentencing Project. June, 2006. "This report examines the development of methamphetamine as the"

Monday, June 12 2006:

  • Law Enforcement and Arab American Community Relations After September 11, 2001: Engagement in a Time of Uncertainty, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. June, 2006. "Although community members also reported increases in hate victimization, they expressed greater concern about being victimized by federal policies and practices than by individual acts of harassment or violence."
  • So Long as They Die: Lethal Injections in the United States, Human Rights Watch. April, 2006. "[P]prisoners in the United States are executed by means that the American Veterinary Medical Association regards as too cruel to use on dogs and cats."
  • Harmful Drug Law Hits Home: How Many College Students Have Lost Their Financial Aid Due to Drug Convictions?, [PDF] Students for Sensible Drug Policy. May, 2006.
  • Losing the Right to Vote: Perceptions of Permanent Disenfranchisement and the Civil Rights Restoration Application Process in Kentucky, [PDF] Sentencing Project, Elizabeth A. Wahler. April, 2006.
  • Treated Like Trash: Juvenile Detention in New Orleans Before, During, and After Hurricane Katrina, [PDF] Juvenile Justice Project of Louisiana. May, 2006. "In their own words, a harrowing tale of escape, mismanagement and neglect unfolds, illustrating deep problems in New Orleans' system of juvenile justice and how we treat children in New Orleans."
  • Characteristics of Drivers Stopped by Police, 2002 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. June, 2006. "Among traffic stops of young male drivers in 2002, 11% were physically searched or had their vehicle searched by police. Among these young male drivers who were stopped, blacks (22%) and Hispanics (17%) were searched at higher rates than whites (8%)."
  • The Punitiveness Report-Hard Hit: The Growth in the Imprisonment of Women, 1977-2004, Women's Prison Association - Institute on Women & Criminal Justice. May, 2006.

Thursday, June 8 2006:

Monday, May 22 2006:

Wednesday, May 3 2006:

Monday, May 1 2006:

Saturday, April 22 2006:

Thursday, April 20 2006:

Wednesday, April 19 2006:

  • Crime and the Nation's Households, 2004 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2006. "Both violent and property crimes declined between 1994 and 2004."
  • Proposition 36: Five Years Later [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. April, 2006. "California Sees Greatest Drop in Drug Prisoners among Large State Prison Systems since Prop. 36 [was] enacted."
  • Report to the Legislature of the State of Illinois: The Illinois Pilot Program on Sequential Double-Blind Identification Procedures, [PDF] Illinois State Police. March, 2006. "The data collected shows that the sequential double-blind method led to a lower rate of suspect identifications as well as a higher rate of known false errors."

Sunday, April 16 2006:

Sunday, April 2 2006:

  • Identity Theft, 2004 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2006. "The report, based on interviews with 40,000 household residents drawn to be nationally representative, describes age, race, and ethnicity of the household head; household income; and location of the household (urbanicity)."

Friday, March 31 2006:

  • Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. June, 2006. "[D]raws on reliable data and relevant research to provide a comprehensive and insightful view of juvenile crime across the nation."

Tuesday, March 28 2006:

  • Disparity by Design: How drug-free zone laws impact racial disparity - and fail to protect youth, Justice Policy Institute. March, 2006. "[D]rugfree zone laws... are not effective in reducing the sale or use of drugs, or in protecting school children - and the role these laws play to increase unwarranted racial disparity is well documented."

Thursday, March 9 2006:

  • Black Male Incarceration Rates and the Relatively High Rate of AIDS Infection Among African-American Women and Men, [PDF] Goldman School of Public Policy, UC Berkeley. July, 2005. "Our results reveal that the higher incarceration rates among black males over this period explain a substantial share of the racial disparity in AIDS infection between black women and women of other racial and ethnic groups."

Saturday, March 4 2006:

Friday, February 17 2006:

  • Why the Census Bureau can and must start collecting the home addresses of incarcerated people, Prison Policy Initiative. February, 2006. "Counting prisoners as residents of the prison location causes unexpected distortions in Census data for rural communities and creates significant burdens on state and local legislative data users who rely on the Census for redistricting purposes."

Thursday, February 9 2006:

  • Mandatory Justice: The Death Penalty Revisited, [PDF] The Constitution Project. February, 2006. "[P]rovides a list of specific and innovative tactics for improving the fairness and reliability of capital punishment systems in the United States."
  • Treatment Instead of Prisons: A Roadmap for Sentencing and Correctional Policy in Wisconsin, [PDF] Justice Strategies. January, 2006. "Absent a major investment of tax dollars in treatment services, however, we found that the state is likely to face mounting prison populations pressures in coming years due to growth in nonviolent admissions and revocations of post-release supervision."

Monday, February 6 2006:

  • Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties, 2002 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. February, 2006. "Eighty-two percent of defendants were male, including 90% or more of those charged with rape (99%), a weapons offense (96%), murder (93%), or robbery (90%). The percentage of female defendants increased from 14% in 1990 to 18% in 1998..." (Presents data collected from a representative sample of felony cases filed in the Nation's 75 largest counties during May 2002.)

Friday, January 20 2006:

Wednesday, January 18 2006:

  • Human Rights in the Heartland: An assessment of social, economic, civil, and political rights in the Midwest, [PDF] Heartland Alliance. December, 2005. "Historically, the U.S. has been a beacon of hope for those seeking safety and opportunity, but our nation falls short of its potential in assuring a full complement of human rights - civil, political, social, economic, and cultural."
  • Blind Justice: Juries Deciding Life and Death With Only Half the Truth, [PDF] Death Penalty Information Center. October, 2005. "How Death Penalty Jurors are Unfairly Selected, Manipulated, and Kept in the Dark"
  • Rethinking the Consequences of Decriminalizing Marijuana [PDF] The JFA Institute. November, 2005.
  • The Prison Inside the Prison: Control Units, Supermax Prisons, and Devices of Torture, [PDF] American Friends Service Committee. 2003.

Thursday, December 22 2005:

Tuesday, November 29 2005:

Sunday, November 20 2005:

  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2005 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. November, 2005. "Annually, from 1999 through 2003, teachers were the victims of approximately 183,000 total nonfatal crimes at school, including 119,000 thefts and 65,000 violent crimes."

Friday, November 18 2005:

Thursday, November 17 2005:

  • Annual Report - Fiscal Year 2005 [PDF] State of Missouri Public Defender Commission. October, 2005. "[B]y 2005 trial division attorneys average 298 cases, 27% more than the 1989 caseload standard.... At 17%, the Department's attorney turnover rate is simply too high."
  • Broken Justice: The Death Penalty in Alabama, [PDF] ACLU. October, 2005. "At least 30 current death row prisoners have no lawyer. Alabama's death row occupants are overwhelmingly poor -- 95 percent are indigent -- and minority."

Sunday, November 13 2005:

Wednesday, November 9 2005:

  • A 'Crazy-Quilt' of Tiny Pieces: State and Local Administration of American Criminal Disenfranchisement Law, [PDF] Alec Ewald, Sentencing Project. November, 2005.

Thursday, November 3 2005:

Wednesday, November 2 2005:

  • No Turning Back: Promising Approaches to Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities Affecting Youth of Color in the Justice System, [PDF] Building Blocks for Youth. October, 2005.

Sunday, October 30 2005:

Monday, October 24 2005:

Saturday, October 22 2005:

  • A Primer: Three Strikes - The Impact After More Than a Decade, [PDF] Legislative Analyst's Office (LAO) - California's Nonpartisan Fiscal and Policy Advisor. October, 2005.

Tuesday, October 18 2005:

Sunday, October 16 2005:

Friday, October 14 2005:

  • The Rest of Their Lives: Life without Parole for Child Offenders in the United States, Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International. October, 2005. "there are currently at least 2,225 people incarcerated in the United States who have been sentenced to spend the rest of their lives in prison for crimes they committed as children"

Wednesday, October 5 2005:

Tuesday, October 4 2005:

  • Studies of Voting Behavior and Felony Disenfranchisement Among Individuals in the Criminal Justice System in New York, Connecticut, and Ohio, [PDF] Sentencing Project. September, 2005. (Prisoners with felony convictions)
  • Still In Danger: The Ongoing Threat of Sexual Violence against Transgender Prisoners, [PDF] Stop Prisoner Rape and ACLU National Prison Project. September, 2005.

Thursday, September 29 2005:

  • Criminal Victimization, 2004 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. September, 2005. "The rate of violent crime dropped 9% from the period 2001-02 to the period 2003-04." (Presents victimization rates for 2004.)

Tuesday, September 27 2005:

  • Give Me Your Tired, Your Poor... A Report on Due Process Issues in the Handling of Immigration Detainees in Massachusetts, [PDF] Detention Working Group - Massachusetts Chapter of the National Lawyers Guild. July, 2005.

Thursday, September 22 2005:

  • Department of Corrections: It Needs to Better Ensure Against Conflicts of Interest and to Improve Its Inmate Population Projections, [PDF] California State Auditor - Bureau of State Audits. September, 2005. (The report found conflict-of-interest problems in no-bid contracts for re-opening prisons. The decision to re-open the facilities, were in turn based on population calculations that were not made through statistically valid forecasting methods.)

Sunday, September 18 2005:

  • Unlocking the Future: Detention Reform in the Juvenile Justice System, [PDF] Coalition for Juvenile Justice; Annie E. Casey Foundation. 2003. "Juvenile court jurisdictions... needlessly sweep into locked detention many young people with mental health, substance abuse and family problems - most of whom are 15 years or younger, nonviolent, and disproportionately youth of color."
  • Childhood on Trial The Failure of Trying and Sentencing Youth in Adult Criminal Court, [PDF] Coalition for Juvenile Justice. 2005. "Overview of report that identifies the public safety and rehabilitative failures of our nation's widespread"
  • Chicago Communities and Prisoner Reentry Urban Institute. September, 2005.

Tuesday, September 13 2005:

Saturday, September 10 2005:

  • Missouri Vehicle Stops 2009 Annual Report, [PDF] Missouri Attorney General's Office. 2011.
  • Death Row U.S.A. Summer 2005, [PDF] NAACP LDF. May, 2005.
  • Education on Lockdown: The Schoolhouse to Jailhouse Track, [PDF] Advancement Project. March, 2005. "Examination of the emergence of zero tolerance school discipline policies and how these policies have pushed students away from an academic track to a future in the juvenile justice system."
  • Getting Away with Torture? Command Responsibility for the U.S. Abuse of Detainees, Human Rights Watch. April, 2005.
  • Deterring Staff Sexual Abuse of Federal Inmates Office of the Inspector General. April, 2005. "This report examines sexual abuse of federal inmates by correctional staff and the current law's impact on deterrence of staff sexual abuse"

Friday, September 9 2005:

Thursday, September 8 2005:

  • A Look At The Impact Schools [PDF] Drum Major Institute. June, 2005. "...the Impact Schools initiative has brought increased police and security presence into 22 New York City middle and high schools..." (The report shows that low income, over-crowding and race are as characteristic of the schools as their crime-rates.)
  • Accountability Audit: Review of Audits of the California Youth Authority, 2000-2003, [PDF] California Office of the Inspector. January, 2005.
  • Community Based Management Pilot Programs for Youth with Mental Illness... Program Evaluation Report: Year Four, [PDF] Colorado Department of Public Safety. October, 2005. (The number of new offenses after the program is strongly influenced by the program. Of program completers, 46% fewer individuals received a new court case in the 12 months after the program as the 12 months before.)

Wednesday, September 7 2005:

  • Efficacy and Impact: The Criminal Justice Response to Marijuana Policy in the United States, Justice Policy Institute. August, 2005.
  • Adult and Juvenile Correctional Population Projections Fiscal Years 2005-2010, [PDF] Texas Legislative Budget Board. January, 2005. (Texas prison population projections: the adult prison population is projected to increase, while probation population decreases, in juvenile populations both groups projected to grow.)
  • First Semi-Annual Report [PDF] Arizona Department Of Juvenile Corrections - Consultant's Committee. March, 2005. (Results of a CRIPA investigation into conditions in Arizona's juvenile correctional facilities.)

Tuesday, September 6 2005:

Wednesday, August 31 2005:

Tuesday, August 30 2005:

Sunday, July 31 2005:

Tuesday, June 28 2005:

Sunday, June 19 2005:

Tuesday, April 26 2005:

Monday, April 25 2005:

Saturday, March 19 2005:

Thursday, March 17 2005:

Tuesday, March 15 2005:

Tuesday, February 15 2005:

  • Barred for Life: Voting Rights Restoration in Permanent Disenfranchisement States, [PDF] Sentencing Project. January, 2005.

Monday, January 31 2005:

Tuesday, January 11 2005:

Friday, December 17 2004:

Wednesday, December 15 2004:

  • Importing Constituents: Prisoners and Political Clout in Nevada, Prison Policy Initiative and Progressive Leadership Alliance of Nevada. December, 2004.

Tuesday, December 14 2004:

Tuesday, December 7 2004:

Saturday, December 4 2004:

Tuesday, November 16 2004:

Monday, November 8 2004:

Monday, November 1 2004:

  • Prison Needle Exchange: Lessons from a Comprehensive Review of International Evidence and Experience, Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network. October, 2004.

Sunday, October 31 2004:

Sunday, October 17 2004:

Thursday, October 7 2004:

  • Actual Constituents: Students and Political Clout in New York, Prison Policy Initiative. October, 2004. (how students are counted in the Census, why that makes sense (as opposed to how prisoners are counted) and why it makes no sense at all for some counties to discourage students from voting locally)
  • No Refuge Here: A First Look at Sexual Abuse in Immigration Detention, [PDF] Stop Prisoner Rape. October, 2004.

Friday, October 1 2004:

Saturday, September 25 2004:

  • Incarceration and Enfranchisement: International Practices, Impact and Recommendations for Reform, [PDF] Brandon Rottinghaus, International Foundation for Election Systems. June, 2003.

Thursday, September 23 2004:

Tuesday, September 21 2004:

Thursday, August 26 2004:

  • Swing States: Crime, Prisons and the Future of the Nation, Justice Policy Institute. August, 2004.

Tuesday, August 24 2004:

Sunday, August 1 2004:

Wednesday, July 28 2004:

Monday, July 26 2004:

Monday, July 19 2004:

Wednesday, July 14 2004:

Wednesday, July 7 2004:

  • Death Row U.S.A. Spring 2004, [PDF] NAACP LDF. April, 2004.
  • Death Row U.S.A. Winter 2004, [PDF] NAACP LDF. January, 2004.
  • Treatment or Incarceration: National and State Findings on the Efficacy and Cost Savings of Drug Treatment Versus Imprisonment, Justice Policy Institute. March, 2004.
  • Strengthening Public Safety, Increasing Accountability, and Instituting Fiscal Responsibility in the Department of Correction, [PDF] Governor's Commission on Corrections Reform. June, 2004. (Massachusetts, the Harshbarger Commission)

Tuesday, July 6 2004:

Sunday, May 30 2004:

Saturday, May 29 2004:

Tuesday, April 13 2004:

  • Too big to ignore: How counting people in prisons distorted Census 2000, Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2004.

Monday, March 15 2004:

Saturday, March 13 2004:

  • Crime and Justice Atlas 2000 [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. June, 2000. "As our criminal justice system undergoes many changes and interventions, it is important that we continually reexamine the practices, policies, and philosophies that guide us."
  • Crime and Justice Atlas 2001 Update [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice. 2001.
  • The Prison Index: Taking the Pulse of the Crime Control Industry, Prison Policy Initiative and Western Prison Project. March, 2003.
  • Prison Policy Initiative Atlas [Website] Prison Policy Initiative. February, 2004. (Maps of disenfranchisement, death penalty, incarceration, prison construction and more in the U.S. and internationally)
  • Prisoners Gerrymandering Project Miscounting prisoners undercounts democracy, [Website] Prison Policy Initiative. March, 2004.

Friday, March 12 2004:

Wednesday, March 10 2004:

  • Civil Disabilities of Convicted Felons: A State-by-State Survey, [PDF] Office of the Pardon Attorney. October, 1996. (This is an updated, state-only version. The original version, which includes federal information, is available through the Nat'l Criminal Justice Reference Service (https://www.ncjrs.gov/app/Search/Abstracts.aspx?id=195110))
  • In Defense of Public Access to Justice: An Assessment of Trial-Level Indigent Defense Services in Louisiana 40 Years After Gideon, [PDF] National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. March, 2004.

Tuesday, March 9 2004:

  • Still Striking Out: Ten Years of California's Three Strikes, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. March, 2004.
  • Lockdown New York: Disciplinary Confinement in New York State Prisons, [PDF] Correctional Association. October, 2003.

Monday, March 8 2004:

Sunday, March 7 2004:

Saturday, February 28 2004:

Tuesday, February 10 2004:

Wednesday, January 28 2004:

Tuesday, January 27 2004:

Sunday, January 25 2004:

Tuesday, January 6 2004:

Thursday, January 1 2004:

  • Justice in Jeopardy: Report of the American Bar Association Commission on the 21st Century Judiciary, [PDF] American Bar Association. June, 2003.

Wednesday, December 31 2003:

Friday, December 26 2003:

  • Corrections Corporation of America: A Critical Look at the First 20 Years, Grassroots Leadership, [PDF] Grassroots Leadership. December, 2003. "explores continuing operational and financial problems; questions CCA's long-term viability as states reassess prison policies"

Saturday, December 20 2003:

Friday, December 19 2003:

Wednesday, December 17 2003:

  • Punishing at the Polls: The Case Against Disenfranchising Citizens with Felony Convictions, [PDF] Alec Ewald, Demos. December, 2003.

Monday, December 8 2003:

Sunday, December 7 2003:

Thursday, November 27 2003:

Wednesday, November 19 2003:

  • Back to the Community: Safe & Sound Parole Policies, [PDF] Little Hoover Commission. November, 2003. (California)

Tuesday, November 18 2003:

Saturday, November 8 2003:

  • Cost and Benefits? The Impact of Drug Imprisonment in New Jersey, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. November, 2003.
  • Smart On Crime: Positive Trends in State-Level Sentencing and Corrections Policy, [PDF] Families Against Mandatory Minimums. November, 2003.

Monday, November 3 2003:

  • Maine: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF] American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center. October, 2003.
  • Pennsylvania: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF] American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center. October, 2003.
  • Maryland: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF] American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center. October, 2003.
  • Washington: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF] American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center. October, 2003.
  • Montana An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF] American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center. October, 2003.
  • North Carolina: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF] American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center. October, 2003.

Tuesday, October 28 2003:

Friday, October 24 2003:

Wednesday, October 22 2003:

  • Consensus Project Report Criminal Justice / Mental Health Consensus Project. June, 2002. (project coordinated by the Council of State Governments (CSG))
  • Ill-Equipped: U.S. Prisons and Offenders with Mental Illness, Human Rights Watch. October, 2003.

Monday, October 20 2003:

  • Correctional Health: The Missing Key to Improving the Public's Health and Safety, [PDF] Massachusetts Public Health Association. October, 2003.

Tuesday, September 23 2003:

Sunday, September 21 2003:

Saturday, September 20 2003:

Wednesday, September 17 2003:

Tuesday, September 16 2003:

Wednesday, September 3 2003:

Friday, August 29 2003:

Thursday, August 28 2003:

Tuesday, August 26 2003:

Monday, August 25 2003:

  • Criminal Victimization, 2002 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. August, 2003. (Overall violent victimization and property crime rates are the lowest recorded since recording began in 1973)
  • Upstate New York's Population Plateau: The Third-Slowest Growing 'State', [PDF] Brookings Institution. August, 2003. "Nearly 30 percent of new residents in Upstate New York in the 1990s were prisoners."

Saturday, August 23 2003:

  • Incarcerated America: Backgrounder, Human Rights Watch. April, 2003.
  • Breaking the Rules: Who suffers when a prosecutor is cited for misconduct?, [Website] Center for Public Integrity. June, 2003. (includes online database of cases)

Wednesday, August 20 2003:

Tuesday, August 19 2003:

Monday, August 18 2003:

Friday, August 15 2003:

Friday, August 8 2003:

Saturday, August 2 2003:

  • Dollars and Sentences: Legislators' Views on Prisons, Punishment, and the Budget Crisis, [PDF] Vera Institute of Justice. July, 2003.

Monday, July 28 2003:

Tuesday, July 22 2003:

Tuesday, July 15 2003:

Monday, July 14 2003:

Tuesday, July 8 2003:

Wednesday, July 2 2003:

Sunday, June 8 2003:

Saturday, June 7 2003:

  • A Call for Justice: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF] American Bar Association. December, 1995.
  • More Than Meets the Eye: Rethinking Assessment, Competency and Sentencing for a Harsher Era of Juvenile Justice, American Bar Association. August, 1997.
  • Beyond the Walls: Improving Conditions of Confinement for Youth in Custody, [PDF] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. January, 1998.
  • Selling Justice Short: Juvenile Indigent Defense in Texas, [PDF] Texas Appleseed. October, 2000.
  • Justice by Gender: The Lack of Appropriate Prevention, Diversion and Treatment Alternatives for Girls in the Juvenile Justice System, [PDF] American Bar Association. May, 2001.

Friday, June 6 2003:

Thursday, June 5 2003:

Wednesday, June 4 2003:

Tuesday, June 3 2003:

Sunday, June 1 2003:

  • Lethal Indifference: The Fatal Combination of Incompetent Attorneys and Unaccountable Courts, [PDF] Texas Defender Service. 2002.

Sunday, May 18 2003:

Tuesday, May 6 2003:

Monday, May 5 2003:

  • Beyond Locked Doors: Abuse of Refugee Women at the Krome Detention Facility, [PDF] Women's Commission for Refugee Women & Children. October, 2002.
  • Forgotten Prisoners: A Follow-Up Report on Refugee Women Incarcerated in York County, Pennsylvania, [PDF] Women's Commission for Refugee Women & Children. July, 1998.
  • Innocents in Jail: INS Moves Refugee Women from Krome to Turner Guilford Knight CC, Miami, [PDF] Women's Commission for Refugee Women & Children. June, 2001. (follow-up to Behind Locked Doors)

Sunday, May 4 2003:

Friday, May 2 2003:

Thursday, May 1 2003:

  • Abuse of Women in Custody: Sexual Misconduct and Shackling of Pregnant Women, [Website] Amnesty International. 2000. (includes a detailed state by state survey)

Monday, April 21 2003:

Friday, April 18 2003:

Tuesday, April 8 2003:

Sunday, March 23 2003:

  • Drug Use and Justice 2002: An Examination of California Drug Policy Enforcement, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. December, 2002.
  • Justice Cut Short: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings in Ohio, [PDF] American Bar Association. March, 2003.
  • Aftercare as afterthought: Re-entry and the California Youth Authority, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. August, 2002.
  • Seeking Balance: Reducing Prison Costs in Times of Austerity, [PDF] Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. December, 2002.
  • Assembly Line Justice: Mississippi's Indigent Defense Crisis, [PDF] NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund. February, 2003.

Monday, March 10 2003:

Sunday, March 9 2003:

Friday, March 7 2003:

Wednesday, February 26 2003:

Monday, February 24 2003:

Wednesday, February 19 2003:

Thursday, February 13 2003:

Wednesday, January 29 2003:

Sunday, January 26 2003:

Thursday, January 16 2003:

Saturday, January 11 2003:

Friday, January 10 2003:

Thursday, January 9 2003:

Wednesday, January 1 2003:

  • Dignity Denied: The Experience of Murder Victims' Family Members Who Oppose the Death Penalty, [PDF] Murder Victims' Families for Reconciliation. August, 2002.
  • Common Sense Says... That people on Death Row often had the state's worst lawyers at trial., [PDF] Common Sense Foundation. October, 2002. "More than one in six current death row inmates was represented at trial by lawyers who have been disciplined by the North Carolina State Bar"
  • Victimisation in Seventeen Industrialised Countries: Key-findings from the 2000 international Crime Victims Survey, [PDF] the Hague, Ministry of Justice. 2000. (Full text not available for download. See entry in Nat'l Criminal Justice Ref. Service for bibliographical info. https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=187198)
  • OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. April, 2002. "frequently updated" (provides basic information on juvenile crime and victimization and on youth involved in the juvenile justice system. Data in the six topics (left menu) provide ... statistical answers to the most frequently asked questions)
  • Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report, [Website] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. September, 1999.
  • UNICOR 2001 Annual Report [PDF] Bureau of Prisons. 2002. (UNICOR is the trade name for the federal prison industries)

Sunday, December 29 2002:

Thursday, December 19 2002:

Monday, December 16 2002:

  • The Children Left Behind: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings in Louisiana, [PDF] American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center and Juvenile Justice Project of Louisiana. June, 2001.
  • Kentucky-Advancing Justice: An Assessment of Access to Counsel in Juvenile Delinquency Proceedings, [PDF] American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center and the Children's Law Center. September, 2002.

Sunday, December 15 2002:

  • Georgia: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center and the Southern Center for Human Rights. August, 2001.
  • Virginia: An Assessment of Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings, American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center and the Mid-Atlantic Juvenile Defender Center. October, 2002.

Sunday, December 8 2002:

Wednesday, December 4 2002:

Wednesday, November 27 2002:

Saturday, November 23 2002:

Friday, November 22 2002:

Wednesday, November 13 2002:

Saturday, November 9 2002:

Monday, November 4 2002:

Friday, November 1 2002:

Wednesday, October 30 2002:

Sunday, October 13 2002:

Wednesday, September 25 2002:

Monday, September 23 2002:

Friday, September 20 2002:

Thursday, September 19 2002:

Monday, September 9 2002:

  • Criminal Victimization 2001: Changes 2000-2001 with Trends 1993-2001, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2002. (dropped 10% in 2001; to half the rate it was in 1973 when the survey began)

Saturday, September 7 2002:

Friday, September 6 2002:

Wednesday, September 4 2002:

Tuesday, September 3 2002:

  • Guns and Crime: Handgun Victimization, Firearm Self-Defense, and Firearm Theft, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 1994.
  • German and American Prosecutions: An Approach to Statistical Comparison, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. February, 1998. "charging, conviction, and sentencing rates for selected crimes"

Monday, September 2 2002:

Thursday, August 29 2002:

  • Cellblocks or Classrooms?: The Funding of Higher Education and Corrections and Its Impact on African American Men, [PDF] Justice Policy Institute. August, 2002. "State spending on prisons grows at 6 times the rate of higher education"

Tuesday, August 27 2002:

  • Reflections on the Crime Decline: Lessons for the Future?, [PDF] Urban Institute. August, 2002. (builds upon the work of The Crime Drop in America, edited by Alfred Blumstein and Joel Wallman)

Sunday, August 25 2002:

Sunday, August 11 2002:

Tuesday, August 6 2002:

Thursday, August 1 2002:

Wednesday, July 31 2002:

Tuesday, July 30 2002:

  • Prisoners in 2001 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2002. "State prison population drops in second half of 2001-Federal inmate growth continues"

Sunday, July 28 2002:

  • Explorations in Inmate-Family Relationships Norman Holt, Donald Miller, California Department of Corrections. January, 1972. "The central finding of this research is the strong and consistent positive relationship that exists between parole success and maintaining strong family ties while in prison."
  • Rural Prisons: An Update [PDF] Calvin Beale, Department of Agriculture, Rural Development Perspectives. February, 1996. "nonmetro counties continued to acquire prisons at a rate dramatically out of proportion to the percentage of the Nation's population that lives in such areas."
  • Factories with Fences: The History of Federal Prison Industries, [PDF] Bureau of Prisons. May, 1996.

Sunday, July 21 2002:

Friday, July 19 2002:

  • Third-Party Involvement in Violent Crime 1993-99, [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. July, 2002. (Third parties include bystanders, other victims, household members, police officer, officers, instigators, or any combination of these.)
  • ¿Dónde Está la Justicia? A Call to Action on behalf of Latino and Latina Youth in the U.S. Justice System (English Version), [PDF] Building Blocks for Youth. July, 2002. (Available in English and Spanish)

Friday, July 5 2002:

Thursday, July 4 2002:

Monday, July 1 2002:

Sunday, June 30 2002:

  • The brotherhood: Racism and intimidation among prison staff at Indiana Correctional Facility-Putnamville, [PDF] Kelsey Kauffman. July, 2001.

Wednesday, June 26 2002:

Saturday, June 22 2002:

Friday, May 17 2002:

Monday, May 13 2002:

  • Drug War Facts [Website] Common Sense for Drug Policy. May, 2002. (Summaries with footnotes of major research on the war on drugs. Read individual chapters or download the whole thing)
  • Police Departments in Large Cities, 1990-2000 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. May, 2002. (Police per capita up 7% over the decade)

Saturday, May 11 2002:

Thursday, May 2 2002:

  • A Contributing Influence: The Private-Prison Industry and Political Giving in the South, [PDF] Institute on Money in State Politics. April, 2002.

Tuesday, April 30 2002:

Monday, April 22 2002:

  • Importing Constituents: Prisoners and Political Clout in New York, Prison Policy Initiative. April, 2002. (Study of the effect of counting urban prisoners as rural residents for purposes of state legislative redistricting)

Wednesday, April 10 2002:

  • Analysis of new Justice Department report, Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2001, [PDF] Sentencing Project. April, 2002.
  • New Justice Department Study: As Some State Prison Populations Decline, Federal Prison Population Grows, Justice Policy Institute. April, 2002. "While Some State Prison Populations Decline, Federal Lock-up Boom Continues As States Find Alternatives for Nonviolent and Drug Offenders, Federal Imprisonment of Non-Citizens and Drug Offenders Grows"
  • Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2001 [PDF] Bureau of Justice Statistics. April, 2002.

Monday, April 8 2002:

Saturday, April 6 2002:

  • Not Part of My Sentence Violations of the Human Rights of Women in Custody, [Website] Amnesty International. March, 1999.

Saturday, March 30 2002:

Friday, March 22 2002:

Sunday, March 10 2002:

  • Changing Minds The Impact of College in a Maximum Security Prison, [PDF] Graduate Center of CUNY & Women in Prison at Bedford Hills CF, NY. September, 2001.
  • Weighing the Watchmen: Evaluating the Costs and Benefits of Outsourcing Correctional Services, Reason Public Policy Institute. January, 2002.
  • Life Sentences: Denying Welfare Benefits to Women Convicted of Drug Offenses, [PDF] Sentencing Project. February, 2002.

Monday, March 4 2002:

  • Race and Incarceration in the United States Human Rights Watch. February, 2002. "first state-by-state incarceration rates for whites, blacks and Latinos based on actual correctional facility counts" (Note the links to the report and tables on the right)

Tuesday, February 12 2002:

Thursday, February 7 2002:

Friday, February 1 2002:

Thursday, January 31 2002:

  • From Cell to Street: A Plan to Supervise Inmates After Release, [PDF] MassINC. January, 2002. (Free registration required)

Wednesday, January 23 2002:

Monday, January 21 2002:

  • Survey on Drug Use and Drug Policy [PDF] Colorado Criminal Justice Reform Coalition. September, 2001. "voter attitudes and opinions toward issues relating to drug abuse and drug policy in Colorado"

Saturday, January 19 2002:

Saturday, January 5 2002:

Friday, December 21 2001:

Thursday, December 20 2001:

Wednesday, December 19 2001:

Tuesday, December 11 2001:

  • No return to execution: The US death penalty as a barrier to extradition, [PDF] Amnesty International. November, 2001. "overview of the emerging global consensus against capital punishment" (One more reason for the USA to abolish the death penalty is that its increasingly isolated resort to this punishment is undermining international cooperation on law enforcement)

Thursday, November 29 2001:

Wednesday, November 21 2001:

Sunday, November 11 2001:

Friday, November 9 2001:

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